There is a contemporary account of the procedure of Emigration from the port of Liverpool to the New World and the Colonies from an article printed in the Illustrated London News on Saturday July 6th 1850.
The Ships List - a mailing list dedicated to the discussion of emigration, immigration, ports of entry and departure, ship descriptions and history, passenger lists and any other related topics. [Subscription instructions] - see also the associated web-site, which contains "hundreds of passenger lists to Canada, USA, Australia and even some for South Africa".
Convict Maids: The forced migration of women to Australia (Cambridge University Press, 1996) is a quantitative analysis of the crimes and work histories of all 6,876 girls and women transported from Britain and Ireland to New South Wales between 1826 and 1840.
Between 1892 and 1924 more than 22 million people arrived in the United States of America through Ellis Island and the Port of New York. The American Family Immigration History Center have provided a searchable database listing details of these arrivals.
The New York Battery Conservancy's Castle Garden database provides (free) means for searching by name and time period for immigrants who arrived in the Castle Garden immigration center between 1830 and 1890.
Immigrants to Canada - a searchable database provided by Library and Archives Canada, coveringthe period before 1865.
FindMyPast's Passenger Lists covering all ships leaving the UK from 1890-1960.
Home Children database - "Between 1869 and the early 1930s, over 100,000 children were sent to Canada from Great Britain during the child emigration movement. Members of the British Isles Family History Society of Greater Ottawa are locating and indexing the names of these Home Children found in passenger lists in the custody of the National Archives of Canada."
Citizenship and Naturalization Records - "Citizenship and Immigration Canada holds records of naturalization and citizenship from 1854 to the present. The originals of records dated between 1854 and 1917 have been destroyed. However, a card index by name has survived, which provides information compiled at the time of naturalization . . ."