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CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY
[Transcribed and edited information mainly from The National Gazetteer of Great Britain and Ireland - 1868]

CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY, a parish in the town of Cambridge, Cambridgeshire. The foundation of this University, or of the school of learning out of which it ultimately grew, is a matter still involved in uncertainty. That in the 7th century a school on the model of some in France was established by Sigebert, King of the East Angles, is related by Bede in his "Ecclesiastical History." It has been conjectured that Cambridge was the seat of this school, and that Edward the Elder restored and extended it after the invasions of the Danes, building halls and appointing teachers.

Although many students settled here at a very remote period, and had adopted the practice of living in community in inns or hostels, under the direction of a principal, it is believed that a systematic form was first given to their pursuits in 1109 by the learned monks sent to Cottenham by Joffred, Abbot of Croyland, the successor of Ingulph. These monks, four in number, going daily to Cambridge, at first taught in a barn, and when the number of their scholars became very great, began to give their instructions in different places, and at different hours. Such is the tradition. That the University was incorporated before 1231, the date commonly given, is inferred from the fact that its existence, with its chancellor and masters and various privileges, is recognised in royal letters of Henry III. of that year. The interference of the king was called for in consequence of the high rents demanded by the townsmen of the students for their lodgings. The same inconvenience had naturally arisen in other University towns, as at Naples and Bologna, and a similar remedy was resorted to in each case. By the king's letter it was appointed that the hostels, or students' lodgings, should be taxed by two masters of arts and two honest townsmen. This valuation was afterwards directed to be made every five years. Such was the origin of the taxors - officers till recently appointed, but with duties of another sort. The jealousies and contentions between "town and gown" showed themselves very early, and had to be suppressed by the civil power in 1249. In 1381 occurred the most serious outbreak between the townsmen and the University, excited by the increased and important privileges granted to the latter by Edward III. in 1333, and encouraged by the apparent success of Wat Tyler and his followers in the preceding year, 1380. It was on this occasion that the charters and records of the University were burnt. The riot was suppressed by the troops led by Spencer, the bishop militant of Norwich, and the town was for a time deprived of its charters. The exclusive ecclesiastical and spiritual jurisdiction of the University over its scholars was declared by Pope Martin V. in 1430. The supremacy of the Pope was renounced by the University in 1534, and its charters were soon after surrendered to Henry VIII. They were restored in 1536. Of the numerous charters granted to the University, the earliest extant maybe seen in Dyer's "Privileges of the University; "some of these, however, are certainly spurious. Preceding grants were confirmed by the great charter of Queen Elizabeth; in the 13th year of whose reign was passed the Act for the incorporation of both the Universities. Under this statute the style of this learned society is "The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge." The elective franchise was first conferred by James I. in the first year of his reign, since which time the University has returned two members to parliament. The members of the Senate form the electoral body, and the vice-chancellor is the returning officer. The University constitutes a literary federal republic, comprising 17 colleges or halls, each of which is a corporation governed by its own statutes, but bound also by the higher law of the University. The colleges, substitutes at first for the old hostels, are supported by the endowments of their founders and later benefactors. Each college has a share, both in the legislative and executive department of the University. The place of assembly is the Senate House. All masters of arts and of laws, doctors in divinity, civil law, or medicine, whose names are on the college boards, or on the University Register, have votes in the Senate, to which belongs the supreme legislative authority. This body was till recently divided into two houses, or classes, denominated regents and non-regents. The former, or upper house, was composed of masters of arts of less than five years', and doctors of less than two years', standing, and was also called the white-hood house, from the white lining of the hoods worn by its members. The latter, or lower, also called the black-hood house, was composed of the masters of arts of above five years standing. Liberty of voting in either house at pleasure was enjoyed by the doctors of more than two years standing, and the public orator of the University. Now all members of the Senate vote as one body. An assembly of the Senate is called a congregation. There is a council, composed (under 19 & 20 Viet., c. 88) of the chancellor, vice-chancellor, 4 heads of colleges, 4 professors of the University, and 8 other members of the Senate. The business of the council is to consider and approve the graces, or projected laws, of the University, previous to their introduction to the Senate. The executive body of the University consists of the following officers: the chancellor, usually a man of high rank, who presides over all cases relating to the University, and holds office for two years, or so much longer as shall be tacitly allowed; a high steward, to try cases of felony within the limits of the University, i.e. within 1 mile of the suburbs; a vice-chancellor, who (since the passing of the Act above mentioned) must be head of some college, and acts as magistrate for the University, town, and county; a commissary, who holds a court of record for all privileged persons and scholars under the degree of M.A.; an assessor, to assist the vice-chancellor; a public orator, the voice and pen of the Senate on all public occasions; two proctors, masters of arts of three years standing, or bachelors of divinity, who attend to the discipline and behaviour of the students, and keep the peace of the University, in which they are assisted by two pro-proctors; a librarian; a registrary; two moderators, masters of arts, to superintend the general examinations for mathematical honours; three esquire bedells, who attend the vice-chancellor; a University marshal, and some other officers. The University has a revenue of about £5,500 per annum, derived from various sources, including fees of the scholars, the profits of the University printing-press, the value of Burwell vicarage, Ovington rectory (in Norfolk), an estate at Barton, &c. The whole is managed by the vice-chancellor, and the accounts are examined by auditors annually appointed by the Senate. The stipends of the professors are paid from the University chest, or by government, or from the estates with which the professorships have been endowed. These are the following Lady Margaret's Professorship of Divinity, founded in 1502 by Margaret Countess of Richmond, mother of Henry VII., and foundress of St. John's College; the Regius Professorships of Divinity, Civil Law, Physic, Greek, and Hebrew, all founded in 1540 by Henry VIII.; the Professorship of Arabic, founded in 1632 by Sir T. Adams, Bart.; the Lord Almoner's Reader and Professorship of Arabic; the Lucasian Professorship of Mathematics, founded in 1663 by Henry Lucas, Esq.; the Professorship of Casuistry, or Moral Philosophy, founded in 1683 by Dr. Knightbridge; of Music, founded in 1684; of Chemistry, in 1702; of Astronomy and Experimental Philosophy, founded in 1704 by Archdeacon Plume; of Anatomy, in 1707; of Modern History, in 1724, by George I.; of Botany, in 1724; of Geology, in 1727, by Dr. Woodward; of Astronomy and Geometry, in 1749, by Thomas Lowndes, Esq.; the Norrisian Professorship of Divinity, founded in 1768 by John Norris, Esq.; the Professorship of Natural and Experimental Philosophy, founded in 1783 by the Rev. Richard Jackson; the Downing Professorships of Medicine and of the Laws of England, founded in 1800 by Sir George Downing, Bart.; the Professorship of Mineralogy, founded in 1808, and endowed by the government; that of Political Economy, in 1828; and the Disney Professorship of Archæology, founded in 1851 by John Disney, Esq. There are several endowed lectureships and preacherships, viz.:-Lady Margaret's Preachership, founded in 1503.; the Rede Lecturer, who is annually appointed to deliver a single lecture in place of the Barnaby Lectureship in Mathematics, a very ancient foundation, and the Barnaby Lectureships in Philosophy, Rhetoric, and Logic, founded by Sir Robert Rede in 1524; the Sadlerian Lectureships in Algebra, 17 in number, founded about 1710 by Lady Sadler, which will shortly be amalgamated under a Sadlerian Professorship of Pure Mathematics; the Hulsean Christian Advocate and Lecturer-offices endowed in 1789 by the Rev. John Hulse, for the defence of the Christian religion and the illustration of Scripture, from which the Hulsean Professorship of Divinity, was established in 1850; and some others. Boards of the various studies were appointed in 1848, for the purpose of deliberating and reporting from year to year on the state of the studies and examinations in the University. The annual prizes of the University for the encouragement of learning amount to about £1,500; those of the separate colleges to about £800. Three-fourths of the former, and one half of the latter, are given for the classics and English composition. In addition to these there are the following:-two gold medals, worth 15 guineas each, given by the chancellor for the classics, and one for an English poem; four prizes of the same value for Latin prose composition, given by the members for the University; three, worth 5 guineas each, for a Greek ode, a Latin ode, and epigrams, given by Sir Edward Browne, Knt.; the Person prize, for a translation from English dramatists into Greek verse: two prizes, value £25 each, for mathematics, &c., founded by Dr. Robert Smith; a gold medal, &c., value £12, for an essay on some religious subject, given by John Norris, Esq.; a premium of £40 for a treatise on the truth of the Christian religion, given by the Rev. John Hulse; one of the same value for an English poem, given by the Rev. Thomas Seaton; the prize for an essay on some mathematical subject, founded in honour of the astronomical discoveries of Mr. Adams, of St. John's; the Maitland, Le Bas, and Burney prizes. The University scholarships are the following: five classical, founded by Lord Craven, the value of which has been raised from £25 to £50; one classical, endowed by Dr. Battie, value £40; one founded by Sir William Browne, value £21; one classical, by Dr. Davies; eight scholarships for sons of poor clergymen, endowed in 1810 by Dr. Bell; the Pitt scholarship; six Hebrew (three at first), endowed in 1817 by the Rev. Robert Tyrwhitt, those of the first class value £30, and those of the second, £20 each; and Crosse's scholarship for theology and Hebrew. The University Terms, three in number, are fixed by invariable rules. October or Michaelmas Term begins on the lot October, and ends on the 16th December; Lent or January Term extends from the 13th January to the Friday before Palm Sunday; and Easter or Midsummer Term from the Friday after Easter Sunday to the Friday after the last Tuesday but one in June. The several orders in the colleges are the following: the Head, usually a D.D., and called Master in all the colleges except King's College and Queen's College, the head of the former being styled Provost, and of the latter, President; Fellows, usually doctors in one of the three faculties, M.A.s or B.A.s, in the various faculties; Fellow Commoners, who have the privilege of dining at the fellows' table; Pensioners, Scholars, and Sizars; the latter usually have free commons and various emoluments. After entering the University every undergraduate must write his name in the University Register, which is called "matriculation," and the undergraduate of the first year is a "'freshman;" in his second year he is called a "junior soph," and in his third year a "senior soph." No declaration or oath is now required previous to matriculation or taking a B.A. degree. The first University examination, called the "previous," or "little-go," takes place in the second Lent Term after the commencement of residence. The second examination for the degree of B.A., takes place in the January of the fourth year of residence, i.e. after ten terms for those who are candidates for honours. Those who take only the ordinary degree are called "oi polloi" or familiarly "the poll," and may pass their examinations in the previous June, i.e. in the ninth term after commencing residence. The lists of the successful candidates for honours are called "triposes." The classical tripos was founded in 1824, and confined to those who had already obtained mathematical honours; now, however, any undergraduate may be a candidate for classical honours, and may obtain his degree in the same manner as by the mathematical tripos. The same is now true of the moral and natural sciences triposes, which were established in 1851. In the mathematical tripos, three classes of merit are distinguished-the first, wranglers; the second, senior optimes; and the third, junior optimes. The "senior wrangler" is the foremost mathematician of his year. The last of the junior optimes is familiarly called the" wooden spoons. There are three classes also in the classical tripos. The terms of residence, examinations, and other academical regulations, will be found in the "Cambridge University Calendar," which is published annually. Honorary degrees were formerly conferred on privy councillors, bishops, and various classes of noblemen; but this practice was abolished by the Senate in 1826. Honorary degrees are, however, frequently conferred by the University on persons illustrious by their birth or their public services. A brief account must now be given of the Colleges, seventeen in number, composing the University, and of the public buildings and institutions connected with it. The colleges, nearly all extra parochial, were first founded to take the place of the hostels in which the students used to lodge at their own charges. Magdalene College and the new part of St. John's are the only buildings on the west side of the Cam. Sidney College, Christ's College, Jesus College, Emmanuel College, and Downing College, stand detached in other parts of the town. Each college has a master's lodge, apartments for the fellows and students, library, chapel, hall, and combination (business) room. The most ancient of the colleges is ST. PETER'S, or Peter House, founded by Hugh de Balsham, afterwards Bishop of Ely. Although made a residence for students about 1257, it was not constituted a college till 20 years later. This college has a master, 14 foundation and 10 bye-fellowships, and 62 scholarships. The buildings, situated on the east side of Trumpington-street, consist of three courts, one of which was erected in 1826, out of a bequest by the Rev. Francis Gisborne; and a small handsome chapel, built in 1632. It has a fine east window of stained glass, with a representation of the Crucifixion, after Rubens; and six other painted windows of Munich glass have recently been inserted by subscription, three on the north side, representing Abraham offering up Isaac, St. John in the Wilderness, and the Wise Men from the East; and three on the south side representing the Resurrection, Healing the Sick, and Paul pleading before Felix. Among the students of Peter House were Cardinal Beaufort, Colonel Hutchinson, the eminent republican officer during the Civil War, Bishop Walton, editor of the Polyglot Bible, the Poet Gray, and Lord Ellenborough. CLARE HALL, at first called University Hall, was founded by Dr. Richard Badew in 1326, and having been burnt down, was refounded by Elizabeth, sister of Gilbert Earl of Clare, in 1344. The society is composed of a master, 19 foundation and 3 bye-fellows, and about 50 scholars. The buildings stand near the river, on the west side of the town, between King's and Caius colleges, and are connected with pleasant grounds on the opposite side by a stone bridge. They form a spacious court, 150 feet long by 111 broad, and were rebuilt of Ketton stone in 1638. The chapel was rebuilt about 1763, from designs by Sir James Burrough. The college possesses portraits of Lady Elizabeth Clare, the foundress, Holles, Duke of Newcastle, and Archbishop Tillotson. Hugh Latimer, Dr. Burnet, Ralph Cudworth, the philosopher, Parkhurst, the lexicographer, Whiston, translator of Josephus, and Nicholas Ferrar, the friend of George Herbert, were students of Clare Hall. PEMBROKE COLLEGE (or Hall) was founded by Mary de St. Paul, Countess of Pembroke, in 1343, in memory of her husband, who was accidentally slain at a tournament on the day of their nuptials. It was munificently endowed by Henry VI., and at present consists of a master, 14 foundation and 2 bye-fellows, and about 30 scholars. The college buildings, on the east side of Trumpington-street, comprise two courts opening into each other through the hall which stands between them. The chapel, designed by Sir Christopher Wren, and built in 1665 at the expense of Dr. Wren, Bishop of Ely; is an elegant and well proportioned structure. In the inner court is a detached building containing the hollow sphere, 18 feet in diameter, devised by Dr. Long, professor of astronomy, with representations in colours of the principal constellations of the northern hemisphere. It is fitted up as a lecture-room. The college contains portraits of the foundress, of the poets Spenser and Gray, Ridley, the martyr, and others. Among the distinguished men educated here were, besides those just named, the poets Crashaw and Mason, archbishops Grindall and Whitgift, Bishop Andrews, Edward Calamy, and the great statesman, William Pitt. GONVILLE or CAIUS COLLEGE was founded by Edmund Gonville in 1348, and took from him at first the name of Gonville Hall; but being enlarged and refounded in 1557 by Dr. John Caius, physician to Queen Mary, received its present name. It is usually called Caius (pronounced Keys) College. The society includes a master, 29 fellows, and 50 scholars. The buildings stand between Trinity College and the Senate House, and consist of two courts, with three gates, called the gates of Humility, Virtue, and Honour. The gate of Honour and the internal court of Caius College are particularly deserving of observation, as the work of Theodore Have, or Havenius, who divides with Giovanni di Padua the honour of having introduced classic art into England. The chapel, rebuilt at the beginning of the 18th century, contains a brass of a knight, and a monument to Dr. Caius, with the brief epitaph, "Fui Caius: vivit post funera Virtus." Here, too, is interred Sir James Brough, who designed several of the University buildings, and died in 1774. The library has a good collection of works on Heraldry. The college has a large number of portraits, including those of Dr. Caius, and all the masters except one. Many eminent physicians have been educated at Caius College, among whom are Sir Charles Scarborough, and Harvey, the discoverer of the circulation of the blood. Sir Thomas Gresham, Jeremy Taylor, Jeremy Collier, Dr. Samuel Clarke, and Lord Chancellor Thurlow were also educated here. TRINITY HALL was founded by William Bateman, Bishop of Norwich, in 1350, on the site of an ancient hostel. It has a master, 12 fellows, and 18 scholars, and is chiefly devoted to the study of the civil law. It stands near Clare Hall, on the banks of the Cam, behind the Public Library, and consists of two courts, one of which is of modern date. The altarpiece of the chapel is a painting of the Presentation in the Temple. The chapel contains three monumental brasses. The hall has among its portraits those of Bishop Gardiner, Archbishop Laud, and the Earl of Chesterfield, who studied here; as did also Bishop Horsley, Thomas Tusser, Bilney, the martyr, Sir Robert Naunton, and Chief Justice de Grey. CORPUS CHRISTI COLLEGE, also called Bene't (Benedict) College, was founded by the two guilds of Corpus Christi and the Blessed Virgin Mary, in 1352. The society is composed of a master, 12 fellows, and 59 scholars. The buildings stand on the east side of Trumpington-street, and comprise two spacious courts, one of which is of modern erection. The front is 222 feet in length, with a fine central gateway and lofty towers at each end. The new portion of the college was erected about 1823, from designs by Wilkins. The chapel, which has two octagonal turrets, stained windows, and a fine west doorway, was built about 1579 by Lord-Keeper Bacon. The library contains a large and precious collection of ancient MSS., bequeathed by Archbishop Parker. Here are portraits of Erasmus, Cardinal Wolsey, Sir Thomas More, and Archbishop Parker. The latter, with archbishops Tenison and Herring, Lord-Keeper Bacon, Fletcher, the dramatist, Stukeley and Gough, the antiquaries, were educated here. KING'S COLLEGE was founded by Henry VI. in 1441, as a small seminary, but was reconstituted in 1443 on a much larger scale, and made the greatest college of its time. The society consists of a provost and 70 fellows and scholars-the latter being supplied in regular succession from Eton College, which was also founded by Henry VI. about the same time. The college enjoys some peculiar privileges; the power of the provost being absolute within the precincts, and the proctors and other officers of the University having no authority within its walls. The buildings, which are on a grand scale, form a noble court between Trumpington-street and the river. On the south side of the court are the provost's lodge, the library, the hall, and chambers for the fellows and scholars, presenting a front of 509 feet. This range was built by Mr. Wilkins, and is in the perpendicular style of architecture. On the west side are residences for the fellows, built by Gibbs in 1724; and the north side is formed by the chapel. King's College Chapel is the glory of Cambridge, and the most magnificent and elaborately perfect example of the perpendicular style. The foundation stone was laid by Henry VI. in 1446, and the work was not completed till 1532, thus occupying nearly a century. It is built of blocks of stone of immense size, and is supported by eleven vast buttresses on each side, crowned with elegant pinnacles. Octagon towers, of exquisite proportions, rise from each corner of the chapel. Its exterior dimensions are-length, 316 feet; breadth, 84 feet; height to the battlements, 90 feet; to the pinnacles, 101 feet; and to the top of the towers, 146½ feet. The dimensions within are-length, 209 feet; breadth, 45½ feet; height, 76 feet. The roof, in 12 compartments, is of stone, vaulted and exquisitely carved, and unsupported by pillars. A splendid carved screen separates the choir from the ante-chapel, and on each side of the building are nine small chapels or chantries. The whole is lighted and delicately tinted by 24 lofty and magnificent stained windows, 12 on each side, a fine east window also stained, and a plain one at the west end. The height of the windows is nearly 60 feet. The whole vast structure is finely proportioned, light, aerial, and rich, being one of the finest pieces of architecture in the world. The chapel contains four monumental brasses, the earliest dated 1496. Among the distinguished men educated at King's College are bishops Aldrich, Pearson, and Fleetwood; Fryth, and other martyrs; Sir John Choke, Sir Francis Walsingham, Sir William Temple, Sir Robert Walpole, Lord Walpole, Coxe, the biographer of Marlborough, Jacob Bryant, and Edmund Waller, the poet. QUEENS' COLLEGE was founded by Queen Margaret of Anjou, wife of Henry VI., in 1448, and completed by Elizabeth Widville, consort of Edward IV., in 1465. The society is composed of a president, 20 fellows, and 21 scholars. The buildings, between Catharine Hall and the river, comprise three spacious courts, partly rebuilt about 30 years ago, with a tower, gateway, and cloisters in the inner court. A wooden bridge, built in 1746, leads to the beautiful grounds on the west side of the river. In the chapel are four brasses, and in the hall are portraits of the second foundress of the college, of Erasmus, Sir Thomas Smith, General Monk, and others. Erasmus was student and afterwards professor of Greek here. Bishops Fisher and Patrick, Thomas Fuller, author of the "Church History "and " British Worthies;" Wallis, the mathematician; and Beaumont, the dramatist, were educated at this college. CATHARINE HALL was founded by Dr. Woodlark, chancellor of the University, and provost of King's College, in 1475. It is composed of a master, 14 fellows, and 43 scholars. The buildings, on the west side of Trumpington-street, form a spacious court, 180 feet long by 120 broad, open towards the street. It was rebuilt about 1700. The chapel contains monuments to Lady Dawes and Dr. John Addenbrooke, founder of the hospital named after him, who died in 1719. The college possesses portraits of the founder and of Bishop Sherlock, who fitted up the library and bequeathed his own books to it. Among the students of Catharine Hall were archbishops Sandys and Dawes, bishops Hoadley and Sherlock, Dr. Lightfoot, the Orientalist, John Strype, the antiquary, and Ray, the naturalist. JESUS COLLEGE was founded by John Alcock, Bishop of Ely, in 1496, and endowed with the possessions of the nunnery of St. Rhadegund, on the site of which it was built. The society consists of a master, 16 fellows, and 49 scholars and exhibitioners. The buildings are pleasantly situated on the north-east side of the town, and form two courts, with a south front of 160 feet by 120 deep. The most interesting of them is the chapel, a cruciform structure, with large square tower, which was the conventual church of the nunnery. It has, however, been frequently altered, and was restored a few years ago. It has a good window of stained glass at the east end., and contains the tombs of a nun, Berta Rosata, and of Prior John de Pykenham, and a monument to Tobias Rustat, a benefactor to the college. Among the portraits in the college are those of Cranmer, Archbishop Bancroft, the founder, Henry VIII., &c. Cranmer, Flamstead, the astronomer, Dr. Jortin, Lawrence Sterne, Hartley, the metaphysician, Dr. Clarke, the traveller, and Samuel Taylor Coleridge were students of Jesus College. CHRIST'S COLLEGE, originally founded in the reign of Henry VI., under the name of "God's House," was refounded and endowed by Margaret Countess of Richmond and Derby, mother of Henry VII., in 1505, who changed its name to Christ's College. The college is chiefly for divinity, and the fellows are required to take priest's orders within a year after they have attained the proper age. It has a master, 15 fellows, and 63 scholars. The buildings consist of two courts, situated to the north of Emmanuel College. In the chapel are two brasses, and in the east window portraits of the foundress and Henry VII. At the north end is a handsome monument of white marble and the grave of Ralph Cudworth, the philosopher. The gardens and grounds are extensive and beautiful, and contain a mulberry-tree planted by Milton, who was a student of this college. Other famous men educated here are Archbishop Sharp, Bishop Latimer, Henry More, the platonist, Dr. Paley, Dr. Thomas Burnet, and Francis Quarles. ST. JOHN'S COLLEGE, which, with the exception of Trinity, is the largest college in the University, was founded under the will of Margaret Countess of Richmond, the foundress of Christ's College, about 1511. It is for divinity, and is composed of a master, 60 fellows, and 114 scholars, with a very large number of exhibitions. The buildings consist of three courts on the east side of the Cam, and a new one on the west side, connected by a handsome covered stone bridge. The ancient courts, whose length from east to west is about 500 feet, are mostly of red brick, and the entrance from St. John's-street is by a noble tower gateway. The new court was erected about 1830 from designs by Rickman, and is partly in the perpendicular and partly in the Tudor styles. Cloisters extend from wing to wing. The library is spacious, and contains a very valuable collection of books, including those bequeathed by Prior, the poet. The chapel contains a canopied brass, and a monument to Baker, the antiquarian. The college possesses portraits of the foundress, Queen Elizabeth, Mary Queen of Scots, Lord Falkland, the Earl of Strafford, &c. The two last mentioned, with Roger Ascham, bishops Fisher, Watson, and Beveridge, Sir Kenelm Digby, Lord Burleigh, General Fairfax, Soame Jenyns, Horne Tooke, William Wilberforce, Ben Jonson, and the poets Herrick, Otway, Henry Kirke White, and William Wordsworth were students of St. John's. -MAGDALENE COLLEGE was founded by Stafford Duke of Buckingham in 1519, and completed, after his attainder, by Thomas Baron Audley, lord chancellor, in 1542. It is composed of a master, 4 foundation and 13 bye-fellows, and 43 scholars. This college stands at the north-west end of the town, on the site of an ancient hostel, and consists of two courts, in the second of which is the Pepysian library, containing a valuable collection of MSS. and prints, and a very large collection of English ballads. This library was the gift of Samuel Pepys, author of the now well-known "Memoirs," the original MS. of which is preserved here. Among the portraits possessed by this college are those of the founders, Chief Justice Wray, Samuel Pepys, &c.; and among the most eminent students were Archbishop Grindall, Bishop Cumberland, Pepys, and Dr. Waterland. TRINITY COLLEGE, which is the largest and most important in the University of Cambridge, was founded by Henry VIII., in 1546, on the site of two ancient colleges, St. Michael's Hall and King's Hall, and several hostels. St. Michael's Hall was founded in 1324, and King's Hall in 1337, and their united endowments were given to Trinity, which was afterwards augmented by Queen Mary. The society is composed of a master, 60 fellows, and 72 scholars. The mastership is in the gift of the crown. The college buildings are of great extent, situated between St. John's on the north, and Caius College on the south, filling the space between Trumpington-street and the river. They consist of three great courts, the first of which, nearly square, is about 1,900 feet in circuit, the largest quadrangle either at Cambridge or Oxford. The principal entrance to this college is from Trinity-street by a fine old turreted gateway. In this court are the chapel, the hall, and the master's lodge. The chapel, 200 feet in length, was built partly by Queen Mary and partly by Queen Elizabeth. It is in the perpendicular style, and contains an altar-piece by Benjamin West; statues of Sir Isaac Newton, by Roubiliac; of Barrow, by Noble, of Professor Porson, by Chantrey, and of Bacon, copied from that at St. Alban's; besides busts of Professor Porson, Dobree, and others. The ante-chapel contains also several good memorial windows of stained glass, one of them to Dr. Mill. The hall is a noble building, in the Tudor style, 100 feet in length and about 50 feet high, adorned with a very large number of portraits of eminent scholars. The master's lodge contains several spacious apartments, and is the residence of the sovereign on all royal visits to Cambridge. The second, or Neville's Court, is an elegant range of buildings, and includes the library, cloisters, and residences for the fellows and students. The library, built from a design by Sir Christopher Wren, is a magnificent apartment, containing, besides a large collection of books and highly interesting MSS., many busts and portraits. The MSS. include some of Milton's poems and many of Newton's letters respecting Principis. The busts of Newton, Bacon, Ray, and Willoughby are by Roubiliac. Here, too, is the fine statue of Lord Byron, by Thorwaldsen. The third, or King's Court, erected about 1825 from designs by Wilkins, is a noble quadrangle in the early English style of architecture, fronting the river and the gardens. It has a fine tower gateway. A new court has been recently built by Dr. Whewell, the present master, opposite the great gateway. Among the portraits in this college are those of the Earl of Essex, Sir Isaac Newton, Shakspeare, Cowley, Dryden, Isaac Barrow, &c.; all of whom, except Shakspeare, were students of Trinity, as were also the following eminent men: Lord Bacon, Sir Edward Coke, Sir Robert Cotton, Dr. Conyers Middleton, Professor Porson, Professor Dobree, and Dr. Mill; the poets Donne, George Herbert, George Crabbe, Andrew Marvell, Lord Byron, and Vincent Bourne. EMMANUEL COLLEGE was founded in 1584 by Sir Walter Mildmay, privy councillor to Queen Elizabeth, on the site of a Dominican priory established about 1280. It consists of a master, 15 fellows, and about 100 scholars and exhibitioners. The buildings are pleasantly situated in St. Andrew-street, and command a good view over the country to the south-east They are chiefly of modern date, and form two courts with spacious and pleasant gardens. The present library was formerly the chapel. The present chapel, designed by Archbishop Sancroft, was completed in 1677. Archbishop Sancroft, bishops Hall, Bedell, and Hurd, Matthew Poole, the commentator, Dr. Wallis, Dr. Farmer, the poet Akenside, and Dr. Parr, were educated at Emmanuel College. SIDNEY SUSSEX COLLEGE was founded by Frances Sydney, Countess of Sussex, who, by her will in 1588, left property for that purpose. It is for divinity, and consists of a master, 12 fellows, and 26 scholars. The buildings, in Sidney-street, occupy the site of the monastery of Grey Friars founded about the time of Henry III., and comprise two courts. They were completed in 1598. The chapel, which has an altar-piece painted by Francesco Pittoni, and the library were rebuilt in 1780, and the college was restored under the direction of Wyattville about 1830. Among the portraits are those of the foundress, Oliver Cromwell (by Cooper), and William Wollaston. Bernini's bust of Cromwell, from a cast taken soon after death, is in the library. Cromwell was a student of Sidney College. -DOWNING COLLEGE, the most recent, was founded pursuant to the will of Sir George Downing, of Gamlingay Park, Cambridgeshire, dated 1717. The erection of the buildings was commenced in 1807, and the college was opened in 1821. It is for a master, 2 professors of Law and Medicine, 16 fellows, and 6 scholars. The buildings will form a very large quadrangle, of which two sides are completed from designs by Wilkins. The library contains the books, MSS., antiquities, &c., bequeathed by John Bowtell. The various colleges hold the patronage of a very large number of livings in England and Wales, and have also the appointment to the masterships of several public schools. The different ranks of members of the University, and the several classes of students, wear a distinctive dress. The costume differs slightly also for each college. The principal public buildings belonging to the University are:-the Senate House, the Public Schools and Library, the Pitt Press, the Fitzwilliam Museum, the Anatomical Museum, and the Observatory. The Senate House, a large and handsome stone building of the Corinthian order, was erected between 1722 and 1766, from a design by Sir James Burrough. The interior is 101 feet in length and 82 feet high. It has galleries of oak, and contains statues of George I. and George II., the Duke of Somerset and William Pitt. The Public Schools, where disputations are held and exercises performed, were commenced in 1443, and form a small court, and also the west side of a great quadrangle, which has the Senate House on the north, Great St. Mary's Church on the east, and King's College Chapel on the south The apartments over the schools form the library, which was rebuilt in 1775. The large and valuable collection of books and MSS. belonging to the University is partly kept here, and partly in the new building, erected in 1837 from a design by Cockerell, In the latter is the collection of minerals presented to the University by Dr. John Woodward in 1727, by whom also the Professorship of Geology was founded. The Pitt Press, in Trumpington-street, was erected in 1833. It is in the perpendicular style, with a fine tower, and was designed by Blore. The Fitzwilliam Museum, the finest modern building in Cambridge, was founded by Richard Viscount Fitzwilliam, who, in 1816, bequeathed £100,000, and his fine collection of books, pictures, &c., for that purpose. The building was completed in 1847, having been commenced in 1837. Mr. G. Basevi had the direction of the work, and on his death it was carried on by Mr. Cockerell. The museum is a noble structure of the Corinthian order, 160 feet square, with a splendid portico, and contains a spacious and richly decorated hall, 100 feet long and 70 wide, and five apartments for the pictures, &c. The general management is directed by a syndicate, composed of the vice-chancellor and eight other members of the senate. It is open free to members of the University daily, and to the public on Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays, between the hours of 12 a.m. and 4 p.m. The Observatory, built in 1822-1824, is pleasantly situated on rising ground on the road to Madingley. It is in the Grecian style, and was erected from the designs of J. Mead in 1825, at a cost of £20,000, The great telescope, made by Cauchoix, of nearly 12 inches aperture, and 20 feet focal length, was presented to the University by the Duke of Northumberland in 1835, and is placed under a revolving dome 27 feet in diameter. The other instruments possessed by the observatory are a transit instrument, 10 feet focal length, a mural circle of 8 feet diameter, an equatorial of 5 feet focal length, a declination circle, an hour circle, and a transit clock. The observatory is open every day but Saturday, from 12 to half-past 1, to members of the University and their friends. There are also Philosophical and Antiquarian societies; the former, occupying a spacious brick building in All Saints' passage, was established in 1819, and incorporated by royal charter in 1832; the latter was established in 1840. The University Pitt Club, held at 74, Bridge-street, and supplied with all the London newspapers, is confined to members of the University, and is open daily from 9 a.m. to 10 p.m. The Cambridge Free Library is situated in Jesus-lane, and was opened in June, 1855, under Mr. Ewart's Public Libraries Act. The Lending Library was instituted in April, 1858, and received a munificent donation of books from his late Royal Highness the Prince Consort, who was elected Chancellor of the University of Cambridge in 1847. The library is open daily between the hours of 12 to 4 and 6 to 10 p.m. The Botanical Gardens were originally instituted by Dr. Richard Walker, vice-master of Trinity, but have been lately removed to a more commodious position on the south-east side of the town. They now cover an area of about 21 acres, between the Hill's-road and the Trumpington-road. The garden is very rich in rare trees and plants from Australia and the Pacific Islands, and has several commodious hothouses. The management is under the direction of a syndicate, of which the Vice-Chancellor of the University is the head. The gardens are open free to the public every day except Sunday, and the hothouses between 1 and 4 o'clock p.m.

[Transcribed mainly from The National Gazetteer of Great Britain and Ireland 1868]
by Colin Hinson 2010


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