[Transcribed information from A Topographical Dictionary of England - Samuel Lewis - 1835]
(unless otherwise stated)
"CAXTON, a parish and market-town (small), in the hundred of LONGSTOW, county of CAMBRIDGE, 10½ miles (W. by S.) from Cambridge, and 49 (N.N.W.) from London, containing 406 inhabitants. This place, one of the oldest post towns in the country, is situated on the Roman Ermin-street, which passes through the town from Holm to Papworth: the houses are in general irregularly built and of mean appearance; there are some good inns, and the trade of the place arises chiefly from its situation on the old north road to York. The market, granted to Baldwin Freville in 1247, is on Tuesday: fairs, principally for pedlary, are held on May 5th and October 18th. The living is a discharged vicarage, in the archdeaconry and diocese of Ely, rated in the king's books at £7-12. 4., and in the patronage of the Dean and Canons of Windsor. The church, dedicated to St. Andrew, contains several memorials of the Barnard family, and a handsome monument to the memory of Mary, wife of John Hanson. Robert Langwith, in 1581, bequeathed £31. 10. per annum for the benefit of eight of the poorest housekeepers, and for four sermons to be preached quarterly in the church, Matthew Paris, a Benedictine monk, who flourished in the reign of Henry III., and who wrote a history of the world from the creation to the year of his death, which happened in 1259, was a native of this place. It has been erroneously stated that Caxton, who introduced the art of printing into England, was born in this parish; his own memoirs refer his birth and education to the county of Kent."