Open a form to report problems or contribute information

1 Introduction 2 Message details 3 Upload file 4 Submitted

Help and advice for Buxton

If you have found a problem on this page then please report it on the following form. We will then do our best to fix it. If you are wanting advice then the best place to ask is on the area's specific email lists. All the information that we have is in the web pages, so please do not ask us to supply something that is not there. We are not able to offer a research service.

If you wish to report a problem, or contribute information, then do use the following form to tell us about it.



Archives and Libraries

The Public Free Library was erected with the Town Hall in 1888-89.

The Buxton Library on Kents Bank Road is normally open six days a week. Additionally, they have a Local Studies and Family History section to help you with your research.



  • BENTLEY, LANGHAM and WELLS - Buxton and the High Peak. Tempus, 2006. ISBN 0-7524-3951-0.
  • BOWER, Alan - "The Water Cure". Derbyshire Heritage Series, 1985.
    Published by J H Hall & Sons Ltd, Siddals Road, Derby. 44 pages. ISBN 0 946404 55 0.

    A small, but very useful booklet containing a collection of postcards, focussing on hydropathic treatment at Hydros predominantly in Buxton and Matlock, but also has illustrations of the Hydros at Darley Dale (now St Elphin's School), Ashover, Baslow and Chesterfield. There is a brief introduction, describing the growth of the 'Water Cure' from Roman times through the Middle Ages and into the 1780's when " social life of a spa at this time was more important than the cure" through to the heady days of John Smedley, and his followers to its eventual demise with the advent of the National Health Service in 1948.

    Quoting from its back cover: "This book is primarily a picture book about the Water Cure in Derbyshire. The picture postcard holds a wealth of information about our recent past and is an invaluable aid to any Historian. The postcards used to illustrate the Cure and Hydros date from 1904 to 1920 and aim to show what the life and treatment at a Hydro was like."
  • LOMAS, Peter - Buxton Hydro (Spa Hotel). Ashridge Press/Country Books, 2007. ISBN 9-781901-214833.
  • ROBERTS, Alan E & LEACH, John R - The Coal Mines of Buxton. Scarthin Books, 1985. 96 pages. ISBN 0 907758 10 X.

    Quoting from its back cover: "THE COAL MINES OF BUXTON may seem like a fictional title, but it is fact. The book traces the rise of the coal industry in the neighbourhood of Buxton, examines its hey-day, and details its decline, quoting extensively from contemporary documents. If you still need proof of its existence, check out the numerous industrial remains which are also described in these pages."

    This is an evocative book which opens by contrasting the harsh realities of a coal miner's life in the late 18th century against the heady life of the upper class. Whilst the 5th Duke of Devonshire was developing Buxton as a spa town, and his visitors were paying their three shillings admission fee to the Card Room, a boy working in the coal mines would have to drive an engine horse around its circular track for six whole days to earn the same amount of money.

    Strictly speaking the mines were not in Buxton, but in the parish of Hartington Upper Quarter, about 2 miles away from Buxton. Nevertheless, this book is a real treasure trove for the family historian, containing many personal names, drawing extensively on the accounts of Thomas WYLD, of 1790 (WYLD was the mines' manager on behalf of their owner, the Duke of Devonshire). The several appendices contain more personal names, including lists of colliers and coal miners recorded on the 1841, 1851 and 1881 censuses.


  • Buxton Cemetery was laid out in 1896 about one mile south-east of the town as it then existed, on the London Road. It covered 13 acres and had two mortuary chapels; one for the Church of England and one for non-conformists.
  • Richard LAW has a photograph of the Buxton Cemetery entrance in the Ashbourne Road (the A515) on Geo-graph, taken in May, 2010.
  • Basher EYRE has a photograph of the Harpur Hill Road Cemetery in Grin Low Road on Geo-graph, taken in May, 2010.



  • The parish was in the Buxton sub-district of the Chapel en le Frith Registration District.
  • The table below gives census piece numbers, where known:
Piece No.
1861 R.G. 9 / 2545
1891 R.G. 12 / 2780


You can also perform a more selective search for churches in the Buxton area or see them printed on a map.


Church History

  • Anciently this place was a Chapelry of Bakewell and had a small chapel of ease.
  • An old church, dedicated to Saint Anne, was built in 1625. It was used for a school for some decades and was re-opened as a chapel around 1850.
  • The church was restored in 1885.
  • The Anglican parish church is dedicated to Saint John the Baptist and was built in 1811.
  • The church opened for worship on 9 August 1812.
  • St. John's will seat about 1,000.
  • The churchyard of St. Anne's and St. John's was closed to burials before 1912 (Probably 1896 when the cemetery was opened).
  • The Chapel of St. James the Great was built in 1871 as a chapel of ease to St. Anne's. This church was enlarged in 1898.
  • Basher EYRE has a photograph of St. James Church in Harpur Hill on Geo-graph, taken in July, 2015.
  • St. Mary's Church was built in 1897 on the Dale Road.

Church Records

  • We have a pop-up window of Buxton burials in a text file for your review. Your additions are welcomed.
  • Marriages at Buxton, 1718-1837 are available in Nigel BATTY-SMITH's database of scanned images of Phillimore's Parish Registers.
  • The church was in the rural deanery of Buxton.
  • A Congregational chapel in Hardwick Mount was built in 1810.
  • A Wesleyan Methodist chapel in Higher Buxton was built in 1849.
  • A Primitive Methodist chapel in Back Lane was built before 1857. This was replaced by a chapel built in the London Road in 1890.
  • An Independent chapel in Spring Gardens was built before 1857.
  • A Catholic chapel in Scarsdale Place was set up in Dr. Darwin's former house circa 1852.
  • St. Anne's Catholic church in Terrace Road was built in 1861. In 1895 a chancel and side chapels were added.
  • A Unitarian chapel in Hartington Road was built in 1875. It had been founded in 1725.

Civil Registration

  • Civil Registration began in July, 1837.
  • The parish was in the Buxton sub-district of the Chapel en le Frith Registration District.

Correctional Institutions

  • The village had a Lock-up on Back Lane.

Description and Travel

"BUXTON is a market-town and chapelry, in the parish of Bakewell, and hundred of High Peak; 160 miles from London, 24 S.E. from Manchester, the like distance W. of Chesterfield, 22 N.E. from Matlock, 20 N.E. from Wirksworth, 10 S.W. from Castleton, & 6 S. from Chapel-en-le-Frith. Antiquaries agree that this was a Roman station, although unable to ascertain its name - in later days it was called Bawkenstanes, supposed to be a corruption of Bathanstanes, signifying bath stones; and one of the Roman roads still retain the name of Bathorn-gate."

[Description from Pigot and Co's Commercial Directory for Derbyshire, 1835]

Buxton is on the high road from Derby to Manchester, 159 miles north of the city of London. Buxton is nestled in a deep valley where the Hawkshaw Brook flows into the River Wye. The town sits in the Derbyshire High Peak area, 1,025 feet above sea level.

You can see pictures of Buxton which are provided by:





Ask for a calculation of the distance from Buxton to another place.

Click here for a list of nearby places.


Historical Geography

You can see the administrative areas in which Buxton has been placed at times in the past. Select one to see a link to a map of that particular area.



  • Roman coins have been found in the parish. The Romans likely enjoyed bathing in the warm springs here.
  • The parish was famous for centuries for its warm springs. Mary Queen of Scots was brought here four times whilst a prisoner to enjoy the waters.
  • The parish held an annual feast on June 24th.
  • Transcription of section of Lysons' Topographical and Historical Account of Derbyshire, 1817, for Buxton by Barbarann AYARS.
  • Graham HOGG has a photograph of the Robin Hood on Geo-graph, taken in August, 2012.
  • Alexander P. KAPP has a photograph of The Devonshire Arms on the North Road on Geo-graph, taken in May, 2012.

Medical Records

  • In 1890 the local urban council board built a sanatorium with four wards on a hill above the gas works. It was designed to house up to 36 patients.
  • These facilities typically did not archive patient records, but the archives may hold financial records, photographs and other administrative material.
  • In 1912 the Buxton and District Cottage Hospital was built.

Military History

  • At Coomb's Moss, 3 miles north of the town, are the remains of ancient military works.
  • In 1912 the Territorial Force in the town was the 6th Battalion Sherwood Foresters, C Company, at the armory in Rock Terrace. Captain V. H. E. LANGFORD, commanding; Color-Srgt. George WAIN, drill instructor.
  • During World War I the Red Cross established a VAD Hospital here, Devonshire Hospital. They also had St. John's VAD Hospital, Royal Exchange Buildings. This last transferred to Holker House, then to The Balmoral.
  • In 1938 the RAF opened an underground ammunition storage at Harpur Hill village, just outside Buxton. After the war, the tunnels were used as a mushroom farm.
  • Here is a photograph of the Harpur Hill War Memorial made from local stone.
  • The Traces of War website shows us that Buxton Cemetery has 54 Commonwealth War Graves from WWI and 22 from WWII.
  • Basher EYRE has a photograph of the St. James World War I Memorial on Geo-graph, taken in July, 2015.
  • Basher EYRE has a photograph of the St. James Roll of Honour on Geo-graph, taken in July, 2015.
  • The Cemetery also has its own War Memorial for those who fell in WWI and WWII.

Military Records

For a photograph of the Buxton War Memorial and the list of names on it, see the Roll of Honour site.


Names, Geographical

There is a possibility that this was the Roman Station Bucostenum . It is also listed as Auqae Arnemetiae. Arnemetia was the British Celtic goddess of healing springs. It is thought that the Corieltauvi worshipped Arnemetia.



Around 1912 there were four newspapers published in Buxton:

  1. Buxton Advertiser, published every Saturday.
  2. Buxton Herald, published Tuesday evening.
  3. High Peak News, published every Thursday for Saturday delivery.
  4. Matlock Visitors, published every Friday for Saturday delivery.

All were printed by the Derbyshire Printing Co. Limited on the market place, except for the Herald, which was printed by the Herald Publiushing Co. on South Avenue.


Politics and Government

  • This place was an ancient Chapelry in Bakewell parish in Derby county and it was incorporated as a separate, modern Civil Parish in December, 1866.
  • This parish was in the ancient High Peak Hundred (or Wapentake).
  • Buxton formed an Urban District in 1917 which encompassed several local villages and hamlets.
  • In 1974, the Urban District became part of the High Peak Borough Council.

Poor Houses, Poor Law etc.

  • Gisbourne's Charity of 1818 provided the poor with a gift of woolen or flannel cloth each year.
  • Bastardy cases would be heard here in the petty session hearings held every other Saturday of each month in the Town Hall.
  • As a result of the Poorlaw Amendment Act reforms of 1834, this parish became a member of the Chapel en le Frith Poorlaw Union.


 Year  Inhabitants
1851 1,235
1871 2,531
1881 4,110
1891 4,658


  • Buxton College, previously independent, became a County Grammar School in 1924. In the few years prior to that, pupils from Buxton may have attended the Lady Manners School, in Bakewell, following its reopening in 1896.
  • The Cavendish High School for Girls on Corbar road was constructed in 1912. There is some material in the National Archives (Ref: ED 35/3804), but the material has not been digitized.