The parochial chapelry of Buxton, (anciently written Bawkestanes) well known for its celebrated baths, is situated about 34 miles from Derby, 12 from Bakewell, about 22 from Manchester, and about 160 from London. The manor of Buxton is parcel of the King's manor of the High-Peak, on lease to the Duke of Devonshire. The baths at Buxton are supposed to have been known to the Romans. It appears by Dr. Jones's treatise on the Buxton waters, published in 1572, that the waters were then in high repute, and that Buxton was a place of considerable resort. The great hall for the accomodation of visitors had been erected not long before by the Earl of Shrewsbury. By Queen Elizabeth's permission, reluctantly obtained, the Earl appears to have visited Buxton four times with his illustrious prisoner, Mary Queen of Scots. We find the Queen's favorite ministers, Leicester and Burleigh among the noble visitors at Buxton. About the year 1670, the old hall was taken down, and a more commodious edifice built on its site by William, third Earl of Devonshire. The baths, five in number (two of which are private) are enclosed within this building. The water is drank at a spring called St. Anne's well, where is a small pump-room. The crescent, in which are three hotels, with the ball-room etc. was built at the expence of the late Duke of Devonshire, in the years 1785 and 1786. Near it are extensive stables, enclosing a circular area of 60 yards diameter, and coach-houses capable of containing about three-score carriages.
[Transcription time (includes portion of Bakewell section): 2 hours ten minutes]
[There is a footnote to this section -
Lord Shrewsbury's letters seeking permission to take Mary Queen of Scots to the baths.]
A privilege which Dr. Jones suggested more than two centuries ago as a great advantage to the place, was obtained in the year 1813, by the grant of a weekly market on Saturday, at Buxton, and four fairs, Feb. 3, April 1, May 2, and September 8. The market is for corn and provisions, the fairs for cattle, etc.
There is a fund at Buxton, raised chiefly by a small subscription from the company, for the support of poor persons resorting thither for the benefit of the waters, such persons having brought with them certificated from their parish ministers and medical attendants, of their being proper objects of the charity. It is supported by the contribution of one shilling each, paid by all visitors on their arrival, the collections at two sermons, and casual donations. The funds of course vary, but 340 pounds have been collected from these sources, and above 430 pauper patients have received the benefit of the waters during the season; it appears from Dr. Jones's "Buxtones Bathes Benefyte" already quoted, that in 1572, there as a fixed rate to be paid by all persons resorting to the waters towards a fund, one half of which was for the physician, the other for the benefit of poor bathers. " Always provyded the day of our coming thither bee noted before you enter into the bathes and the day of your departure, with the country of your habitation, condition, or calling, with the infirmityes or cause you came for, in the regyster booke kept of the warden of the bath or the physition, that there shall be appointed, and the benefite you receyved, paying foure-pence for the recording and every yeoman besides 12 pence, every gentleman 3 shillings, every esquior 3s 4d; every knight 6s 8d, every lord and baron 10sh, every vicount 13s 4d, every erle 20sh, every marques 30sh, every duke 3 pouonds 10s, every archbishop 5 pounds, every bishop 40s every judge 20s every doctour and sergeant at law 10s, every chauncellor and utter-barrister 6s 8d, every archdeacon, prebendary, and canon 5s, every minister 12d, every ducches 40s, every marquesses 20s, every countes 13s 4d, every barones 10s, every lady 6s, every gentlewoman 2s, and al for the treasure of the bath, to the use of the poore that only for help do come thither, the one halfe; the other to the physicion, for his residence."
In the old chapel at Buxton are a few monuments of modern date, among which is that of the Honourable Robert Hamilton Lindsey, 1801. In 1728, John Needham gave 200 pounds in aid of Queen Anne's bounty to augment the income of the minister. It was customary for several yars to have divine service performed in the long-room at the hotel, for the accomodation of the company resorting to Buxton, by the minister or some person apointed by him. A new chapel has been lately erected, not far from the stables, in the parish of Hope; it was opened for divine service on the 9th of August, 1812. By the act of 51 George III, the patronage of this chapel and that of Baslow is given to the Duke of Devonshire; and in lieu of this patronage, lands of the value of 95 pounds per annum, and the patronage of the vicarage of Tutbury in Staffordshire, are given to the vicar of Bakewell. There are meeting houses at Buxton for the Independents, and for the Wesleyan Methodists.
The charity school was founded in 1674 by subscription, and is endowed with the greater part of the rent of lands now let at 59 pounds 9s 6d per annum.