A History of the Manor & Advowson of Clifford Chambers
Transcription by David Parsons © 2002
and some account of its possessors
|THE Manor of Clifford before the Conquest was a member of the great Manor of Tewkesbury, and was held by Algar, a great Saxon Thane, who is supposed to have united all his lands and manors in the north of Gloucestershire to that manor. From him it descended to his son Brictric, known in history as Brictric, son of Algar, who held that important manor with its appendages, and various other manors in divers counties, at the time of the Conquest. His romantic history is too well known to be treated of here, suffice it to say that Matilda, the wife of William Duke of Normandy, treasuring up the mortification she had experienced from him many years before in his rejection of her proffered love, determined upon revenge, and maliciously contrived his destruction. The King's grant to her afterwards, of the greater portion of Brictric's large possessions, including the great Lordship of Tewkesbury, would seem to give some colour to the truth of this legend. Before her death, in 1083, she conferred the Manor of Clifford upon Roger de Busli, as appears from the following extract from the Domesday book:- In Clifford are seven hides pertaining to the same manor (Tewkesbury). There are there three carucates in demesne and fourteen villans with five ploughs, and a mill worth 12s., and two acres of meadow. There are between the male and female serfs thirteen [ploughs?] and a church and a priest with one carucate. The value was £8, now £6. This land the Queen gave to Roger de Busli, and it is geldable for four hides in Tewkesbury, To this is added a recital of the other lands and manors under the Manor of Tewkesbury, amounting in the whole to 85 hides, 50 hides being quit and free of all money tax and royal services. This Manor of Tewkesbury, when it was whole, all under one in the time of King Edward, was valued at £100, When Ralph received it was only worth £12, because it was destroyed and disordered. Now it is appraised at £40, yet Ralph pays £50. This manor, Brictric, the son of Algar, held in the time of King Edward. Roger de Busli or Bushley, married a lady named Muriell, but of what family she was we know not. Mr. A. S. Ellis is of opinion that she was in some way connected with Queen Matilda, because the Queen granted the Manor of Sanford, in Devon, jointly to the said Roger and Muriell his wife, and because Muriell was a party with her husband in the grant of Clifford to the Abbot and Convent of Gloucester, she must also have been a party, directly in the Queen's bounty. This, however, though not improbable, does not, necessarily, follow, for the manor having been granted to her husband in fee, the wife would of course have a claim upon it for her dower, for there were not at that time settlements to bar dower. Roger de Bushley, anterior to the date of Domesday, the exact date we do not know, granted the Manor of Clifford to the Abbot and Convent of St. Peter's, but among the donations of land confirmed to the abbey by William the Conqueror at Christmas in the very year of Domesday, is, in Gloucestershire Clifforde, of the gift of Roger de Buseley. And in the abbey list of donations to the house we find "Rogerus de Buseley et Muriel uxor ejus dederunt Clyfford". It must not be supposed that the whole of the revenues of the Religious Houses were carried into a common fund for the use of the community at large. Grants were frequently made by benefactors for specific purposes, but more frequently the abbot and convent, in chapter, appropriated the issues of certain manors and lands for the support of specific offices. Many instances might be easily cited. In this case, at an early date, the Manor of Clifford was appropriated to the Abbot's Chamber, and was administered by the Camerarius, or Chamberlain, and hence it became known as Clifford Chamberer or Chambers. There is not much of interest to be written of the manor during the five centuries, nearly, that it was in the possession of the abbey, but we should not omit to notice a few incidents:- Abbot Hameline, who ruled the convent from 5th December, 1148 to 1179, with the consent of his chapter upon the petition of Reric, son of Illger, granted in fee and inheritance to Walter, son of Hugh de Brithelmetona, a certain virgate of land belonging to Clifford, in Warwickshire, which the said Illger and Reric held in succession free and quit of all services, except aids, at the rent of 5s. 6d. annually to be held by the said Walter on the same conditions. And the same abbot granted to the said Walter, upon the petition of Geoffrey, Dean of Hereford, one hide of land in Clifford which Semannus held, to be held of the convent in fee and inheritance at the annual rent of 20s., to be paid to the Chamberlain, to be free and quit of all exactions, except aids, and service at the abbot's courts. Of greater interest is an extent of all the manors held by the Chamberlain in the year 1266. These consisted of Clifford, Buckland, Guiting and Hinton. The following is the extent of the MANOR OF CLIFFORD. Robertus le Freman tenet quatuor virgatas terrae et duas acras prati per cartam, qualibet virgata existente triginta sex acris. Et tenet per cartam haereditarie. Et reddit inde per annum viginti quinque solidos sex denarios ad duos anni terminos. Et si obierit, dominus habebit equum suum cum hernesio et arma, si quae habuerit. Et si haeres ejus infra aetatem sit, dominus habebit ipsius custodiam et terrae ejus maritagio. Et si legitimae fuerit aetatis in obitu patris sui faciet homagium, et dabit relevium domino suo pro terra sua, et faciet forinseca servitia quae ad terram suam pertinent. Radulphus de Eyiestone tenet unam vigatam terrae continentem quadraginta octo acras, et reddit inde per annum non redditum aliquem, sed sequetur comitatum Warwici et hundredum de Kingtone pro domino, et curiam de Clifforde pro omni servitio. Et si obierit, fiet de herieto et de custodia terrae et haeredis ipsius sicut superius in servitio Roberti le Freman. Henricus filius Fabri tenet unam virgatam terrae continentem quadraginta octo acras [pro] eodem servitio in omnibus sicut praedictus Randulphus. Et si pro defalta dictorum Randulphi et Henrici dominus distringatur, ipsi in toto debent dominum indemnem conservare. Willelmus filius Symonis tenet unam virgatam terrae continentem quadraginta octo acras per cartam, et reddit inde per annum septem solidos ad duos anni terminos. Et sequetur curiam de Clifforde. Et si obierit, fiet in omnibus sicut de praedicto Randulpho. Et faciet, forinseca servitia quse ad terram suam pertinent. Willelmus filius Roberti tenet unam virgatam terre per cartam continentem quadraginta octo acras, et reddit inde per annum septem solidos ad duas anni terminos, et faciet in omnibus sicut praedictus Randulphus. Duo molendina quae solebant reddere sexaginta solidos et sex denarios ad quatuor anni terminos erunt ad Annunciationem Beatae Mariae proximo future in manibus domini, quia tunc terminus praedictorum molendinorum ad firmam positorum praeteriet. Willelmus Molendinarius tenet duodecim acras terrae ad terminum vitae susa et uxoris suae tantum, et reddit inde per annum decem solidos ad quatuor anni terminus. Et facit minutas consuetudines non taxatas quae ad terram suam pertinent. Tota villa de Clifforde dat in communi de annuo redditu pro quadam parva pastura scilicit [in] quadam via sex denarios. Nicholaus Hentelove tenet unam mesuagium cum curtillagio et duas acras terre, et reddit inde per annum tres solidos ad duos anni terminos. Et dabit auxilium secundum numerum animalium. Et dabit pannagium, scilicet pro porco superannato unum denarium, et pro juniori porco obolum, dummodo separatus sit vel habilis ad separandum. Et si braciaverit ad vendendum, dabit duodecim lagenas cervisise ad tonnutum, vel pretium earum. Et debet redimere filium et filiam. Non potest vendere equum nee bovem sine licentia. Et cum obierit dominus habebit melius averium suam nomine haerieti. Adam Textor tenet unum mesuagium cum curtillagio, et reddit inde per annum duodecim denarios ad duos anni terminos. Et levabit foenum domini per quatuor dies, et valet duos denarios. Et faciet tres bederipas, et valent quatuor denarios obolum. Et alias consuetudines faciet sicut praedictus Nicholaus. Willelmus Marescallus tenet unum mesuagium cum curtillagio et unam acram terrae, et reddit inde per annum duodecim denarios ad duos anni terminos. Et faciet in omnibus sicut dictus Nicholaus. Alexander Sinne tenet unum mesuagium cum curtillagio et unam acram terrae, et reddit inde per annum duos solidos sex denarios ad duos anni terminos. Et facit tres bederipas, et valent quatuor denarios obolum. Et adunabit [adjuvabit] et levabit foenum domimi per quatuor dies, et valent duos denarios. Et omnes alias consuetudines faciet sicut praedictus Nicholaus. Hugo fiulius Laurentii tenet unum mesuagium cum curtillagio et unam acram terrae, et reddit inde per annum duos solidos sex denarios ad duos anni terminos. Et facit tres bederipas, et valent quatuor denarios et obolum. Et adunabit [adjuvabit] et levabit foenum domini per quatuor dies, et valent duos denarios. Et omnes alias consuetudines non taxatas faciet dictus Nicholaus. Thomas le Careter tenet unum mesuagium cum curtillagio et unam acram terrae, et reddit inde per annum duos solidos sex denarios ad duos anni terminos. Et adunabit [adjuvabit] et levabit foenum domini per quatuor dies, et valent duos denarios. Et facit tres bederipas, et valent quatuor denarios obolum. Et faciet in omnibus sicut praedictus Nicholaus. Cristina Widye tenet simile tenementum, et facit adunationem [adjuvationem] foeni per quatuor dies, et valent duos denarios. Et facit tres bederipas, et valent quatuor denarios obolum. Et reddit de annuo redditu ad duos anni terminos duos solidos sex denarios. Et in omnibus aliia idem faciet sicut praedictus Nicholaus. Matilda relicta Galfridi tenet simile tenementum, et reddit inde per annum duos solidos sex denarios. Et adunabit [adjuvabitj et levabit foenum domini per quatuor dies, et valent duos denarios. Et faciet tres bederipas, et valent quatuor denarios obolum. Et omnes alias consuetudines non taxatas faciet sicut praedictus Nicholaus. Johannes Lasteles tenet unum mesuagium cum curtillagio et reddit inde per annum duos solidos sex denarios. Et adunabit [adjuvabit] et levabit foenum domini per quatuor dies, et valent duos denarios. Et tacit tres bederipas, et valent quatuor denarios et obolum. Et omnes alias consuetudines non taxatas faciet sicut dictus Nicholaus. Adam Bruggemon tenet unum mesuagium cum curtillagio et cum quadam pastura, et reddit inde per annum duos solidos ad duos anni terminos. Et sustinebit pontem pro omni servitio. Et est ibi quaedam collecta annua de tota villa de Clifforde, scilicet quindecim solidi, et inde liberantur annuatim hundredo de Theuk [esburia] decim solidi, et quinque remanebunt domino. Willelmus de Winnecote tenet quinque cotagia de feodo domini, et percipit inde novem solidos annuos, et nihil inde domino reddit nisi sectam ad curiam de Clifforde. Et debit homagium domino abbati Gloucestriae. Et cum obierit dominus abbas habebit custodiam redditus praedicti, et haeres infra aetatem fuerit, usque ad legitimam aetatem ipsius. Summa certi redditus per annum, praeter firman molendinorum, septuaginta sex solidi sex denarii. Cousuetudinarius; memorandum quod plus tenet. Ricardus de Porta tenet unam virgatam terrae et dimidiam acram prati, virgata existente de triginta sex acris. Et debet arare dimidiam acram ad yemale et dimidiam acram ad Quadragesimale, et illam terram herciare tempore seminis. Et valet in summa quatuor denarios. Et a festo Sancti Michaelis usque ad festum Sancti Petri ad Vincula debet qualibet septimana operari opus manuale per quatuor dies cum uno homine, et valet quaelibet dicta obolum. Et summagiabit apud Gloucestriam bis in anno, et valet octo denarios. Et etiam debet qualibet septimana quinto die vel sexto, pro voluntate domini, summagiare apud Hinetone vel Boclande et valet quaelibet dieta unum denarium obolum. Et lavabet et tondet bidentes domini per duos dies, et valet unum denarium, allocato ei opere illius diei. Et debet falcare pratum domini per quatuor dies, et valet quaelibet dieta ultra operationem debitam unum denarium. Et adunabit [adjuvabit] et levabit foenum domini per tres dies et amplius si necesse fuerit et valet quaelibet dieta obolum, non allocata operatione. Et debet cariare foenum domini per unum diem, et valet duos denarios ultra operationem illius diei manualem, quse extenditur ad obolum. Et debet cariare buscam ubicumque dominus voluerit, et allocabitur ei pro opere unius diei. Et debit facere duas bederipas ante ad Vincula Sancti Petri cum duobus hominibus, et valent tres denarios. Summa valoris operationem ante autumnum quatuor decim solidi sex denarii obolus. Et a festo Beati Petri ad Vincula usque ad festum Beati Michaelis, debet qualibet septimana operari in messe domini per quinque dies cum uno homine, et valet quaelibet dicta unum denarium obolum. Et faciet octo bederipas cum duobus hominibus, et valent in summa duos solidos. Et debit bis in hebdomada per quatuor septimanas cariare bladum domini, et valet quaelibet dicta ultra operationem manualem unum denarium obolum. Et debet portare tassa in grangia domini per unum diem, et valet obolum. Et dabet auxilium secundum quantitatem terrae et numerum ammalium. Et si braciaverit ad vendendum, dabit duodecim legenas cervisiae ad tonnutum vel pretium earum. Et debet pannagiare porcos, scilicet pro porco superannato unum denarium, et pro juniori porco obolum, dummodo fuerit separatus vel habilis ad separandum. Et non potest vendere equum nec bovem sine licentia. Et debet redimere filium et filiam. Et cum obierit, dominus habebit melius averium suum nomine herieti. Summa valoris operationum in autumuo octo solidi et obolus. Walterus filius Yvonis tenet unam virgatam terrae continentem triginta sex acras, et facit in omnibus sicut praedictus Ricardus. Memorandum quod plus tenet. Henricus de Wilicote tenet unam virgatam terrae, et facit in omnibus sicut praedictus Ricardus. Alicia Williames tenet unam virgatam terrae, et facit in omnibus sicut dictus Ricardus. Nicholaus de Middeltone tenet unam virgatam terrae, et facit in omnibus sicut Ricardus. Matilda Adam tenet unam virgatam terrae, et facit in omnibus sicut dictus Ricardus. Relicta Johannis Rondulf tenet unam virgatam terras, et facit in omnibus sicut Ricardus. Memorandum quod plus tenet. Willelmus le Orl tenet unam virgatam terrae, et facit in omnibus sicut praedictus Ricardus. Ricardus Palmerius tenet unam virgatam terrae, et facit in omnibus sicut praedictus Ricardus. Memorandum quod plus tenet. Ricardus de Ovetone tenet unam virgatam terrae, et facit in omnibus sicut dictus Ricardus. Thomas Rawe tenet unam virgatam terrae, et facit in omnibus sicut praedictus Ricardus. Nicholaus le Orl tenet unam virgatam terre, et facit in omnibus sicut praedictus Ricardus. Bertram Belami tenet unam virgatam terrae, et facit in omnibus sicut praedictus Ricardus. Robertus filius Willelmi tenet unam virgatam terrae, et facit in omnibus sicut dictus Ricardus. Sampson Neweman tenet unam virgatam [terrae] et facit in omnibus sicut praedictus Ricardus. Johannes filius Willelmi tenet unam virgatam terrae, et facit in omnibus sicut praedictus Ricardus. Item apud Aileston. Galfridus de Forde tenet unam virgatam continentem viginti octo acras, et debet a festo Sancti Michaelis usque ad festum Sancti Petri ad Vincula qualibet septimana per quatuor dies operari opus manuale cum uno homine, et valet quaelibet dieta obolum. Et summagiabit bis in anno ad Gloucestriam, et valet octo denarios. Et quinto die vel sexto qualibet septimana summagiabit apud Hynetone aut Boclandei et valet quaelibet dieta unam denarium obolum. Et debet arare dimidiam acram et illam herciare tempore seminis, et erit quietus per totam illam hebdomadam qua araverit dimidiam acram. Et levabit et tondet oves domini per duos dies, et valet unum denarium obolum. Et falcabit pratum domini per quatuor dies, et valet quaelibet dieta ultra operationem debitam duos denarios. Et adunabit [adjuvabit] et foenum levabet per quatuor dies, et valet quaelibet dieta ultra operationem debitam obolum. Et cariabit foenum et valet duos denarios ultra operationem manualem illius diei quae extendit[ur] ad obolum. Et debet cariare buscam ubicumque dominus voluerit, et allocabitur ei pro opere diei. Et faciet duas bederipas ante Gulaustum cum duobus hominibus, et valent tres denarios. Et a festo Sancti Petri .ad Vincula usque ad festum Sancti Michaelis debet qualibet septimana operari in messe domini per quatuor dies cum uno homine, et valet quaelibet dieta unum denarium. Et debet quinto die summagiare, et valet dieta unum denarium obolum. Et faciet octo bederipas cum duobus hominibus, et valent in summa duos solidos. Et debet bis in hebdomada per quatuor septimanas cariare bladum domini, et valet dieta ultra operationem manualem unum denarium obolum. Et caetera cuoque faciet sicut dictus Ricardus de Porta. Willelmus de Rye tenet unam virgatam terrae, et facit in omnibus sicut praedictus Galfridus. Thomas le Orl tenet unam virgatam terrae, et facit in omnibus sicut praedictus Galfridus. Rogerus Silvestre tenet unam virgatam terrae, et facit in omnibus sicut dictus Galfridus. Radulphus Frankeleyn tenet unam virgatam [terrae], et facit in omnibus sicut dictus Galfridus. Alicia Mauger tenet unam virgatam terrae, et facit in omnibus sicut praedictus Galfridus. Ricardus Newcomene tenet unam virgatam terrae, et facit in omnibus sicut dictus Galfridus, Robertus de Forda tenet unam virgatam, et facit in omnibus sicut dictus Galfridus. Cristina relicta Carectarii tenet dimidiam virgatam terrae et facit medietatam servitii in omnibus, sicut praedictus Galfridus de Forda. Omnes praedicti consuetudinarii dant annuatim de auxilio viginti solidos, et omnes debent cariare molas, scilicet petras molares ad molendinum domini, vel dabunt in communi tredecim denarios quadrantem. Item apud Clifforde sunt quatuor carucae arantes in dominico et sunt ibidem triginta sex boves, scilicet cullibet carucae octo boves et quatuor ultra. From the above Extent it will be seen that in the ville of Clifford there were five Free tenants. Of these, Robert le Freman held of his inheritance 4 virgates of 36 acres of land, and paid an annual rent of 25s. 6d. If he died the lord had his horse, harness (armour) and arms, and should his heirs be within age he had the custody of their lands and their marriage. If of full age on the death of their father, on doing homage and paying their relief, the lands were restored to them subject to such services as pertained to the same. The other four free tenants held each a virgate of land of 48 acres. One of these, Radulphus de Eyleston, paid no rent, but was bound to do the abbot's service in following the Earl of Warwick, and at the Hundred of Kington for the lord, and at the Court of Clifford for all services; and his heirs on his death were subject to the same conditions as those of Robert le Freman, Henry, the son of the Smith (Fabri) held his virgate of land also rent-free by the same services in all things as Randolph, and if through default of the said Randolph and Henry, the lord suffered loss the same should indemnify him. The other two tenants, William son of Symon and William the son of Robert, held their virgates by charter by the same tenure as Randolph, and each paid rent at 7s. 6d. per annum. There were two mills which produced a rent of 66s. 4d., and William the miller held 12 acres of land for the term of his own life and that of his wife at a rent of 10s. per annum. So that the total issues of the free tenants and the mills amounted to £5 0 10 per annum. There were also nine cottager tenants who held between them 12 acres of land, and paid in the whole 19s. 6d. rent, and one other who held five cottages paid 9s. rent, but he owed no other service to the court of Clifford. He owed homage, however, to the lord abbot at Gloucester, and when he died the abbot had the custody of his heirs and rent aforesaid until they attained full age. The sum of the rents of this class was 76s. 6d., beside the farm of the mills. The customary tenants appear to have been of two classes. Of the first class there were 17, each of whom held one virgate of land, containing 36 acres; and of the other class there were 8, of whom each held a virgate of 28 acres, and the ninth, a woman, held half a virgate, or 14 acres. These were held rent free, but the tenants had to give labour in the cultivation of the demesne, the saving of the crops, and other such services, the value of which for each tenant was estimated at £1 2s. 7d. a year, the woman, in respect to her half virgate, paying half that sum. All the aforesaid customary tenants gave annually of aid 20s., and all owed mill carriage, viz., mill-stones, &c., to the lord's mill or gave in common 13d. At Clifford there were four ploughs for the arable land in demesne, and there were 36 oxen, viz., for each plough 8 oxen and 4 besides. At this date a very large portion of the manor consisted of open fields, and so continued down to the middle of the last century, when they were enclosed and apportioned. We have no records relating to the Abbey of St. Peter's during the 15th and 16th centuries, and must therefore pass over the history of the Manor of Clifford during this long period. It is not likely, however, that any stirring incidents occurred to disturb its quiet course under the government of the abbots down to the eventful reign of Henry VIII.|
We give a tolerably full abstract of this lease as an example of the
usual form of abbey, leases. It will be observed that no fine was
demanded, and it may be concluded that the rent agreed upon was
considered the full value of the manor at this date, but it is well
known that the abbey rents were, generally, very low.
On the dorse of the lease is the following Inventory of the
Implementum of the Demesne, with this title:-
Inventorium sive staurum deliberandum infranominato Willieimo
Raynesford et aliis in ingressu suo infra firmam de Clifford, quod
percipiet de ultimo firmario ibidem existente, vel ejus executoribus
In primis) octodecim quarteria whete.|
Item, viginti quatuor quarteria barly.
Item, sexdecim quarteria pulsae.
Item, tria quarteria otes.
Item, duo oxe waynes.
Item, duo plowes.
Item, octo yron cheynes with yokes and other necessariis belonging to two waynes.
Item, two harrowes for horses, whereof one is called a bastard harrow with yron teeth.
Item, an horse saddle, three colers of lether, three payre of tracys.
Item, a wayne rope.
Item, two sackes, a busshell measure bounde with yron, one forke for hay, two forkes for corne.
Item, a fate.
Item, forty-eight acres twys falowes and thries falowed and douged.
Item, a trowe of stone for swyne.
Item, a great mortar of stone.
Item, a coffre.
Item, a tabulborde, a payre of trestelles.
Item, a ledon furneys.
Item, all the haye of the medowes of the demaynes growing.
Item, all the strawe and chaffe remayning in the garners at that tyme.
We are informed by the Rev. Wm. Bazeley that, as might be expected, there is a large number of leases copied into the Abbey Registers in the Chapter Library at Gloucester, which the editor of the Historia et Cartularium Monasterii Gloucestrice did not consider of sufficient public interest to notice in that work. Mr. Bazeley says there are no fewer than eighty deeds copied into the registers relating to the conveyance of land in the Manor of Clifford Chambers alone, with the names of witnesses and dates of the 14th and 15th centuries. We pass these by. They doubtless were chiefly leases to farm. There are one or two, however, of later date it will be desirable to mention. In the register of Abbot Parker, Vol II., is recorded a release granted by William, abbot, and the convent, dated 24th July, 1537 (29th Henry VIII.), of the site of the manor, &c., to the above-mentioned William Rainsford and Johanna his wife, and to Charles, Gaudiosa and Elianora their son and daughters, and to John and Walter Aldersfull, of Knightwick, co. Worc., and to William Rainsford their cousin, son of John Bainsford, of Michel Teme, in co. Oxon, from the feast of St. Michael, 1534, for the term of 80 years, if either of them should so long live, at the rent of £17 per annum. The reversionary interest still rested in the abbot and convent, and, on the 3rd Mar. 1537-8, in the same regnal year, by Indenture under the Common Seal, they demised to John A Combe; of Stratford-upon-Avon, gent., the reversion of the site of the same manor with appurtenances. All these leases would seem to be entirely ignored, for what reason does not appear, for on the 10th October following (30th Henry VIII.) the abbot and convent granted a lease of the whole manor, with all its appurtenances and franchises (the advowson of all churches, chapels, and chantries excepted) for the term of ninety and nine years to John Russell, of Strensham, co. Wore., Knt., and Jerome Cooke, of Clifford Chambers, gent., their heirs and assigns, to commence from the feast of St. Michael then last past, at the annual rent of £35; and there is an extract from the Minister's Account of the 3rd Edward VI. shewing that that sum was received and accounted for by the minister of that year as the farm of the manor, and it continued to be held by the said parties down to the reign of Queen Elizabeth. In the 4th year of that Sovereign, however, by letters patent dated 1st May, 1562, the Queen, in consideration of the sum of £1,260 paid into the Court of Augmentation, granted to Charles Rainsford, Esq., all the Manor and Lordship of Clifford, alias Clifford Chamberer, with all its rights, liberties, franchises, etc., and appurtenances, late in the tenure of John Russell, Knt., and Jerome Cooke, gent., for a certain term of years not as yet expired, and also all those lands, &c., called the hamlet of Ayleston, in the parishes of Ayleston and Clifford, in the counties of Warwick and Gloucester, of the annual value of £35, beyond reprises, reserving all lead and all advowsons of churches, chapels, &c., to have and to hold to the said Charles Rainsford, his heirs and assigns for ever by the service of the 20th part of one knight's fee for all rents, services, and demands whatsoever. Charles Rainsford was twice married. By his first wife Jane, dau. of John Morgan, of Camberton, co. Worcester, by whom he had issue nine children -1. Thomas; 2. Hercules, who succeeded him at Clifford, and was executor to his father's will; 3. Morgan, living in 1578; Jane, who married John Prouse, of Slaughter, co. Glouc.; Elizabeth, wife of Robert Wincott, of Kensham, co. Oxon, both living in 1578; Eleanor, who on 20th February, 8th Eliz., being then 40 years of age, surrendered to her father what interest she had, or was supposed to have, in the manor; Margaret being unmarried 1578. His second wife was Frances, daughter of Henry Wyndsore, who survived him, but had no issue. On 31st May, 10th Eliz., (1568) Charles Rainsford by his Indenture conveyed all his estates in Clifford to certain trustees to the use of himself for life, remainder to Hercules Rainsford his son and the heirs males of the said Hercules for ever. And, at Clifford, on the 26th April, 20th Elizabeth (1578), he made his last will, in which he names his daughter Margaret, son Morgan, and a certain Ambrose Rainsford, whom we have failed to identify, and appoints his son Anthony Rainsford and his (testator's) wife Frances, executors to his will, and died on the 30th of the same month. On an Inquisition taken at Stratford-upon-Avon, 18th December, following under a writ diem clausit extremum dated the 13th September previously, the jurors found that the said Charles on the day on which he died did not hold any lands or tenements in Rot. Pat., 4th Eliz., Part 2. the County of Warwick of the Queen or of any other person. There is no Inquisition extant for Gloucestershire. Thomas Bainsford, the eldest son of Charles, appears to have married a certain Alice and to have resided at Clifford, and had by her three children; Alice, John and Frances. Frances died in 1576 and Alice in 1578. John was not baptized until 1599, and we do not know anything further concerning him. Hercules Bainsford, who succeeded his father at Clifford, married Elizabeth, daughter of Robert Parry, of Denbigh, by whom he had issue Henry and Elizabeth. The latter became the wife of Edward Marrow, son and heir of Samuel Marrowe, of Barkwell, co. Warr. She died 29th Oct., 1601, and was buried at Clifford, where there is a Brass to her memory (see Plate V.) Hercules Rainsford himself died 2nd Aug. 1583, intestate, aged 39, and administration of his effects was granted the following day to Elizabeth his relict. There is a Brass in Clifford Church commemorating both (see Pl. IV). The Inquisition taken at Camped, on 11th Dec. 1583, is a document of considerable interest. It begins by reciting the convent leases of 16th July, 24th Henry VIII., and 3rd March, 29th Henry VIII., as if they had been carried into effect, but says nothing of that of the 30th Henry VIII. to Sir John Russell and Jerome Cooke, who, we have seen from record evidence, held the lease on to the reign of Queen Elizabeth, and it had not expired when the manor was granted in fee to Charles Rainsford. It recites also the settlement deed of the said Charles, and his will which we have noticed above, and the jurors say further that the aforesaid Hercules took to wife a certain Elizabeth, who was still alive at Clifford, as was also Frances the relict of his father; and they say further that Henry Rainsford is the son and nearest heir of the said Hercules, and on the 18th instant will be 8 years of age. Lastly they say that the said Manor of Clifford is held of the Queen in capite by the 20th part of one knight's fee, and that its value per annum, beyond reprises, is £18. On the 2nd August, following the death of Hercules Rainsford, an extent was taken by Christopher George, Esq., the Queen's Feodary, to ascertain the value of all the manors, mesuages, lands and tenements of the said Hercules which have descended unto Henry Rainsford, his son and next heir, of the age of 8 years the 18th of December next after the finding of the office, taken at Campeden the 11th December, 26th of the Queen (1583). First it is found that the site of the Manor of Clifford Chamberer, with the houses, edifices, buildings, stable, lands, two water-mills, one orchard, two gardens, divers closes, meadows, leasowes feedings, and pastures to the same belonging in the counties of Gloucester and Warwick, are worth by the year, £16. And it is stated that Frances, late the wife of Charles Rainsford, deceased, is now living and doth hold part of the said lands for her life in consideration of her jointure, and that the same Hercules died seized of certain tenements, parcel of the said manor, of the value of £6 a year, included in the said sum of £16. There were two free tenants who paid rents of assize, amounting together to 10d. per annum, two conventionary tenants, who, together, paid a rent of £2 9s. Eleven copyhold tenants who, together, paid rents amounting to £8 9s., and twelve tenants at will who paid annually £2 15s. 10d., making the total value of the manor £29 13s. 8d. (miscast as £29 13s. 10d.), out of which was payable an annuity of £13 6s. 8d. to Thomas Rainsford for the term of 60 years if the said Thomas, or any woman the said Thomas should marry, or either of them should so long live; and it is stated that the said manor is held of the Queen in capite by the service of the 20th part of a knight's fee, and that Elizabeth, late the wife of the said Hercules, is still alive. Dated 15th June, 26th Elizabeth. Six months after the death of Hercules Rainsford, his relict Elizabeth, who, the day following his death, hastened to obtain letters of administration to his effects, had already contracted a second marriage with William Barnes of Taulton, in the parish of Tredington, co. Worc., who by an Indenture dated 10th June, (1584) made a post nuptial settlement by which he conveyed to Sir Henry Sidney and other trustees certain houses and closes of land in Wincott, in the parishes of Clifford and Quinton, known as a moiety of the Manor of Wincott, and also all the Manor of Tadlington, alias Taulton, to the use of the said William Barnes and Elizabeth his wife, and the survivor of them, remainder to the heirs of the body of the said William in tail male, in default remainder to the said William, his heirs and assigns for ever. And so, for the Manor of Taulton under the same limitations; and that the said William and his heirs will indemnify the said Elizabeth against all charges on the moiety of the Manor of Wincote and the Manor of Taulton, except the estate of Alice Barnes mother of the said William, and the rents and charges created on the latter by the will of William Barnes, deceased, and the rents and services due to the Queen and their other chief lords; and further, if it shall happen that at any time during the life of the said Elizabeth the residue of the estate for a term of years by the lease of the Abbot and Convent of Gloucester to John Combes gent., deceased, should fall into the hands of the said William he will convey the same to the aforesaid trustees to the uses of the said William and Elizabeth for life, remainder to Henry Rainsford, son and heir of the aforesaid Hercules and the said Elizabeth, and the heirs of the body of the said Henry, in default to the heirs of the body of Elizabeth, daughter of the said Hercules and Elizabeth, in default remainder to the executors of the said William and Elizabeth the mother. And the said William further covenants that after the coming of age, or the marriage of the said Elizabeth the daughter, he will bestow upon her the sum of £500, and that he, the said William, after the said Henry Rainsford shall have attained the age of 24 years will deliver to him all such buttons of gold and silver, and the best salt of silver, with a cover, which were parcel of the goods of the aforesaid Hercules Rainsford deceased. We do not know the precise date of the grant of the wardship and marriage of the youthful heir of Hercules Rainsford to William Barnes, whether before or after the marriage of the said William with the lad's mother, but it was within a year of the death of his father, for William Barnes held, on behalf of his ward, courts of the manor in the 26th year of Elizabeth. There is every reason to believe that he treated his ward with great kindness, and protected his interest as if he had been his own son. Henry Rainsford did homage and had livery of seizen of his estate, and at the King's coronation, 23rd July, 1603, he received the honour of knighthood. He married Anne, only daughter of Sir Henry Goodier, of Polesworth, co. Warwick. We do not know the exact date, but it was soon after 1595, when, as one of the executors, she proved her father's will, dated 26th January, 1594-5, and proved by her the 6th May following.  Her second son was baptized in 1599. On the 5th December, 1616, he received letters patent authorising him to impark and make a free warren of all or any part of his lands in Clifford, alias Clifford Chambers, and in Aleston, alias Alveston, in co. Warwick, and the sheriff was directed to levy £10 upon any person who should hunt, &c., within the said manor over and above the penalty of £10 reserved by act of parliament for hunting in parks, Ac., to be paid to the said Sir Henry Rainsford, his heirs and assigns for ever. The site of the park is well known and it called "The Park" to this day, but it has been long disparked. He died 27th Jany., 1621-2, leaving issue a son and heir named Henry, who succeeded him, born in 1599, as stated above; his elder brother, named William, having died v.p., and a third brother, called Francis, of whom presently. By letters patent, dated 20th November, 1623, he received special livery of seizin in the Manor of Clifford and in all the lands which were heretofore enjoyed by Sir Henry Rainsford his father, Hercules Rainsford his grandfather, or Charles Rainsford his great- grandfather, or any other person in trust for them. He married, cir. 1619, Elianora, one of the two daughters and coheirs of Robert Boswell, of Eastwick, in the parish of Combe, co. Southhants, by which marriage he acquired, Eastwick. She died and was buried at Combe, 18th August, 1637. He was knighted at Tutbury, 17th August, 1624, and was burgess in Parliament for Andover. He died 10th April, 1641. In the Inquisition taken at Cirencester on 3rd May, 1641, before Thomas Harte, Esch., and a jury, the jurors found that long before his death the said Sir Henry was seized in his demesne as of fee tail to him and heirs male of his body of the Manor of Clifford, in default of such issue remainder to Francis Rainsford his brother, under like limitation, in default of such issue, remainder to the right heirs of the said Sir Henry. The jurors also found that he was seized of and in free warren in all his lands in the parish of Clifford, at Clifford Chambers, and in the Manor (sic) of Aleston, alias Alveston, in the county of Warwick, and also in the advowson of the Church of Clifford. And they say the said Henry Rainsford died 10th April last past, and that Henry Rainsford, Esq., is son and heir of the said Henry in the writ named and on the 11th May last past was aged 18 years. Sir Francis Rainsford, the youngest son of Sir Henry by Anne Goodere, was of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields, Middlesex. He was knighted at Theobald's, 22nd June, 1633. He married Mary, daughter of Henry Ewer, of the Lea, co. Hertford. Henry Rainsford, the son and heir of the second Sir Henry, though so young on his father's death, was quickly involved in the political troubles of the age in which it was his misfortune to live. The great rebellion broke out very soon after his father's death, and Henry Rainsford, like his neighbours in this part of Gloucestershire, who, as pointed out by Mr. Tomes, ante Vol. XII., p. 292, were eminently loyal, appears to have entered with ardour into the King's cause, and, like a large number of the other gentry of the country who staked their lives and lands thereon and lost the stake to the ruin of themselves and their families, he brought ruin upon himself. His first step seems to have been to compound with the Court of Wards for his wardship for £600, for the payment of which sum the whole of his estates was made over by the said court to Mr. Job Dighton, to whom, on 15th February, 1641-2, was granted his wardship and marriage to the ward's use for the sum of £300, of which £100 was paid and £200 remained unpaid, and the lands were charged with it, and a lease of the lands was granted by the court to the said Job, at the low rent of £100 per annum. Being in arms for the King at Oxford he was made prisoner, but effected his escape and petitioned the committee to be allowed to compound for his delinquincy, <sic> for which purpose he was required to render the particulars of his estate both real and personal. In this document it is stated that, under a deed dated 1st February, 17th James (1619-20), his father was seized to him and the heirs male of his body of the Manors of Clifford and Ayleston in the counties of Gloucester and Warwick, and of divers lands and tenaments <sic> thereto belonging of the yearly value before the troubles of £300. The manor and lands are chargeable under a deed dated 7th November, 5th Charles (1629), with an annuity of £80 per annum to the Lady Mary Rainsford, late wife of Sir Francis Rainsford, deceased, for the term of her life. Besides which engagements the said Henry Rainsford is indebted to several persons in the sum of £1000. He has also six brothers and sisters to be provided for out of the estate. It is certified that he took the solemn league and covenant on the 30th October, 1646, and on 1st October, 1649, he paid £900 for his composition. By Indenture dated 1st April, 21st Charles (1645), Henry Rainsford had granted to Job Dighton, described as of the Middle Temple, Esq., and Richard Quiney, citizen and druggester, of London, the Manor and Lordship of Clifford, with appurtenances, and the Hamlet of Ailston, with appurtenances, together with the advowson of the Church of Clifford, to hold to the said Job Dighton, his executors and assigns, for the term of 99 years, if the said Job so long should live, at the yearly rent of one pepper-corn if demanded, under certain provisoes of trust, By a further Indenture dated 1st February, 22nd Charles 1646-7, Henry Rainsford of the one part, and the aforesaid Job Dighton and Richard Quiney of the other part, recites the above abstracted Indenture of 1st April, 21st Charles, and witnesseth that the said Henry Rainsford for the consideration mentioned in the before recited Indenture, and the sum of £578 18s, 3d., all of which upon account made between them amounts to the sum of £1371 3s. 10d, hath remised and released and for ever quit-claimed for himself and his heirs unto the said Job Dighton and Richard Quiney the said trust provisoe in the said Indenture mentioned, with the intent to make the said Indenture absolute for the full term of 99 years, and after the expiration of the said term to revert to the use and benefit of the said Henry Rainsford and his heirs, and to none other use and purpose whatsoever; and it is further declared that a fine suffered by the said Henry Rainsford, in Trinity term preceding to Francis Smith and John Beddowe, of certain lands included in the aforesaid Indenture, was done for the release and extinguishing of the aforesaid Indenture, and the said Henry Rainsford for himself and his heirs covenants to and with the said Job Dighton and Richard Quiney quiet possession and free egress to and from the said premises during the remainder of the said term of 99 years. By Indenture dated 8th December, 1649, made between Henry Rainsford, of Clifford Chambers, Esq., of the one part; and Job Dighton, of the Middle Temple, Esq., and Henry Dighton of the same place, gent., and Thomas Warren of the other part, the said Henry Rainsford, in consideration of several sums of money therein mentioned, amounting to £4,450, conveyed to the said Job and Henry Dighton, their heirs and assigns, his reversionary interest in all the Manor of Clifford, together with the advowson of the church, the mills, free warren, &c., with all its appurtenances. Thus the possession of the Manor of Clifford passed into another name and other blood. Henry Rainsford having sold his estates went beyond the seas, as appears by certain proceedings in chancery dated 10th July, 1649, and died in East Indies unmarried. Administration of his effects was granted 5th December, 1659, to Francis Rainsford his brother. This Francis was of the Tower of London. He married and had issue, but it is not our purpose to carry the descent any further.
|| In one case they are quartered with: az. 3 falcons ducally crowned or, and bearing on an escutcheon of pretence the arms of Keyt. These are clearly for Richard Dighton who married Alice, dau. and coh. of Francis Keyt, of Hidcote, which Richard died in 1738. On the second hatchment is Dighton quartering Keyt and impaling Selman and Lister quarterly. This is for Francis Keyt Dighton, the eldest son of the above Richard (see ped. page 60). There is no monument or inscription now remaining in commemoration of this family. Job Dighton married Anne, daughter of William Harswell, of Coventry, and died in 1659. He left two sons, Job and Henry, both named in his will dated 21st September in that year. He bequeathed to the latter the arrears of rent due from certain property which he possessed at Loughborough, co. Leic,, which had not been paid for above twenty years, and his furniture and books in his chambers in the Temple. He gave to his son Job a sum of £100 due from Henry Rainsford, secured by a judgment bond of twice that amount. Job, the son, however, died in 1669 unmarried and intestate, and administration of his effects was granted to his brother Henry, who succeeded his father at Clifford, and by Sarah his wife, daughter of Dr. Richard Bayly, Principal of St. John's College, Oxford, and Dean of Salisbury, had issue Richard Dighton, son and heir, who succeeded to the Manor of Clifford and presented to the church in 1729. He married Alice, daughter and coheir of Francis Keyt, of Hidcote, in the parish of Mickleton, through which marriage he acquired, on the death of the said Francis, that estate and other lands. He had issue Francis Keyt, son and heir, and three other sons, Richard, Henry and John, and five daughters. Richard and Henry died without issue. Of John we shall write presently. Richard Dighton (the father) died in 1738, and was succeeded in his estates by his eldest son Francis Keyt, who presented to the rectory in 1732 and 1735, during his father's lifetime. He married Sarah, only daughter of Daniel Selman, of Old Ford, in Bow, co. Middlesex, a Turkey merchant, by Sarah his wife, daughter and heir of Matthew Lister, of the same place. He left issue Lister Dighton, his son and heir, and two daughters, Alice and Arabella. He sold, in 1769, under the direction of his father's will, Hidcote Dartham and the Mikleton lands, acquired by his grandfather's marriage, to Morgan Graves, of the last named place, Esq, In 1776 he presented to the Rectory of Clifford as he did again in 1787. This benefice becoming void in 1793 by the resignation of John Brewer, the then rector, he presented his nephew, Arthur Annesley, clerk, thereto. Lister Dighton married Mary, daughter of ..... Foulds, of Bow, co. Middlesex, but died in 1807 without issue. By his will, dated 2nd December, 1805, he directs that his body shall be buried in a plain and secret manner in the family vault in Clifford church, as near to his late wife as may be. Among other legacies he gives to Mrs. Mary, widow of Bertie Egerton, late of Wednesbury, co. Oxon, clerk, deceased, an annuity of £10 per annum for life. To Lister Mason, the godson of his late wife, £50, and to Lucy Mason, his own god-daughter, £50. To Elizabeth Dighton, widow of John Dighton, Esq., deceased, £1000. To James Lucy Dighton, Esq., £200. To his (testator's) niece, Arabella Annesley, £1000. To John Robert Mason, of Alveston, £50, and to Mrs. Mason, his wife, a mourning ring. To the Rector and Churchwardens of Clifford, £20, to be placed out at interest, and the money arising therefrom to be laid out in bread to be given to the poor on St Thomas's day. He gives and devises to his nephew, the Rev. Arthur Annesley, all his capital mansion house, (see Pl. I. frontispiece) manor, mills, messuages, &c., with all it rights, royalties, liberties, privileges, and appurtenances, and all other his real estate, wheresoever, to hold all the said estate to his said nephew, Arthur Annesley, his heirs and assigns for ever, and appoints his said nephew residuary legatee. The pedigree of Dighton, of Clifford, is in the Annesley pedigree post page. The property, after remaining vested in the family of Dighton for five descents, extending over a period of nearly of 160 years, was carried by marriage into another name, but before following it we desire to add a few words respecting the family of Dighton which has now been settled in Gloucestershire about 250 years. John Dighton, fourth son of Richard Dighton by Alice Keyt, was of Staples' Inn, London. He married Elizabeth, daughter of John Hunter, of Fort St. George, in the East Indies, and by her became the founder of the existing families of Dighton, of Gloucestershire.|
The above is an extract from:
A History of the Manor & Advowson of Clifford Chambers
and some account of its possessors
by Sir John Maclean, F.S.A., V.P.
Vice-President of the Royal Archæological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland,
Hon. Member of the Royal Institution of Cornwall, &c.