MANCHESTER, a city, a township, a district, a parish, and a diocese in Lancashire. The city stands at an intersection of Roman roads, on the rivers Irwell, Irk, and Medlock, at the termini of varions canals, and at a convergence of railways, 31 miles W by N of Liverpool, 85 NNW of Birmingham, and 188¼ NW of London. Railways go from it, in all directions, to all parts of the kingdom; canals give it water communication with the eastern and the western seas, and with most parts of England; and conveyances, of all suitable kinds, connect it with places not touched by railway or canal.

History:- The site of the city was originally a dense forest. A Celtic tribe, called Setantii or Sistuntii, are supposed to have taken possession of it about 500 years before the Christian era, to have remained unmolested on it for about five centuries, and to have been suddenly invaded and subdued by the tribe of Brigantes from Yorkshire. The Romans, under Agricola, subjugated the Brigantes in the year 79; and they are supposed to have immediately constructed four fortalices on the site of Manchester. The place is said to have been called Mancenion by the Br Mtons; it was called Mancuninm or Mamucium by the Romans; and it afterwards took the names of Manigceastre and Mamecestre, respectively among the Saxons and at the Norman conquest. A regular Roman town is supposed to have been formed near the principal Roman fortalice, in the years 80, 81, and 82; and was the meeting-point of four principal Roman roads. The town is believed to bave extended from Castlefield northward and eastward, and to have been bounded by the line of the present Aldport-lane and Tickle-street. Many Roman remains, including some urns and other pottery, numerous coins, and an altar, have been found within these limits. A manufacture of woollen is supposed to have been introduced, by the Britons, to Mancenion from Gaul, and to have been improved by the Romans. The Britons regained possession, after a period of about four centuries, at the retiring of the Romans; but they were soon obliged to give way to the Saxons. Manchester figures in 540 as a town of Northumbria; and seems to have then been a frontier place between the Northumbrians on the N and E and the Mercians on the S. A thane was placed over it early in the 7th century, and is said to have resided on the site of Chetham's hospital. Christianity had then made progress among the Saxons; and a parish church appears to have been built at Manchester, soon after Oswald, king of Northumbria, founded York cathedral. The Danes made severe attacks on the town, pillaged it, slew many of its inhabitants, and reduced much of it to ruin; yet met with determined and long resistance. Salford had then comein to existence as a separate town; sustained less injury than Manchester from the Danes; and, at the division of England into counties and hundreds in 890, was made the head of the hundred in which Manchester is situated. Manchester was thus politically depressed below Salford; but, about thirty years afterwards, it was rebuilt and partly fortified, re-assumed its original importance, and extended its bounds. A principal town-mill then stood near the quondam Roman station at Castlefield; took afterwards the name of Knute-mill from King Canute, who is supposed to have passed through Manchester in his march toward Cumberland against the Scots; and has bequeathed its name, in the altered form of Knott-mill, to the spot on which it stood. Another town-mill, known as the Schoolmill, stood on the Irk, and gave rise to the name there of Old Millgate. Manchester figures in Domesday book, and had then two churches. The manor had been included, at the Norman conquest, in the extensive territory given to Roger of Poictou; it had been settled as a separate manor, shortly after the Domesday survey, in favour of Albert de Gresley; it continued with the De Gresleys till the time of Edward II.; it passed then to the Delawarrs, and continued with them till the 29th year of Henry VII.; it then passed to the West's, and continued with them till the time of Sir William West, who was created Baron Delawarr by Queen Elizabeth; it was sold by that nobleman's son in 1579, for 3,000, to John Lacye, Esq.., of London; it was re-sold by Lacye in 1596, for 3,500, to Sir Nicholas Mosley, also of London; it remained with the Mosleys till 1845, though an abortive attempt was made to sell it to the corporation in 1808. and it was finally sold in 1845, by Sir Oswald Mosley, to the corporation, for 200,000.

Manchester dates its main prosperity from the introduction of improved woollen manufactures, and the settlement of Flemings, in the time of Edward III. The manufactures eventually took the name of Manchester cottons, but really, for a long time, were all woollen's. A law was enacted by Edward III., prohibiting every person from wearing any cloth except of English fabric; and that law operate powerfully to develop and sustain the Manchester manufactures. Cotton was first brought to England from Smyrna some time prior to 1501; and it appears to have become considerably worked in Manchester towards the close of the 16th century. Manchester rose slowly but steadily into repute and magnitude as a clothing town; and, at the time when Leland te, it was described by. him as "the fairett, quickest, and most populous town in Lancashire.'' An act of 33 Henry.VIII. states that "the inhabitants of Manchester have obtained riches and wealthy livings, and have employed many artificers and poor folks, "inducing "strangers from Ireland and elsewhere," to bring their "Limene, yarn, wool, and other necessary wares," to sell there. The. privilege of sanctuary was given to the town in 1540, but was removed next year to Chester. The manufactures appear to have rapidly increased in the latter of Henry VIII's reign, and in the three following reigns. An act was passed in the 6th year of Edward VI., ordering that "all cottons called Manchester, Lanceshire, and Chester cottons," should be of certain dimensions and weight; and another was passed in the 8th of Elizabeth, requiring that the cottons should bear the seal of the Queen's aulneger. A brief account, written in 1650, describes the manufactures of Manchester as "woollen friezes, fustians, sackcloths, mingled stuffs, caps ankles, tapes, points., in the production of which, men, women, and children were employed.'' But the course of prosperity was temporarily interrupted at several periods, in 1565, 1587, 1590, 1605, and 1645, by visitations of plague, supposed to have been occasioned by cotton imported in large quantities from Smyrna. The visitation of 1605 destroyed about one-fifth of the population; and that of 1645 was still more severe, causing complete suspension of trade, entire desertion of the mills, and making such havoc among the people that collections of money for the relief of the survivors were taken in all the surrounding towns and in the metropolis, and 1000 was voted by parliament. A great dearth also occurred in 1586, and a great flood in 1616.

Manchester declared against the King at the commencement of the civil wars of Charles I.; it Was approached by Lord Strange, at the head of a force, on behalf of the King, in the spring of 1642, but refused to admit him; it immediately underwent fortification with mud walls and with chains and posts to resist attacks by ank great force; it was assaulted by Lord Strange, on 5 July, and again ten days afterwards, with the elect of his being completely repulsed; and it was besieged by him, with a force of 5,000 men, during six days in September, but compelled him to retire. A depression in its trade was caused by the rebellion of 1715, but was of short duration. The rebel army of Prince Charles Edward entered it on 25 Nov. 1745, raised a regiment in it of about 300 men, left it on 3 Dec. in progress to Derby, re-entered it in retreat on 8 Dec., levied a contribution of 5,000 on its inhabitants, and finally left it on the 9. A serious riot, occasioned by dearth of provisions, occurred in 1757. A great impetus to trade was given by the making navigable the rivers Mersey and Irwell, from Liverpool to Manchester, under an act passed in 1720; and by the formation of the Bridgewater canal in 1758-61. An earthquake, which so shook the ground as to make the bells of several churches ring, was felt in 1777. A volunteer corps of about 6,000 men was embodied in 1803, to stand prepared against the threatened invasion by the French. Serious disputes between the employers and the workmen occurred in 1808,1812, and 1818; and they ultimately took a political form, and culminated in two great radical meetings at St. Peter's Field in 1819. The second of these meetings took place on 16 Aug.; was attended by about 60,000 persons; and was compulsorily dispersed by the yeomanry cavalry corps, with the effect that eight persons were killed, about 600 wounded, and several of the speakers imprisoned. Severe destitution prevailed among the operatives in 1825-6; thousands, for the sake of partial relief, were employed on the roads; about 14,000 received eleemosynary assistance in soup, meal, and other food; and not a few broke eventually into riot, with effects of bloodshed and capital crime. Similar events occurred also in 1829. The cholera made fearful ravages in 1832-3. The Bank of Manchester stopped payment in 1842, and occasioned losses to the amount of 800,000. Lord John Russell, then prime minister, visited the city in 1850; and Queen VIctoria Visited it in 1851 and 1857. The cotton famine of 1861-5 threw large numbers of the operatives out of employment, and gave a strong check to the progress of manufacture, yet was not attended by any disturbance of the public peace; and it eventually yielded to the importation of cottons from India, Egypt, and Brazil, and to the cessation of the American war.

Among distinguished natives or residents of Manchester have been, Lord Delawarr, rector of the parish and founder of the collegiate church, who died in 1427; Hugh Oldham, founder of the Manchester grammar school and bishop of Exeter, who is supposed to have been a native, and died in 1519; John Bradford, a native, who was martyred at Smithfield in 1555; Dr. John Dee, a resident in 1596, warden of Manchester, and accused of necromancy, who died in 1608; John Booker, a native in 1601, an astrologer, the author of the "Bloody Almanac," who died in 1667; John Byrom, poet and stenographer, born at Kersall in 1691; Francis, Duke of Bridgewater, who died in 1803; Rev. John Whitaker, a native, an antiquary, the author of the "History of Manchester," who died in 1808; Dr. Worthington, a native and a theologian, who died in 1671; Faulkner, a native, a resuit, the author of the "History of Patagonia," who died in 1794; Thomas Henry, a celebrated chemist, resident in 1764; Dr. Wm. Henry, son of the preceding, and also a celebrated chemist; Dr. Dalton, the discoverer of the atomic theory., a resident upwards of 40 years; Barritt, the antiquary, a resident; Farringdon, the painter, a resident; the first Sir Robert Peel, many years a merchant in Manchester, where he accumulated an enormous fortune, and who died in 1830; Miss M. J. Jewsbury, or Mrs. Fletcher, a resident, the anthor of "Lays of Leisure Hours" and other poetical works, who died In 1833; Miss G. E. Jewsbury her sister, novelist; Henry III Liversege, the painter, born here in 1803; Charles Swain, the poet, born here in 1803; T. K. Harvey, author of various poetical works; W. H. Ainsworth, a native, the author of "Jack Sheppard" and other works; Thomas de Quincey, author of "Confessions of an English Opium Eater," and of many other works, said to have been born in the house known as Princess-tavern in Cross-street, corner of Princess-street; Samuel Bamford, a resident, poet and prose writer; J.Prince, a resident, poet; Miss Isabella Varley, (Mrs. G. L. Banks), a native, poet and novelist; Mrs. Hawkshaw, a resident, poet; and Mrs. Marshall a resident, and the author of several popular juvenile works. Manchester gives the title of Duke to the family of Montagu.

Site and Structure:- The city stands partly on a plain, and partly in the valley of the Irwell. The country around it, for miles, is slightly undulating, but chiefly flat. Some beautiful walks are in the immediate neighbourhood; but objects of art, rather than any features of nature, adorn even the best portions of the environs. The extensive circumjacent tract, as seen from the nearest range of hill, looks not a little charming, but does so, not from its proper characters as a landscape, but from its profusion of groves, villas, mansions, factories, and towns, with Manchester in the centre, and Stockport, Ashton, Oldham, Bolton, Bury, and Middleton in the distances. A stranger approaching the city, by road or by railway, bids farewell to the amenities of open scenery, makes speedy acquaintance with the smoke and noise of factories, sees the very sky changing from a clear to a greyish blue, becomes surrounded with crowded indications of traffic and manufacture, and passes at last into what seems almost a chaos of mills and warehouses. The city has numerous and extensive suburbs, but is itself compact and dense. The river Irwell, in a tortuous course, separates Manchester proper on the E bank from Salford on the W, in the same sort of way m which the Thames separates London from Southwark; and the rivers Irk and Medlock intersect Manchester proper, in courses to the Irwell. The city, inclusive of Salford, but exclusive of some suburbs, measures about 2 miles from E to W, and somewhat less from N to S. The streets amount to upwards of 800; few of them are spacious, or of any considerable length; very many are mere lanes or alleys; and great numbers are intersected by casuals or streams, or communicate with one another by small bridges. Yet all, or most, are well paved; multitudes run in straight lines and intersect at right angles; the modern ones, especially in the S, are generally well built, and of pleasing aspect; some of the main ones, in the central portions, are wide and magnificent; and a large proportion borrow splendour either from public buildings or from the best shops and warehouses. The older portions of the city, and the portions most occupied by factories, are far from pleasant to lovers of the beautiful; yet some vistas or places, such as in Piccadilly, in Oxford Road, in King-street, in St. Ann's-square, in St. Ann's. street, in Exchange-street, in Victoria-street, and in Market-street, are eminently fine or striking; while the best suburbs, containing the residences of the wealthiest merchants, and forming a sort of fashionable West End, exhibit beautiful grounds, handsome crescents, and long rows of ornate villas, with accompaniments of lawns, shrubberies, and spacious gardens.

Great improvements have, for many years, been in progress in the city. Outskirts which were straggling, unsightly, or rural, are now covered with ornamental suburbs. The very field of the great disastrous public meeting of 1819, is now graced with one of the chief and most ornate of the public buildings. Many of the old streets have been modernized; and multitudes of crumbling, plain, or ungainly houses have been replaced by handsome new ones. A fine architectural taste, sometimes soaring into the ambitions, has pervaded the planning of new streets, and the erection of new buildings, both private and public. Warehouses are a great feature, forming huge ranges, and filling streets after streets in all directions; and they present a large aggregate of beauty and magnificence, both in individual piles, and in extensive street facades. Market-street, running eastward from Market-place to Piccadilly, was so late as about 1827 a mere disagreeable lane, only wide enough to admit one ordinary-sized vehicle, but is now, both for spaciousness and for splendour, the first street in the city. Mosley-street, running south-westward from Piccadilly to St. Peter's church, was not many years ago an uninteresting place of private dwellings, but is now mainly edificed with splendid warehouses, banks, and public buildings; and other streets have, in great degree, undergone a similar change. A new building projected in 1865, at the corner of Portland-street and David-street, may be regarded as a good specimen of the warehouses; presents a frontage of 220 feet to Portlandstreet, and one of 410 feet to David-street; is in a free Italian style, 60 feet high, all of Yorkshire stone; has, over the principal entrances, massive cornices resting on consoles and caryatides; is rounded at the angle of the street, and strikingly ornamented there with carving and a projecting balcony; and was estimated to cost about 40,000. Other semi-public buildings are similarly ornamental. The Branch Bank of England, in Pall Mall and King-street, is in the Doric style, after designs by Cockerell, and was erected in 1847. The Manchester and Salford Bank in Mosley-street, at the corner of York-street, is in the Italian palatial style, and one of the finest buildings in the city. The Royal Insurance Office is in the Italian Gothic style, bold and picturesque, and was erected in 1864. The Lancashire Insurance Office, at the corner of St. Ann's-square, is in a free Ionic style, with incised decoration in the stone, and was erected in 1866. The Queen's Hotel, in Piccadilly, is a massive, quadrangular, storied-storied structure, in the Italian style; and has, at the principal entrance, a portice and balcony. Many other buildings of the same classes, and similarly ornamental, might be mentioned.

Public Buildings. The Town Hall stands at the junction of King-street and Cross-street; was erected in 1822-4, after designs by F. Goodwin, at a cost of nearly 40,000; is in the Ionic style, copied from the temple of Erectheus at Athens; has a portico of five open intercolumns, with an intercolumns at each end; has statues of Solon and King Alfred in niches at the sides of the portico, and medallions of Pythagoras, Lycurgus, Sir Isaac Newton, and Sir Matthew Hale on the attic panels; is surmounted, at the centre, by a dome copied from the octagonal tower of Andronicus, or Tower of the Winds; contains a public room, 51½ feet high to the ceiling of the dome; a council-chamber, and numerous rooms for municipal and police uses; and has, in the entrance hall, beautiful marble busts of Queen Victoria and the late Prince Consort, and, in the staircase and elsewhere, full length portraits of Sir Elkanah Armitage, Sir Thomas Potter, Sir John Potter, Alderman Watkins, Alderman Neild, Mark Philips, Esq., Joseph Brotherton, Esq., and other local celebrities. A new large Town Hall, of splendid character, after designs by Alfred Waterhouse, was founded on the E side of the recently-formed Albert-square, toward the end of 1868. There are town halls also in Salford, Chorlton, Cheetham, Hulme, and Pendleton. The Free Trade hall stands in Peter-street, on the scene of the monster-meeting of 1819; was built in 1856, at a cost of about 40,000; is in the Lombardo-Venetian style, after designs by E. Walters; has a frontage 159 feet long and 75 feet high, adorned with allegorical sculptures by Mr. Thomas of London; contains a great hall 134 feet long, 78 feet wide, and 52 feet high, in the Italian style, with a very elegant gallery around it, and with accommodation for about 5,000 persons; and contains also an assembly room, with sittings for about 650 persons, a supper room above, of similar capacity, and other rooms suitable for recreation.

The Royal Exchange stands in Market-place, at the W end of Market-street; was built in 1806, after designs by Harrison of Chester; underwent enlargement and improvement at several times, particularly in 1856; presented to Market-street a circular front, rounded like a ship, and of very imposing appearance, surmounted by the Royal arms and by figures of commerce and manufactures; presented, at the opposite end, to St. Ann's square and Bank-street, an octostyle Doric portico 72 feet long, with fluted columns fully 4 feet in diameter and 28 feet high; and contained, besides other apartments, a principal room 185 feet long and 82 feet wide, divided into compartments by two rows of Ionic columns. An act for a new Exchange, to supersede the old one and partly on the same site, was obtained in the summer of 1866; provides for the closing of Ducie-street and Crowalley, and for the purchase of any property required for the extension of the site; and was followed, before the close of October, by receipt of many competing designs foe the new building. The design for which the highest award was given is by Mills and Murgatroyd. The portice of the old Exchange, and many adjacent buildings, were taken down, for clearing the ground, prior to May 1867, and the new edifice was in progress of erection in the latter part of 1868. The area which it covered is 5,400 square yards. The exterior of the structure is of stone; a spacious Corinthian portico forms the principal entrance; handsome doorways of granite form the other entrances; a series of Corinthian decoration is carried round the entire building; and an elegant campanile, provided with wind-dial, is at the angle facing the approach from the principal railway stations. The Exchange-room is the largest in the world, having nearly an acre of floor-space for the use of subscribers; and there are numerous suites of offices. The Corn Exchange stands in Hanging Ditch; was built in 1837, at a cost of 3,250; has a good frontage, with six Ionic fluted columns; and includes a hall 80 feet long and 70 feet wide, separated into three avenues by rows of ornamental cast-iron pillars.

The Assize Courts stand on the site of Strangeways Hall, a suburban mansion of some note till far into the present century; were built in 1864 and previous years, after designs by Alfred Waterhouse, at a cost of nearly 100,000 are in the pointed style, English in its spirit, Italian in its colouring; measure 270 feet in length, 150 feet in width, and 56 feet in height to the cornice, or 92 feet to the apex of the central gable; are surmounted, at the centre, by a tower, with roof-spire 210 feet high; and consist exteriorly of Darley-dale stone and grey Dalbeattie granite, and interiorly of Yorkshire stone and Forest of Dean grey freestone, with Peterhead granite for columns and other ornamental portions. The elevation is of three stories; the windows of the three floors differ from one another in outline and design; the windows in the base are deeply recessed squares, and each is divided into two lights by a shaft of granite with foliated capitals; the windows of the middle or principal floor are large-pointed, single-arched, each of three lights, filled in the head with geometric tracery; the windows of the upper floor are double-arched and pointed, and have broad carved archivolts; and spaces on the walls along the front are adorned with the heads of the kings of England from the time of Alfred the Great, and with the arms of Manchester, Salford, Bolton, Ashton, Staleybridge, Bury, Oldham, and Rochdale. The principal front faces the SW; stands 100 feet from the centre of the line of Great Ducie-street; has a noble central porch or pavilion, 40 feet wide and 26 feet deep, surmounted by a pediment with wheel window; and terminates at the ends in two lesser pavilions or tower-like projections. Another front faces the SE; is in South Hall-street; has features differing much from those of the principal front, yet in perfect keeping with them; and, though less extensive, being only along the breadth of the entire edifice, is more picturesque. The main entrance is by the central porch of the principal front; and leads, through a corridor, into a central hall 100 feet long, 48½ feet wide, and 75 feet high. The N window of this hall is 32 feet high and 18 wide, of 7 lights, filled with stained glass, illustrative of the signing of Magna Charta; the S window is 30 feet high and 16 wide, of 6 lights, with stained glass, containing the national, the duchy, the county, and other coats of arms. A vestibule, beyond the central hall, is formed by the body of the tower, a square of 20 feet; contains the entrances to the judges' retiring rooms, and to the jury and witnesses' rooms; and has, on its right and its left, the Nisi Prins and Criminal courts. Each of these courts measures 59 feet by 45, and is surrounded by a wide corridor. The Chancery court, the grand jury rooms, and some other apartments are in the upper story. The judges' lodgings are a handsome mansion, separated from the N end of the courts by a yard, but connected with them by a covered passage; measure 92 feet by 98; and are similar in style to the Courts, but plainer. The assizes were first held in the new courts on 26 July, 1864. The City Jail stands on a plot of 18 acres, in the Hyderoad, not far from Bellevue gardens; was built in 1847-50, and considerably enlarged in 1857; is surrounded by a boundary-wall 20 feet high, and entered by a lofty arched gateway; comprises a centre and five radiating wings; contains cells for males in three of the wings, cells for females in a fourth, and chapel, hospital, and other apartments in the fifth; includes porter's-lodge, governor's-house, and chaplain's-house at the entrance; presents altogether an imposing appearance; and has capacity for 550 male and 289 female prisoners. The New Bailey prison, or Salford hundred house of correction, stands on the Salford side of the Irwell, near Albert bridge; was founded in 1787 on plans of the philanthropist Howard, and extended and altered from time to time; is surrounded by a lofty boundary-wall, with iron chevaux de frise; has turrets at the angles, with loop-holes for musketry; comprises governor's-house, sessions-house, police courts, and a main oblong building; and has capacity for 406 male and 129 female prisoners. The New Salford hundred Jail stands immediately behind the Assize Courts; was built in 1867 and previous years, after designs by Alfred Waterhouse; is in the Byzantine style, with some details of early round-arch work, copied from edifices on the banks of the Po and the Rhine; forms an irregular parallelogram, on an area of 9½ acres; is entered through an archway, exteriorly of shafts, capitals, and deeply-recessed mouldings, interiorly with groined and wagon-headed vaulting; and includes governor' s-house, chief-warder's and porters' houses, a males' prison, of six wings, with work-rooms, a chapel, and 912 cells, a females' prison, of four wings, with varions apartments, and 380 cells, and a massive ventilating shaft 220 feet high. New Police Courts, in Minshull-street and Bloom-street, were founded in 1868; cover an area of 2,384 square yards; are in the Italian pointed style; have a clock-tower at the angle of the two streets; and contain two police courts, each 200 square yards in area, a court of quarter sessions about 220 square yards, a court of record about 180 square yards, a grand jury room, magistrates' rooms, numerous offices, other apartments, and prisoners' cells. The number of cases before the police magistrates in 1867 was 19,118 of prisoners and 6,999 on summons, in all 26,117. The Assembly Rooms, in York-street, Cheetham, were built in 1860, after designs by Mills and Murgatroyd, at a cost of above 14,000; present a plain exterior; and contain a principal room 80 feet long, 40 feet wide, and 40 feet high, with a richly ornamented ceiling, divided into three domical compartments. The Free Masons' Hall was built in 1864; shows all the three orders of Grecian architecture in its facade; and presents a fine appearance. The Post office stands in Brown-street; was at one time used as a market, its chief room as the manor court, and afterwards as the city police court; and is a large but plain building. The Chamber of Commerce has its offices in York Chambers, King-street, near the Town Hall; was established in 1820; is one of the most distinguished commercial institutions in the world; and exercises great influence on all questions of trade policy. The Union Club is in Mosley-street, near the Royal Institution; was established in 1825; numbers about 400 members, admitted by ballot; and has an elegant stone building, after designs by W. Lane. The Albion Club is in King-street; and one or two smaller clubs are in the suburbs. The Cavalry Barracks are in Chester-road, not far from Hulme-St. George's church; have accommodation for upwards of 300 men and horses, besides commissioned and non-commissioned officers; and include extensive grounds for military exercise. The Infantry Barracks are in Regent-road, Salford, not far from St. Bartholomew's church; and have accommodation for upwards of 700 men, besides officers. Several suites of Public Baths and Wash-houses are in the city and the suburbs. The oldest suite, situated in Miller-street, was erected in 1845, by public subscription, and by the proceeds of a grand fancy ball; was improved in 1856, by the proceeds of another ball, held at the reopening of the Royal Exchange; and proved eminently popular and beneficial. Another suite, at Miles-Platting, was opened in 1850; and stands on ground presented by Sir Benjamin Heywood, Bart., who gave also 2,000 towards the erection. A third suite, including also a laundry department, is in Greengate, Salford; was erected in 1856, by a private company, at a cost of 6,763; and forms a handsome building. Two other suites, likewise with laundry departments, were soon afterwards undertaken by the same company, at Mayfield, London-road, and in Stretford-road, Hulme. The Stretford-road suite stands partly on the site of the old Chorlton workhouse; was erected in 1860, at a cost of about 12,000; is in the Lombardic style, of two stories, with an attic in the centre; and measures 114 feet along the front in Leaf-street, and about 117½ feet along the flank.

Victoria bridge crosses the Irwell near the foot of Victoria-street, not far from the Cathedral; was built in 1839, at a cost of 20,800; and has an elliptical arch of 100 feet in span, with a rise of 22 feet, and a roadway 45 feet wide. Old Salford bridge occupied the site of Victoria bridge: was erected in 1365; had three Gothic arches of rude construction; was very narrow; had a chapel on it, built by Thomas de la Booth; and, prior to 1760, was the only bridge connecting Manchester-proper with Salford. Blackfriars bridge, over the Irwell, on the line of Blackfriars-strect, down from Market-street, was built im 1820, at a cost of 9,000; has three arches; and superseded a wooden bridge on the same site, erected by a theatrical company from London. Albert bridge, over the Irwell, in the line of Bridge-street and adjacent to the New Bailey prison, was built in 1844, at a cost of 8,874; has one arch; is free to the public; and superseded a tollbridge, erected in 1785. Regent bridge, over the Irwell, connecting Hulme with Regent-street in Salford, and distant about a mile from the Royal Exchange, was built in 1808 at the expense of Mr. Hall of Sunnyside; was under toll till the close of 1848; and then, with great ceremony, was made free. Broughton bridge, connecting Bronghton with Salford, was built as private property in 1806; has three arches; and, about 1854, in consequence of being under toll, was the occasion of considerable excitement among the surrounding inhabitants. Strange ways bridge, connecting Strange ways with Salford, was built by subscription in 1817; is a handsome cast-iron structure; and exacts a pontage from all passengers, except the tenants of Earl Ducie. Springfield-Lane bridge, connecting Strange ways and Broughton with Salford by-Springfield Lane, was erected in 1850; and is free to all passengers. Broughton Suspension bridge, connecting Broughton with Pendleton by Broughton-lane, was built as private property in 1826; is a very handsome structure; exacts a pontage from all passengers; fell with a crash in 1831, while a rifle corps was passing over it; and now is propped with temporary piles on all days when large crowds are expected to pass. Hunts Bank bridge, over the Irwell, between Victoria station and the Cathedral, was built in 1864, and has one iron arch. Hunts Bank bridge, over the Irk, was built in 1826. The other bridges are not of any note. The Prince Consort's monument stands in the centre of the recently-formed Albertsquare, and in the immediate vicinity of the new Town Hall; was inaugurated on 23d January 1867; and comprises a marble statue of the Prince by Mr. Noble, within a Florentine-Gothic shrine, after designs by Mr. T. Worthington. The statue was the gift of the mayor, and represents the Prince in the robes of the Order of the Garter. The shrine is of white stone, with columns of coloured marble; has a quadrilateral form, open at the four sides, and crowned with a tall roofed spire; is decorated with relieve, carvings, tracery, crocketing, and symbolic sculptures; rises to the height of about 80 feet; and cost, without the statue, 6,250. Another monument to the Prince Consort stands in Peel Park, Salford; was erected in 1864; and consists of a statue, also by Mr. Noble, representing the Prince in his costume as Chancellor of the University of Cambridge. A fine bronze statue of Richard Cobden, by Marshall Wood, representing Cobden with hand uplifted and finger pointed, in the act of addressing the House of Commons, was erected in St. Ann's-square, opposite the S front of the Royal Exchange, in March, 1867. Very fine bronze statues of Queen Victoria, the Duke of Wellington, Sir Robert Peel, Dr. Dalton, and James Watt, on ornamental stone pedestals, stand in front of the Royal Infirmary; and statues of Queen Victoria, Sir Robert Peel, and Joseph Brotherton, Esq., are in Peel Park. Other public structures will be noticed in subsequent paragraphs.

The Cathedral.- St. Michael's church, which long ago disappeared, was the earliest church in Manchester. St. Mary's church, at Hunts Bank, close to the Irwell, on a site now nearly midway between Victoria railway station and the Royal Exchange, was probably the other of the two churches which existed at Domesday; served long as the parish church; acquired a new Lady chapel and a W tower about 1330; was converted in 1421 into a collegiate church, under the name of the College of the Blessed Virgin Mary, by Lord Delawarr, who became rector in 1382; was, soon afterwards, rebuilt of stone; was still further enlarged and enriched in the years 1485-1509; and, under the name of Christ Church, was made the cathedral of the newly constituted diocese of Manchester in 1847. The cathedral is 232 feet long, and 130 feet broad; consists chiefly of late perpendicular English architecture; comprises a W tower, a nave of six bays, a choir of six bays. a small Lady chapel, a number of lateral chapels, and a chapter-house; and underwent extensive restorations, at a cost of about 40,000, during a series of years ending in 1867. The lower part of the tower was built about 1330, the upper stage about 1520;. rose to the height of 120 feet; was richly ornamented toward the summit; had the reputation of being one of the finest towers in England; went eventually into such decay that one or two of its pinnacles looked every moment as about to topple over; was begun to be reconstructed from the foundation in August 1864; was finished externally in May 1867; is now 15 feet higher than the old tower; and has a clock chamber and a belfry for a fine pea1 of 10 bells. The tower will be finished interiorly in Sept. 1867. It is constructed of millstone grit, of which it contains 70,000 feet, or 5,000 tons. The nave was commenced in 1465, completed with basement and aisles in 1490, and clerestoried and re-roofed in the 17th century; has a central and two side aisles on the N and S, with lateral chapels or chantries opening into the S aisle; has no triforium; and is roofed with timber, panelled, and resting on corbels carved into figures of angels playing on musical instruments. The chapels of the nave are St. George's or Brown's on the SW, built about 1500; St. Nicholas's or Trafford's on the SE, built about 1506; and St. James's or Strange way's on the NE, originally a transept, built in 1440. The choir was built, to the extent of basement and aisles, in 1440; was constructed on a design that the church should be cruciform;. acquired stall-work on the S, a clerestory, and surmounting octagonal turrets about 1500; has no triforium: and includes an E procession-path, and four lateral chapels or chantries. These chapels are St. John Baptist's or the Derby chapel on the N, built in 1513, with a small mortuary chapel adjoining it to the N; Jesus' or Byrom chapel on the S, built in 1506; and Hulmes' mortuary chapel, also on the S. The Lady chapel, called also StMary's or Chetham chapel, was built in 1330; was altered by Warden West, and again in the 17th century; and underwent restoration in 1865-6. The chapter-house was built about 1500. The cathedral, in the interior view, is very fine; the nave, with its lateral chapels, resembling Chichester; the choir remarkably beautiful and picturesque; the painted windows striking and curious; and the effigies and monuments highly interesting. One monument is to Mrs. F. Hall, who left 40,000 for local charities; and another is a marble statue by Theed of Humphrey Chetham.

Churches.- The places of worship within the municipal borough in 1851-exclusive of all within the other parts of the parliamentary borough and of all within Salford borough-were 32 of the Church of England, with 38,120 sittings; 2 of the Church of Scotland, with 1,060 s.; 4 of the Presbyterian church in England, with 3,620 s.; 2 of United Presbyterians, with 1,000 s.; 19 of Independants, with 12,698 s.; 8 of Baptists, with 4,490 s.; 1 of Quakers, with 1,330 s.; 4 of Unitarians, with 2,700 s.; 17 of Wesleyan Methodists, with 12,973 s.; 2 of New Connexion Methodists, with 1,150 s.; 5 of Primitive Methodists, with 1,856 s.; 1 of Bible Christians, with 450 s.; 10 of the Wesleyan Association, with 5,271 s.; 1 of Welsh Calvinistic Methodists, with 300 s.; 1 of Lady Huntingdon's Connexion, with 577 s.; 1 of the New Church, with 750 s.; 2 of isolated congregations, with 220 s.; 7 of Roman Catholics, with 6,850 s.; 1 of the Greek Church, with 86 s.; and 2 of Jews, with 428 s. The places of worship within the city and suburbs in 1867, inclusive of Salford and other places beyond the parliamentary borough, were at least 70 of the Church of England, 11 of Scotch Presbyterians, 23 of Independents, 11 of Baptists, 1 of Quakers, 5 of Unitarians, 35 of Wesleyan Methodists, 8 of New Connexion Methodists, 13 of Primitive Methodists, 1 of Bible Christians, 9 of United Free Methodists, 3 of Independent Methodists, 4 of Welsh Calvinistic Methodists, 1 of Lady Huntingdon's Connexion, 3 of the New Church, 1 of Moravians, 1 of Irvingites, 1 of Dutch Protestants, 1 of German Evangelicals, several of missionary character, 1 of Latter Day Saints, 13 of Roman Catholics, 1 of the Greek Church, and 1 of Jews.

St. Ann's church stands in St. Ann's-square; was built in 1709; is in the Grecian style; has a tower originally surmounted by a cupola, replaced by a spire in 1777, which has since been removed; and contains 1,175 sittings. All Saints church stands in Grosvenorsquare, at the intersection of Stretford road and Oxfordroad; was built in 1820; has a fine tower, surmounted by a cupola, with ball and cross; and contains 1,700 sittings. St. John's church stands at the foot of St. John-street, leading out of Deansgate; was built in 1768; is in the pointed style; has a remarkable stained glass window, brought from a convent at Rouen, representing Christ's entrance into Jerusalem; and contains a marble monument by Flaxman to the Rev. John Clowes, and a splendid Caen stone monument, of Gothic design, to Mr. William Marsden. St. Mary's church stands in St. Mary-street, near St. Ann's; and was built in 1756. St. Matthew's church stands in Campfield, was built in 1825, after designs by Barry; and is a large edifice, with a tower and spire 132 feet high. St. Peter's church stands in St. Peter-square, at the SW end of Mosley-street; was built in 1794; is in the Grecian style, with a handsome portico; and has, over the pulpit, a picture of the "Descent from the Cross'' by Antonio Carracci.- Another St. Peter's church stands in Oldhamroad; was built in 1860, at a cost of 4,200; is in the Lombardic style, of red and white bricks; comprises nave, aisles, and a semi-circular apse; has a NW tower, 125 feet high; and contains 1,350 sittings. St. George's church stands in Rochdale road; and was erected in 1798, and consecrated in 1818; St. James church was built in 1787; St. Michael's church, in 1789; and St. Paul's church, in 1765. Christ church, Salford, stands in Actonsquare, adjacent to the Bolton and Bury canal, and to the Preston and Bolton railway, opposite one entrance to Peel Park; was built in 1831; is in the Grecian style, of light design, with tetrastyle Corinthian portico; and has a tower and spire, adorned at about mid-height with a Corinthian cyclostyle. St. Simon's church, Salford, is in the early English style, with a spire 150 feet high; and has three excellent stained glass windows, and a carved oak pulpit. Trinity church, Salford, was built in 1634; and presents a Doric appearance, but has a Gothic tower. St. Philip's church, Salford, was built in 1825; and St. Stephen's church, Salford, in 1794. St. Mark's church, Cheetham, was built in 1794-St. Luke's church, Cheetham, was built in 1839; is in the later English style; and has a tower with crocketted spire 170 feet high. St. Luke's church, Chorlton, was rebuilt in 1865; is in the early decorated English style; and has a NE tower with broach spire 148 feet high. St. Paul's church, Chorlton, was built in 1862, at a cost of 4,500; is in the later English style; and has a large E stained glass window, representing events in the life of St. Paul. Albert Memorial church, Collyhurst, was built in 1864, at a cost of 4,500; is in the decorated English style, of yellow brick, with blue and white brick bands, and Hollington stonedressings; has a NW tower and spire, 130 feet high; and is adorned with memorial windows of the Prince Consort. St. Alban's church, Waterloo-road, was built in 1865, at a cost of 7,500; is in the decorated English style; has a hexagonal apse; and was left off with an unfinished tower and spire, intended to be carried to a height of 225 feet. St. John's church, Cheetham, was founded in 1869; is in the early pointed style of the 13th century; and cost about 10,000. St. George's church, Hulme, was built in 1826 by Godwin; and is in the later English style. St. Philip's and St. Michael's churches, Hulme, are noticed in the article on Hulme township; and other churches are noticed in articles on other townships.

Cavendish-street Independent chapel, in Chorltonupon-Medlock, not far from All Saints church, is a remarkably fine edifice; was built after designs by Mr. Walters, at a cost of 22,000; is in the early English style, with a splendid spire 170 feet high; contains upwards of 1,500 sittings; and has attached to it spacious school-rooms in the Tudor style. The Rusholme road Independent chapel is one of the oldest dissenting chapels in Manchester; presented long an unattractive and dingy appearance; underwent improvement in 1865, a a cost of about 2,200, rendering its aspect light and elegant; and has attached to it spacious schools, erected shortly before 1865 at a cost of 3,800. Bury-New-road Independent chapel, erected in 1857, Park Independent chapel, near the junction of New Bridge-street and Cheetham-Hill-road, erected in 1855, and Richmond Independent chapel in Broughton-road, Salford, are all handsome structures. Ancoats Independent chapel was built at the angle between Great Ancoats-street and Palmerston-street, and in the decorated English style, in 1865; was very soon closed, in consequence of a railway operation by the Midland company; was rebuilt on the site of the old gas-works, at a cost of 5,800, in 1869; and is constructed with arrangements for infant and elementary school-rooms. Cross-street chapel, now Unitarian, was originally built in 1693, for the congregation of the Rev. Henry Newcome, one of the ejected clergy of 1662; was nearly destroyed by a Sacheverel mob in 1714; was restored with aid of a parliamentary grant of 1,500; was rebuilt and enlarged in 1737 and 1788; and is a large square brick edifice, surrounded with a grave-yard. The Fletcher-street Wesleyan chapel was built in 1861, at a cost of 3,500; is in the Italian style, of brick with Yorkshire stone dressings; and contains 1,150 sittings. The Boston-street New Connexion Methodist chapel, in Hulme, was built in 1866, at a cost of 2,430; is a brick structure, with Yorkshire stone dressings; contains 780 sittings; and adjoins a suite of schools-erected in 1862. St. Augustine's Roman Catholic chapel in Granby-row, was built in 1820, at a cost of 10,000; is in the early English style, with stone front and brick body; has a finely decorated interior; and contains 1,500 sittings. St. Marie's Roman Catholic chapel, in Mulberry-street, behind John Dalton-street, was built in 1794, and rebuilt in 1848; is in a Norman style, similar to that of many Continental churches; and has s tower 120 feet high, copied from one in the Netherlands. St. John s Roman Catholic chapel, in Chapelstreet, Salford, was built in 1848; is a cruciform structure, in the decorated English style; and has a tower and spire 240 feet high. The Greek church, in Waterloo-road, was built in 1861, at a cost of about 6,000; and is in the Grecian style, exteriorly Corinthian, interiorly Ionic. Many of the other places of worship are commodions, neat, or handsome.

The Rusholme-road cemetery, in Chorlton-upon-Medlock, was opened in 1821; was then surrounded by green fields, giving it a rural aspect; became surrounded, before 1857, by brick buildings; took then the appearance of a mere graveyard; and was closed several years prior to 1867. Ardwick cemetery, in Hyde-road, Ardwick, is neatly laid out and well preserved; has, at the entrance, two neat structures, one of which serves as a mortuary chapel; and contains the remains of Dr. Dalton and those of Sir Thomas Potter, the latter beneath a handsome marble monument. The General cemetery, on Rochdale-road, Hurpurhey, about 2 miles from the city, occupies about 11 acres; has a mortuary chapel near the entrance gateway; and is divided into a smaller section for Churchmen, and a larger one for all other denominations. The Salford cemetery, New Barnes, Eccles New-road, was formed at a cost of about 16,000 for the ground, and 2,460 for chapels; occupies a very fine situation; comprises 11½ acres for Churchmen, 6 for Dissenters, and 4 for Roman Catholics; is beautifully laid out with serpentine walks, trees, shrubs, and flower-plots; and has three chapels, all in the early decorated English style, and a neat entrance lodge. The first interment in this cemetery was that of Joseph Brotherton, Esq., the first member of parliament for Salford borough. A Wesleyan cemetery is at Cheetham-hill, Crumpsall.

Schools and Institutions:- The public day schools, private day schools, and Sunday schools within the municipal borough in 1851 were 80 public day schools, with 16,202 scholars, 288 private day schools, with 10,034 s.: and 111 Sunday schools, with 42,389 s. One of the public schools was the collegiate and grammar school; 2 others were endowed schools; 1 was a workhouse school: 10 were Church of England national schools; 23 were Church of England non-national schools; 1 was a Church of England free school; 3 were Scotch Presbyterian; 6 Independent; 2 Quaker; 2 Unitarian; 6 Wesleyan; 1 Wesleyan Association; 1 of the New Church; 9 Roman Catholic; 1 Jewish; 5 undenominational British; 1 the Odd fellows' orphan school; 1 an industrial school; 1 a penitentiary school; and 3 subscription schools of no specific character. Thirty-one of the Sunday schools, with 14,407 scholars, belonged to the Church of England; 7, with 1,245 s., to Scotch Presbyterians; 15, with 7,593 s., to Independents; 7, with 1,433 s., to Baptists; 1, with 294 s., to Quakers; 2, with 859 s., to Unitarians; 15, with 6,475 s., to Wesleyans; 2, with 579 s., to New Connexion Methodists; 4, with 656 s., to Primitive Methodists; 12, with 2,968 s. to the Wesleyan Association; 2, with 306 s., to Independent Methodists; 2, with 438 s., to Welsh Calvinistic Methodists; 1, with 212 s., to the New Church; 2, with 631 s., to undefined Protestant congregations; and 8, with 4,293 s., to Roman Catholics. The schools within the city and suburbs in 1867 included at least 3 endowed schools; 31 national schools; 43 Church of England schools, exclusive of some of the national ones, but inclusive of some charity ones; 6 Scotch Presbyterian; 5 Independent; 8 Wesleyan; 3 Wesleyan Association; 1 Primitive Methodist, 2 Unitarian; 2 of the New Church; 11 Roman Catholic; 1 Jewish; 7 British, mostly undenominational; 7 ragged or industrial; about 16 varionsly subscription, charity, or miscellaneous; and proportionate numbers of infant and Sunday schools.

The grammar school stands in Long Millgate, not far from the Cathedral; was founded in 1515, by Hugh Oldham, Bishop of Exeter; was rebuilt in 1777; gives education in the English branches, mathematics, modern languages, and the classics; has endowments which yielded upwards of 4,000 a year about 1830, but now yield considerably less; and holds 4 scholarships at Brasenose college, Oxford, a third turn of 18 other scholarships at that college, a third turn of 12 scholarships at St. John's college, Cambridge, and 3 exhibitions, funded in 1861, at Owen's college, Manchester. The Commercial schools stand in Stretford-road; were erected in 1845, by the Manchester Church Education Society; form a very handsome building, in the Tudor style; afford education to the middle classes; and have, in connexion with them, library and a natural history museum. Chetham's hospital, or the Blue-coat school, stands at Hunts Bank, near the Cathedral; owed its origin, as a school, to Humphrey Chetham in 1651; educates and clothes 100 poor boys; and, together with the Chetham library, has an endowed income of 3,550. The edifice for it was part of the residential buildings of the collegiate clergy of St. Mary, now the cathedral; occupies the site of the residence of the Saxon thane of Manchester; passed to the Derby family in 1547; was used as a barrack during the siege of 1642; was purchased in terms of Humphrey Chetham's will, to be used as a blue coat-school.; presents a very antique and picturesquely irregular appearance; and contains refectory, dormitory, and other a partments for the lodging and uses of its pupils. The Ladies' Jubilee schools stand in New Bridge-street, nearly opposite the old workhouse; were established in 1809, for the educating and training of destitute orphan girls; were built in 1810, in commemoration of the fiftieth anniversary of George III.'s reign, and therefore called Jubilee schools; were endowed with 10,000 by Mrs. F. Hall, and enlarged, about 1833; are under the direction of a committee of ladies; and qualify the pupils to be placed out as domestic servants, on completion of their education. The Blind asylum and the Deaf and Dumb school stand at Old Trafford, Stretford; and though separate institutions, are in one pile. The blind asylum originated in a bequest of 20,000, in 1810, by Thomas Henshaw, Esq., who also bequeathed 20,000 for a bluecoat school at Oldham; but his bequest for the blind asylum required to be all appropriated for support only, not any of it for building, and the out at interest and accumulate till 1835: and a sum of 9,000 was then raised by subscription for the erection of a building. The deaf and dumb school was established in 1823; stood in Stanley-street, near the New Bailey; and, on account of the situation being deemed unhealthy, was removed thence, in 1839, to the new joint-building at Old Trafford. That building was erected in 1836-9, by means of the 9,000 raised for the blind asylum, and of another 9,000 raised for the deaf and dumb school; is in the Tudor-collegiate style; stands a short distance backward from the road; measures 280 feet in length, and from 50 to 120 feet in width; consists of two wings for the two institutions, with a central chapel used by both; and presents a very pleasing frontage, crowned with octagonal turrets. The income of each institution is about 2,000 a year. The Swinton industrial schools stand on the Bolton-road, at Swinton, about 5 miles from the city; occupy an area of about 4 acres, within grounds of about 34 acres; are in the Tudor style; include school-rooms, work-rooms, dining-halls, dormitories, bath-room, and two chapels for respectively Protestants and Roman Catholics; and contain accommodation for 1,500 inmates. A chief one of the ragged schools stands on Ardwick-green; and is under the patronage of the Bishop of Manchester, and under the presidency of the Mayor. Another of the ragged schools stands in Charter-street; was built, in 1866, at a cost of about 2,000; is three stories high, of red seconds bricks with blue bricks in bands; and includes school-rooms, diningroom, lavatories, teacher's room, a lecture-room, and other apartments.

Owens' college stands in Quay-street, Deansgate; was formerly the residence of Richard Cobden, Esq.; was converted into a college in 1851, in result of a bequest of 100,000 by John Owens; affords instruction in the higher branches of education to males upwards of 14 years of age; is conducted by a principal and six professors; and issues certificates to candidates for degrees at the London University. A new large building for it was proposed, in 1868, to be erected in Oxford-street. The Independent theological college originated in private instruction to students by the Rev. W. Roby of Manchester; became a public institution in 1816; was located at Blackburn till 1842; was then erected within Withington township, adjacent to Hulme; cost about 20,000 for erection; is chiefly in the collegiate Gothic style, but partly in quasi-Moorish; includes a lofty tower, a salient centre, massive wings, and an interior cloistered square; contains accommodation for president, professors, and about 50 students; has seven exhibitions of from 25 to 32 14s.; and, in the year 1864-5, had 42 students and an income of 2,766. The Wesleyan theological institution stands at Didsbury, on the Oxfordroad, about 5 miles from Manchester; was opened in 1842; occupies a plot on grounds of about 6 acres; forms three sides of a quadrangle, with ornamental stone front, contains accommodation for governor, tutors, and 40 students; and has, in connexion with it, a chapel in the early English style, containing nearly 300 sittings. The Unitarian theological college was established at Manchester in 1786; was removed to york in 1803; was brought back to Manchester in 1840; and was removed to London about 1850. Another institution for educating missionary students of the Unitarian denomination was established in 1854, under the name of the Home Missionary Board; and is now located in the Memorial Hall. This building stands at an angle of the new Albertsquare; was erected in 1865, to commemorate the ejection of the clergy in 1662; and comprises ground storey and basement, appropriated to offices or warehouses, a first floor, with lecture-hall, library, professors' rooms, and students' rooms, and an upper floor disposed as a lofty lecture-hall, capable of accommodating about 750 persons. The Roman Catholic collegiate institute stands in Grosvenor-square; was considerably extended in 1866; and includes, in the new parts alone, a dining-hall 50 feet long, new class-rooms, a library, a chapel, a refectory, seventeen dormitories, and a covered play-ground. The Medical school, now situated in George street, was founded in 1824; maintains lectures on all kinds of medical subjects, by about eighteen lecturers; has a laboratory, museums, a good library, and a medical society; and prepares students for examination at all the universities. The School of Art is held in the Royal Institution in Mosley-street; was established in 1838; and has a fair attendance of pupils.

The Royal Institution stands in Mosley-street; was built in 1823, after designs by Barry, at a cost of 30,000; was projected to be a gallery of art, with the best obtainable models in painting and sculpture; presents a beautiful frontage, with central hexastyle Ionic portico, and side screens of columns; includes an entrance-hall, with staircase, rising to the entire height of the building, and lighted at the top; contains, at the first landing, a theatre or public lecture-room, with accommodation for about 800 persons; has a highly architectural interior, with rich collections of casts from the Elgin marbles, and from the most celebrated sculptures of both ancient and modern times; and is open annually, in autumn, for an exhibition of the works of modern artists, on the principle of the London Royal Academy. A great building, for an exhibition of the art treasures of England, was erected in 1857, at a cost of 62,000, adjacent to the Botanic gardens and to the Manchester and Altrincham railway, with a railway station of its own, at Old Trafford; forming a parallelogram upwards of 700 feet long, and about 200 feet wide; constructed wholly of iron and glass, in a manner similar to the Crystal Palace of Hyde Park, London, in 1851, but in its roof and general form more resembling that at Sydenham; presenting a principal facade of imposing and very elegant appearance; including a nave, or great central hall, 600 feet long, 140 feet wide, and 65 feet high, together with lateral galleries divided into compartments; all richly stored with a well arranged collection of works of art, of all descriptions; and frequented, during six months after the opening, by a great concourse of visitors, some of whom were from the Coutinent. The Athenaeum stands in Bond-street, immediately in the rear of the Royal Institution; was erected, in 1837, after designs by Barry; is in the Italian style, much plainer than the Royal Institution, but still of pleasing character; contains a reading and news room, a library of about 14,000 volumes, and a lecture-hall with capacity for about 1,000 persons; maintains lectures on all departments of science; and has, in connexion with it, classes for modern languages, classes for other departments of study, a gymnastic club, a chess club, a dramatic reading society, and an essay and discussion society. The Mechanics' Institution dates from 1825; was held, for a time, in two rooms of a house in Cross-street; got a new building of its own in 1827, with accommodation for 1,000 persons, in Cooper-street; was removed in 1856 to a much larger new building in David-street, Portlandstreet; has there a library of about 16,000 volumes; and maintains both day and evening classes for many departments of education. Its present building, in David-street, is a large and handsome three storey brick structure; and was inaugurated with an exhibition of arts and manufactures, which attracted hundreds of thousands of visitors, and yielded a profit of more than 4,000.

The Salford Free Museum and Library stands in Peel Park, near the Crescent, Salford; originated in 1849; has buildings of centre and wings, erected successively in 1850,1852, and 1857, at costs of about 9,000, with a new Doric portico of 1865 at a cost of 623; and contains a reference library of about 13,700 volumes, a lending library of about 9,200 volumes, and a museum estimated in 1863 to be worth 18,018. The Natural History Museum stands in Peter-street; is a handsome edifice, extending considerably backward from the streetline; comprises an entrance-hall 38 feet square, three eastern rooms 92 feet long, three western rooms 29 feet by 21, and considerable backward wings; contains natural history, geological, and mineralogical collections; and has, in connexion with it, a natural history society and a geological society. The Literary and Philosophical society is in George-street; originated in 1781; was long famous for the lectures of Dr. Dalton and Dr. Henry; had also Dr. Perceval and Dr. Ferriar for members; is one of the most noted provincial academies of science in England; issues regularly reports of its transactions; retains the laboratory and apparatus of Dr. Dalton, precisely as he left them; and has a library of about 14,000 volumes. The Chetham Free Library is in part of the same buildings as the Chetham hospital or blue-coat school; shares in the origin and the endowments of that institution; contains about 30,000 volumes, many of them very rare; and has, around the reading-room, an attractive collection of antiquities, pictures. The Portico Library stands in Mosley-street, not far from the Royal Institution; is a handsome building in the Ionic style, 206 feet long, 49 feet wide, and 45 feet high; includes a reading-room 66 feet by 42, with a dome ceiling; and contains, in a gallery around the reading-room, a library of about 25,000 volumes. The Free Library stands in Camp Field, a little off Deansgate, with front toward Byrom-street; was originally the Hall of Science, built for the Socialists in 1839, and purchased by the Library committee in 1852 for 1,200; underwent then a thorough renovation, rendering it a bold, handsome, and commotions edifice, in the Italian style; was opened, as a library, with 16,013 volumes in the reference department, and 5,305 in the lending department; acquired such increase as to have a total of 77,774 volumes in 1866, of which 38,426 were in the reference department; cost originally, for building and for books, 12,823, raised by public subscription; and is maintained by a rate levied under the Public Libraries act of 1850. Four branch lending libraries are in the outer parts of the city and in the suburbs. The Hulme branch was opened in Stretford-road in 1857; now occupies a wing of the Hulme town hall; and, in 1867, comprised 8,456 volumes. The Ancoats branch was established in Dec. 1857; had 5,214 volumes in 1867; and was then about to be removed to a new building then in course of erection for it in Every-street. The Rochdaleroad branch was established in 1860, and had 1335 volumes in 1867. The Chorlton and Ardwick branch, in Rusholme road, was opened in 1866, and had 4,868 volumes in 1867. The New Library in the Royal Exchange buildings is said to contain not fewer than 30,000 volumes. The Law Library, in Norfolk-street, contains upwards of 4,000. The Foreign Library, in St. Ann'sstreet, near the Exchange, contains upwards of 7,000, chiefly in French, German, Italian, and Spanish. There are also smaller public libraries and literary institutions; such as the Pendlebury library and reading-room, the Ancoats lyceum, the Young Men's Christian association, the Pendleton mechanics' institution, the Hulme mechanics' institute, the Longsight mechanics' institute, the Cheetham Hill mechanics' institution, the Lower Crumpsall mechanics' institution, the Blackley mechanics' institution, and the Miles-Platting mechanics, institution. There are likewise learned societies additional to those already noticed, such as the Chetham society for publishing historical and literary remains connected with Lancashire and Cheshire, and which has issued 70 volumes, the Statistical society, the Law association, the Medical society, the Phrenological society, and the Architectural society. Agnews' gallery and Grundy's gallery, in Exchange-street, and Whaite's gallery in Bridge-street, though private establishments, contain very extensive and rich collections of works of art.

The Royal Infirmary stands in an open area, with main front toward Piccadilly. It was originally founded in Shudehill in 1753; and was removed to its present site in 1755. The building at first was a plain brick structure, fitted entirely for infirmary purposes; but it eventually was so reconstructed and improved as to be made into an ornamental edifice chiefly of stone; and it was extended in 1766 to include a lunatic asylum, and in 1792 to include a dispensary. Its facings now are all of stone, and in the Italian style; its main front is ornamented with a large hexastyle Ionic portico; its other fronts also are adorned with porticos; and its centre, behind the main portico, is surmounted by a fine large dome, resting on a massive, ornamental, circular tower. The open space around it was formerly occupied in part by a large sheet of water, and enclosed by an iron palisade; but is now laid out as a public promenade, and adorned with fine public monuments. The Wellington monument was inaugurated in 1856. All the five monuments add effectively to the grouping of the grounds and the edifice; and the Wellington one represents the Duke in civil costume, and was erected at a cost of 7,000. The infirmary received aid, to the amount of 2,500, from two concerts by Jenny Lind; it has an income, partly from funded property and partly from public subscriptions, of about 10,000 a year; and it affords relief annually to about 30,000 patients. The lunatic asylum has been removed to Cheadle, a few miles out of Manchester. The Clinical Hospital stands in Stevenson-square; was established in 1856; and, during the first year of its operations, had about 700 patients. Another Clinical Hospital, for the N side of the city, stands in Park-place, York-street, Cheetham; and was opened in 1867. A Fever Hospital, in connexion with the workhouse, was projected in 1866. A Sick Children's Hospital, in the mediaeval style, on 530 square yards of ground in Deansgate, was projected in 1868. St. Mary's Hospital stands in Quaystreet; was built in 1856, at a cost of about 6,000; is in the Italian style; has a library and museum; and treats annually about 200 patients, who are either women or young children. There are also a lock hospital, an eye hospital, an institution for diseases of the ear, a general hospital and dispensary for children, a Salford and Pendleton hospital and dispensary, an Ardwick and Ancoats dispensary, a Chorlton-upon-Medlock dispensary, an hospital for consumption and skin disease, a Chorlton and Ardwick lying-in hospital, and four homeopathic dispensaries. The Female Penitentiary stands in Embden-place, Embden-street, Greenheys; and is a handsome stone building. The Night Asylum is in Henry Street; gives temporary lodging and food to houseless sufferers; and has, in one year, afforded shelter and relief to as many as 400,000 persons. The old Manchester workhouse stands in New Bridge-street, on a site immediately behind the Victoria station; was built in 1792, at a cost of 30,000, and several times enlarged at great additional cost; is a huge ungainly brick structure, with accommodation for upwards of 1,500 persons; and has attached to it several yards. The new Manchester workhouse stands on the Bongs estate in Crumpsall, about 2 miles from the Victoria station; was erected in 1857, at a cost of more than 50,000; is a handsome and imposing edifice of red brick, with stone dressings; covers a space of 600 feet by 410, amid grounds of 45 acres; and has accommodation for about 2,000 persons. There are workhouses also in Salford and Withington, for respectively Salford and Chorlton poor law districts. The religions, philanthropic, and miscellaneous institutions are very numerous; but, being all of the kinds common to cities or large towns, they need not be enumerated. The aggregate amount of endowed charities, inclusive of about 4,000 of the borough reeve's (now the Mayor's) charities, is about 14,574.

Places of Amusement:- The Theatre Royal stands in Peter-street, near the Free Trade Hall; was built in 1845, at a cost of nearly 23,000; is in the Greco-Italian style, 120 feet long, 55 feet wide, and from 40 to 70 feet high; presents a frontage of centre and wings with portico, flanking Corinthian pillars, and three entrances; has, over the central entrance, a fine statue of Shakespeare, a circular arch, and a surmounting pediment; is elegantly decorated in the interior; and can accommodate 2,147 persons. The Queen's Theatre stands at the junction of York-street and Spring-gardens; was fitted up in 1815, after the plan of the London Surrey theatre, for melodramatic performances; was changed in 1839, by Ducrow, into a place for equestrian entertainments; underwent extensive improvements about 1854, to make it suitable for a theatre; and is a plain building. The Prince's Theatre stands in Oxford-road, near the corner of Peterstreet and Mosley-street; was erected in 1864, to check or compete with the Theatre Royal; and is considerably smaller than that theatre. The Concert Hall stands in Lower Mosley-street, nearly opposite St. Peter's church; was built in 1830, after designs by Hayley and Brown; is a brick structure, with handsome stone front in the Corinthian style; measures interiorly 110 feet in length and 50 feet in width; has a gallery 50 feet by 20, and an orchestra 50 feet by 23; contains accommodation for 1,200 persons; and is accessible only to subscribers and to friends under certain regulations.-Mr. Halle's concerts and other popular concerts are held in the Free Trade Hall; a sacred harmonic society meets also in that hall; a glee club meets at the Albion hotel; the St. Cecilia society meets in the Memorial Hall; and there are three or four other musical associations. The Pomona-gardens are situated in Cornbrook, Hulme; are much frequented by the labouring classes of the city and its suburbs; possess many attractions and ample accommodations; and are occasionally a scene of fireworks, fetes, and galas. Bellevue-gardens are situated on the Hyderoad, near the new city jail; occupy about 40 acres; are partly disposed in shrubberies, parterres, pleasant walks, and a labyrinth modelled after that at Hampton Court; contain greenhouses and conservatory, rows of spacious dens and extensive paddocks occupied by wild beasts, an aviary, a natural history museum, a large arabesque orchestra, where a band performs popular music, a ball-room or music hall capable of accommodating 15,000 persons, a platform about half an acre in extent for dancing, a vast raised gallery for spectators to view displays of fire-works, two lakes stocked with aquatic birds and used for boating, a plentiful assortment of refreshment rooms, and stone statues of Wellington, Nelson, and other notabilities; and are frequented, during the summer months, by hundreds of thousands of persons, not only from the city and its suburbs, but from comparatively distant places. The Botanic-gardens are situated at Old Trafford, on the Stretford-road; occupy about 16 acres; are skilfully and variedly laid out; contain hothouses, a lake, fountains, and a large exhibitionhouse or crystal-palace, in which periodical flower-shows are held; include a promenade, which commands an extensive view of the Derbyshire hills; belong to a proprietary of about 1,200 members; and are occasionally open to the public.

Three parks are vested in the corporations-one in that of Salford, two in that of Manchester-for the uses of the public. They originated in a public subscription, amounting to 32,715, in 1845; they form fine ornamental appendages to the city; and they are constantly frequented by tens of thousands of the working and other classes. Peel Park lies on the Salford side of the Irwell, about a mile W by N of the Royal Exchange; took the name of Peel Park in honour of Sir Robert Peel, who contributed 1,000 to the subscription fund; was previonsly known as Lark Hill, and belonged to W. Garnett, Esq.; was purchased from Mr. Garnett on very moderate terms, and formed at a cost of 13,000, including purchase money; comprises about 32 acres, all beautifully laid out; has a highly ornamental entrance-arch, erected as a memorial of Queen Victoria's second visit to Manchester in 1857; was the scene, in 1851, of an assemblage of about 80,000 Sunday scholars in presence of the Queen; contains parterres, shrubberies, ornamental mounds, fountains, beautiful walks, an archery ground, a cricket ground, a gymnasium for males, a gymnastic ground for females, the Salford Free Library and Museum, and statues of Queen Victoria, the Prince Consort, Sir Robert Peel, and. Joseph Brotherton; and is often the scene of performances by the military bands. The entrance-arch is in the Byzantine style; comprises main arch, flanking octagonal turrets, surmounting stone mouldings in eccentric forms, crowning caps upon the turrets in minaret fashion, and two semi-detached side-arches; and has a frontage of 59 feet, and a total height of 53½ feet. The Peel statue is of bronze, and stands near the entrance to the Library. The Brotherton statue is also of bronze, and was inaugurated in 1858. The Victoria statue stands directly in front of the new S wing of the Museum; and, along with that wing, was inaugurated in 1857. The Albert statue was noticed in our account of the Public Buildings. Queen's Park is situated on the Rochdale-road, not far from Hurpurhey, and scarcely. 2 miles from the Royal Exchange; was formerly called Hendham Hall; comprises about 30 acres; is more hilly and more thickly wooded than Peel Park, but resembles it in artificial arrangements; commands, from its higher grounds, a fine view of the beautiful vale of Smedley; and contains two lakes, a labyrinth, cricket grounds, a gymnasium, skittle alleys, and a large house used chiefly as a museum of natural history., and the basement for refreshment-rooms. Philips' Park is situated on the river Medlock, near Ancoats, Holt-Town, and Bradford, about 2 miles E of the Royal Exchange; comprises about 31 acres; has such natural contour and such artificial embellishments as to be eminently beautiful or almost romantic; and contains several lakes, numerous parterres, bowers and shrubberies, a gymnasium, archery-grounds, and skittle and quoit alleys -A park at Moss-side, for the Hulme suburb, and to be called Alexandra Park, was projected in 1869. The race-course was formerly on Kersall-Moor, about 2½ miles NNW of the city; but since a few years prior to 1867 it has been on a low flat almost encircled by the river Irwell, near Castle-Irwell; and it is used for races in Whitsun-week, and in autumn.

Trade and Manufactures:- The head post office, as already noted, is in Brown-street; receiving post offices are in Ardwick, Bradford-street, Broughton-road, Burlington-street, Cheetham-hill, Chester-road, Chorlton-Bar, Great Ancoats, Harpurhay, Hyde-road, Knott-mill, Longsight, Lower Openshaw, Oxford-road, Pendleton, Red Bank, Regent-road, Rochdale-road, Rusholme, Salford, Strangeways, and Stretford-road; other receiving postoffices are in Chapel-street-Salford, Miles-Platting, New Cross, St. Peters, and Windsor-bridge; and postal letterboxes, or postal pillars, are in about fifty-three other places. The banks are the Branch Bank of England and the Consolidated Bank, in Pall Mall; the Adelphi, in Brown-street; the Alliance and Cunliffes, Brooks and Co.'s, in King-street; Heywood's, in St. Ann's-street; Lomas and Cross, in Market-street; the Manchester and County, in York-street; the Manchester and Liverpool, in Spring-gardens and King-street; the Manchester and Salford, in Mosley-street and Chapel-street; Thomas Nash's, in King-street; the National Provincial, in Mosley-street; Robertson and Co.'s., in High-street; Robinson and Co.'s, in Smithy Door; Sewell's, in Norfolk-street; Stuart's, in Corporation-street; and the Union Bank of Manchester, in York-street and Chapel-street. The insurance offices amount to about 112. The principal hotels number about 30; and most of them are in Piccadilly, Market-street, Deansgate, Spring-gardens, Mosley-street, Brown-street, King-street, or neighbouring places. The railway stations are the Victoria station, at Hunts Bank, for the western and northern lines of the Northwestern, and for the Lancashire and Yorkshire; the London-road stations, at Bank Top, near the Royal Infirmary, for the southern lines of the Northwestern, and for the Manchester, Sheffield, and Lincolnshire; the Oxford-road station, for the Manchester, South Junction, and Altrincham, and for the connected lines in Cheshire to Birkenhead and Chester; and the New Bailey-street station, in Salford, for the East Lancashire. The Victoria station is approached by a fine one-arched bridge across the Irwell; and presents an ornamental frontage in the Italian style. The Londonroad station is a massive structure, in the Italian style, harmonizing with adjacent ornamental lines of building. The original station of the Manchester and Liverpool railway occupied a large area bounded by Liverpool-road, Lower Byrom-street, Charles-street, and Water-street; came to be used entirely as a goods station; and was provided with an extensive pile of warehouses; and, in May 1866, a portion of these warehouses was destroyed by fire, with estimated loss of about 300,000. A project was defeated in 1866 to acquire powers for erecting a central railway station and great railway hotel. The principal local newspapers are the Manchester Guardian, established in 1821, and now published daily; the Manchester Courier, established in 1825, also daily; the Manchester Daily Examiner and Times, established as the Examiner in 1846, and amalgamated with the Times in 1848: the Manchester Weekly Times, issued from the same office as the preceding; the Alliance News, weekly, established in 1854; the City News, weekly; the Mercantile Gazette; and the Salford Weekly New s. A genera; market is held daily in the Smithfield market, Shudehill; a fruit and vegetable market is held daily in Victoria or SmithyDoor market, in Victoria-street; a wholesale fish market is held daily in the Fish market-place, near Hunts Bank; a retail fish-market is held in a new hall between Victoria-street and the Market-place; a cattle market is held on Tuesdays in Smithfield market, Cross-lane, Salford; a hay and straw market is held on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, in Liverpool-road; a hide and skin market is held on Thursdays and Fridays in Deansgate and in Charles-street; a pork and carcass market is held in the New Shambles, Lower King-street; a fair of a week's continuance, called Knott-mill fair, is held at Easter, in Camp Field; another fair, called Acre's fair, is held during the first three days of October; and two fairs are held in Whitsun-week and on 17 Nov., in Salford. The Smithfield market is one of the most extensive structures of its kind in England, six times as large as an ordinary railway station, and covered with a superb glass and iron roof; the Victoria market may be termed the Covent Garden of Manchester; and the wholesale fish market is a commodious structure, erected by the Northwestern railway company. Manchester is an inland bonding town, and has a custom-house; and the amount of customs levied at it in 1858 was 119,872,-in 1862, 165,748. In the year ended Dec. 31,.1866,37,156 packages were received into its bonding warehouses, including 134,600 galls. wine, 69,925 galls. brandy, 37,025 whiskey, 25,739 rum, 638 Geneva, 3,343 gin, and 5,177 unenumerated spirits. Tea 722,747 lbs., coffee 644,566 lbs., cocoa 10,105 lbs., tobacco 242,171 lbs., and 37,071 cigars. Large quantities of these commodities were imported direct from abroad, without transhipment. Of 90 bonding ports and places in England, only 4 places warehouse more goods than Manchester.

Cotton manufacture is still, as of old, the staple branch of industry. The increase of it since the latter part of last century has been stupendous, and has arisen, not only from causes operating also in other places, but from circumstances peculiar to the south of Lancashire. The quantity of cotton imported, about the end of last century, did not exceed 2,000,000 lbs. a year: while the quantity imported in 1860, before a sudden shock was given to it by the outbreak of the American war, amounted to 1,390,938,752 lbs. No less than 1,115,890,608 lbs. of this total were from the United States, while 204,141,168 were from British possessions in India, 44,036,608 from the Mediterranean, 17,286,86 4 from Brazil, 1,050,784 from the British West Indies and British Guiana, and 8,532,720 from other countries; and the proportions of the im ports, in an average week of 1860, were 41,000 American, 3,330 Indian, 2,150 Brazilian, and 1,280 Egyptian. An almost crushing effect appeared to follow the shock from the American war's sudden interference with the supply from America; but was gradually lessened by great increase of supply from other quarters; insomuch that, in an average week of May 1863, the proportions were 1,160 American, 21,160 Indian, 2,930 Brazilian, and 3,520 Egyptian. A recovery of the quondam amount of manufacture, therefore, was rapidly resulting from increase of supply from other quarters than the United States, and became complete soon after the termination of the American war in 1865. Some other branches of industry have, more or less, from distant years, flourished along with the cotton manufacture, and have eventually become very prominent. The manufactures of woollens and fustians, together with some others of less note, were aggregately much the most productive throughout the first half of last century; and the manufactures of silks, mixed goods, fustians, hats, worsteds, umbrellas, machines, locomotive engines, iron-wares, small-wares, paper, and other things, now employ a very large proportion of the inhabitants. The factories of varions kinds within the city, exclusive of some in the suburbs, in 1857, comprised 96 cotton mills, 10 silk mills, 6 calico-printing works, 35 dye-works, 1 worsted mill, 11 hat manufactories, 16 small-ware manufactories, 61 machine-making establishments, 55 foundries, 4 lead works, 4 paper mills, 52 saw mills, 12 corn mills, and 1,214 miscellaneous establishments; and they employed steam engines with an aggregate of more than 12,000 horse-power, and produced goods for storage in 1,743 warehouses. The precise number of factories in 1867, owing to the difficulty of drawing a boundary-line,around Manchester as a place of manufacture separating it from other seats of manufacture in its near neighbourhood, cannot be readily stated; but the proportion, as compared with the rest of Lancashire and with Cheshire, or even as compared with all England and Wales, is very high. The total of spinning-factories in the kingdom at the end of 1862 was 6,378, with 36,450,028 spindles, employing 775,534 persons; the total of cotton spinningfactories alone was 2,715, with 30,387,467 spindles, employing 407,598 persons; the total of these in Lancashire was 1,979, with 21,530,532 spindles, employing 315,627 persons; and the proportion in Manchester and its neighbourhood, as compared with the rest of Lancashire, can thence be proximately estimated. A passage in the factory returns of 1863 says, "Lancashire employs 77.4 per cent. of the total number of persons employed in the cotton trade in England and Wales. In the counties of Lancaster, Chester, and York, the total increase of mills since 1839 is 59.6 per cent., and of persons employed 91.2 per cent. In addition to this the speed of the spindles has increased upon throstles 500, and upon mules 1,000 revolutions a minute, that is, the speed of the throstle spindle, which in 1839 was 4,500 times aminute, is now 5,000, and of the mule spindle, that which was 5,000 is now 6,000 times a minute, amounting in the former case to a tenth, and in the latter to a sixth additional increase to that of the mills themselves."

The persons, within Manchester City and Salford borough, employed in the cotton manufacture at the census of 1861, were 4,649 males under 20 years of age, 10,133 males at 20 years of age and upwards, 10,893 females under 20 years of age, and 17,151 females at 20 years of age and upwards; in the fustian manufacture, 197 and 1,003 males, and 203 and 740 females; in calicoprinting, 435 and 1,325 m., and 142 and 133 f.; in calico-dyeing, 422 and 1,284 m., and 3 and 1 f.; in employments akin to these, 135 and 816 m., and 18 and 78 f.; in silk manufacture, 309 and 1,702 m., and 1,682 and 3,488 f.; in silk dyeing and printing, 21 and 189 m.; in ribbon manufacture, 5 and 25 m., and 4 and 15 f.; in employments akin to these, 46 and 392 m., and 22 and 27 f.; in woollen cloth manufacture, 41 and 211 m., and 39 and 66 f.; in worsted manufacture, 17 and 88 m., and 111 and 156 f.; in employments akin to these, 24 and 142 m., and 10 and 29 f.; in hat-making, 44 and 422 m., and 51 and 155 f.; in straw hat and bonnet-making 3 and 11 m., and 74 and 214 f.; in cap-making 191 and 589 f.; in shawl manufacture, 2 and 8 m.; in shoe and boot-making, 457 and 3,787 m., and 124 and 573 f.; in rope and cord making, 330 and 336 m., and 4 and 9 f.; in other kinds of working of hemp, 54 and 119 m., and 15 and 54 f.; in tobacco, cigar, and snuff manufacture, 28 and 103 m., and 10 and 10 f.; in brewing and kindred employments, 25 and 642 m., and 5 f.; in soap boiling, 7 and 63 m.; in tallow chandlery, 15 and 58 m., and 1 and 1 f.; in comb-making, 12 and 19 m., and 1 and 2 f.; in tanning and leather-working, 100 and 514 m., and 2 and 12 f.; in brush and broom-making, 105 and 287 m., and 23 and 50 f.; in basket-making, 26 and 144 m., and 7 and 17 f.; in paper manufacture, 59 and 86 m., and 22 and 40 f.; in paper-box making, 42 and 37 f.; in paper staining, 49 and 60 m., and 21 and 13 f.; in other workings in paper, 151 and 282 m., and 41 and 23 f.; in earthenware manufacture, 17 and 59 m., and 2 and 11 f.; in tobacco pipe making, 10 and 71 m., and 8 and 13 f.; in glass manufacture, 322 and 461 m., and 31 and 28 f.; in copper manufacture, 11 and 47 m.; in tin manufacture, 4 and 9 m., and 3 f.; in tin-plate working, 112 and 435 m.; in pin manufacture, 10 and 12 f.; in brass founding, 126 and 361 m.; in wire-making and wire-working, 149 and 332 m.; in iron manufacture, 1,679 and 4,637 m.; in nail manufacture, 16 and 80 m., and 2 and 2 f.; in anchor and chain-making, 23 and 28 m.; in boilerMaking, 126 and 450 m.; in steel-manufacture, 29 and 58 m.; in dye and colour manufacture, 17 and 66 m.; in dyeing and calendaring, 318 and 955 m., and 10 and 22 f.; in cabinet-making, 252 and 1,223 m., and 53 and 282 f.; in chair-making, 40 and 219 m., and 1 and 9 f.; in picture frame-making, 29 and 82 m.; in saddlery and harness-making, 51 and 221 m., and 3 f.; in whipMaking, 7 and 39 m., and 1 f.; and in coach-making, 112 and 554 m., and 1 and 2 f.

The Township and the District:-The township of Manchester lies on the E side of the Irwell, in the NW part of the parish; and is divided, for poor law purposes, into the sub-districts of Ancoats, Deansgate, Londonroad, Market-street, and St. George. Pop. of the Ancoats sub-d. in 1851, 53,737; in 1861, 55,983. Houses, 10,137. Pop. of the Deansgate sub-d. in 1851, 33,219; in 1861, 29,029. Houses, 4,570. Pop. of London-road sub-d. in 1851, 31,890; in 1861, 28,817. Houses, 5,116. Pop. of Market-street sub-d. in 1851,27,067; in 1861, 23,526. Houses, 3,529. Pop. of St. George sub-d. in 1851,41,073; in 1861,48,055. Houses, 8,311. The decrease of pop. in Deansgate, London-road, and Market-street sub-districts, was caused by the demolition of houses for the widening of streets, the erecting of warehouses, and similar purposes; and so many as 1,900 of the pop. of Market-street sub-d. in 1861 were persons in the old workhouse, the Royal Infirmary, the Eye Hospital, and Chetham Hospital. Acres of the entire township, 1,480. Real property in 1860, 2,060,181; of which 300 were in quarries, 989,768 in railways, and 60,000 in gas works. Pop. in 1851, 186,986; in 1861, 185,410. Inhabited houses, 31,663; uninhabited, 1,968; building, 88. The poor law district comprehends also the sub-district of Newton, containing the townships of Newton and Bradford, and the extra-parochial tract of Beswick; the sub-district of Cheetham, containing the townships of Cheetham and Crumpsall; the sub-district of Failsworth, containing the townships of Failsworth and Moston; the sub-district of Blackley, containing the townships of Blackley and Harpurhey; and the sub-district of Prestwich, containing the Prestwich townships of Prestwich, Great Heaton, and Little Heaton. The five sub-districts comprising Manchester township constitute Manchester poor law union; and the other five sub-districts constitute Prestwich poor law union. Poor rates, in 1863, of the M. union, 174,992; of the P. union, 21,778. Acres of the entire district, 12,628. Pop. in 1851, 228,433; in 1861, 243,988. Houses, 42,916. Marriages in 1863, 4,513; births, 9,047, of which 658 were illegitimate; deaths, 8,071, of which 4,038 were at ages under 5 years, and 50 at ages above 85. Marriages in the ten years 1851-60, 45,369; births, 91,283; deaths, 74,359. Two workhouses for the M. union, as already noticed, are in New Bridge-street and Crumpsall; and a workhouse for the P. union is in Prestwich township.

The Borough:- Manchester is a seat of assizes, general and quarter sessions, a connty court, a bankruptcy court, a recorder's court, a bishop's court, and varions local courts, a polling-place for the S division of Lancashire, and the head-quarters of the northern military district. The police force in 1866, exclusive of that of Salford, comprised 1 chief constable, 5 superintendents, 28 inspectors, 62 sergeants, 570 constables, and 8 detective officers,-total, 674; and cost 41,936, of which 9,649 were defrayed by government. The crimes committed in the year ending 29 Sept. 1866, exclusive of Salford, were 6,430; the persons apprehended, 1,335; the known depredators and suspected persons at large, 2,757; the houses of bad character, 1,133. The old water-works belonged to a private company, and gave a supply defective both in quality and in quantity. The new water-works belong to the corporation; have their source in Longdendale, in the neighbourhood of Mottram 20 miles from Manchester; were constructed at a cost of 1,200,000; have five vast head-reservoirs, besides some minor ones; bring their supply through pipes of very large bode, and partly through a tunnel, called the Mottram tunnel, 2,772 yards long; and are sufficient, not only for trade, domestic, and sanitary purposes, but for provision against all accidents by fire. The fire brigade is very effective; comprises about 37 men, classified in four divisions; has its headquarters in the policeyard, Clarence-street; and is provided with 5 powerful engines, 32 hand pumps, promptly applicable to street hydrunts, and a corresponding number of all other requisite appliances. The gas-works originated, as a private undertaking, in 1820-1; were situated in Lower Kingstreet; passed to the commissioners of police in 1824, and to the city council in 1843; comprise now two great suites of buildings, at Rochdale-road and Gaythorn, the one with a chimney 300 feet high, the other with a frontage or length of 390 feet, and each with a storage for about 2,250,000 cubic feet; consume about 3,000 tons of coals per week; and produce about 4,200,000 cubic feet of gas per day. The consumption of gas in the city, exclusive of Salford, amounted to 240,000,000 cubic feet in 1843-4; and increased so steadily and rapidly as to amount to about 1,280,000,000 in 1866-7.

Manchester received a charter from Thomas Gresley, lord of the manor, in 1301; and was governed, under that charter, by a borough-reeve and two constables. It was not made a parliamentary borough till the passing of the act of 1832, nor a municipal borough till October 1838. The m. borough comprises the townships of Manchester, Hulme, Chorlton-upon-Medlock, Cheetham, and Ardwick, and the extra-parochial tract of Beswick; is divided into the 15 wards of New Cross, St. Michael, Collegiate-Church, St. Clement, Exchange, Oxford, St. James, St. John, St. Ann, All Saints, St. Luke, St. George, Medlock-street, Ardwick, and Cheetham; and is governed by a mayor, 16 aldermen, and 48 councillors. Corporation income, in 1865-6, 150,341. Real property in 1860, 2,617,936; of which 300 were in quarries, 77,916 in canals, 989,768 in railways, and 60,000 in gas-works. Pop. in 1851, 303,382; in 1861, 338,722. Houses, 61,487. The p. borough includes also the townships of Newton, Bradford, and Harpurhey; and under the act of 1867, sends three members to parliament. Electors in 1868, 22,792. Amount of property and income tax charged in 1863, 279,900. Pop. in 1851, 316,213; in 1861, 357,979. Houses, 65,375.

The Parish:- The parish of Manchester was constituted soon after Oswald, king of Northumbria, founded York cathedral; included, till 1291, what is now the extensive parish of Ashton-under-Lyne; is still so extensive as to comprise 32 townships; and is bounded, on the N, by Oldham, Prestwich, and Middleton parishes,-on the E, by Ashton-under-Lyne parish,-on the S, by Cheshire, -on the W, by Eccles and Flixton parishes. The townships in it are Manchester, Bradford, Newton, Cheetham, Crumpsal1, Failsworth, Moston, Blackley, and Harpurhey, together with Beswick extra-parochial tract, in Manchester district; Salford and Broughton, in Salford district; Chorlton-upon-Medlock, Hulme, Moss-side, Ardwick, Openshaw, Gorton, Rusholme, Levenshulme, Burnage, Didsbury, Withington, and Chorlton-cum-Hardy, in Chorlton district; Droylsden, Denton, and Haughton, in Ashton-under-Lyne district; Reddish and Heaton-Norris, in Stockport district; and Stretford, in Barton-upon-Irwell district. Acres of the parish, 34,193. Pop. in 1851 ,451,754; in 1861, 529,245. Inhabited houses, 97,882; uninhabited, 4,082; building, 454.

One church, or even two or three churches, very early became insufficient for so vast a parish; oratories or private chapels were soon, with concurrence of the rectors, afterwards with that of the wardens and fellows, erected by the owners of the land on their respective estates; and many other chapels or churches, as demands for them arose by modern increase of population, have been added. Sections of the parish were assigned to these chapels as secondary yet separate charges; they were eventually classified into six divisions, one comprising Manchester township, another comprising Salford and Broughton, the others comprising the other townships; and they now amount to seventy-nine. Four of the sections, M. St. Clement, Crumpsall-St. Thomas, Ardwick-St. Matthew., and Moston, are indefinite. The others, with their respective pop., are Manchester-St. Ann, 1,416; M. St. Andrew, 16,070; M. Albert Memorial, 9,600; M. All Souls, 11,263; M. St.. Barnabas, 8,232; M. St. Catherine, 7,618; M. St. George, 24,212; M. St. John, 12,469; M. St. James, 4,074; M. St. Jude, 12,368; M. St. Mary, 3,507; M. St. Michael, 11,525; M. St. Matthew, 11,257; M. St. Paul, 6,609; M. St. Peter, 2,904; M. St. Simon and St. Jude, 4,515; Ardwick-St. Thomas, 10,147; Ardwick-St. Silas, 10,375; Barlow-Moor, 1,013; Birch, 1,728; Blackley, 3,112; B.St. Andrew, 1,000; Bradford-cum-Beswick, 4,500; Bradford-road, 10,540; Broughton, 7,138; Cheetham-St. Mark, 2,377; Cheetham-St. Luke, 4,719; Chorlton-cum-Hardy, 739; Chorlton-on-Medlock-All Saints, 12,068; Chorlton-on-Medlock-St. Luke, 7,380; Chorlton-on-Medlock-St. Paul, 4,500; Chorlton-on-Medlock-St. Saviour, 3,408; Chorlton-on-Medlock-St. Stephen, 6,379; Collyhurst, 2,247; Crumpsall-St. Mary, 3,306; DentonSt. Lawrence, 3,127; Denton-Christchurch, 3,579; Didsbury, 803; Droylsden, 8,798; Failsworth, 5,1 3; Gorton, 2,447; Gorton-St. Mark, 4,305; Harpurhey, 5,126; Heaton-Mersey, 1,875; Heaton-Norris-Christchurch, 7,490; Heaton-Norris-St. Thomas, 6,179; Heaton-Reddish, 6,000; Hulme-St. George, 18,831; Hulme-Holy Trinity, 5,667; Hulme-St. John Baptist, 8,370; Hulme-St. Mary, 6,730; Hulme-St. Mark, 5,637; Hulme-St. Michael, 8,964; Hulme-St. Paul, 6,375; Hulme-St. Philip, 8,711; Kersall-Moor, 976; Levenshulme, 2,538; Longsight, 2,927; Moss-side, 6,114; Miles-Platting, 5,153; NewtonHeath, 11,241; Oldham-Road, 11,128; Openshaw, 2,777; Red Bank, 8,167; Rusholme, 2,508; Stretford, 3,882; Salford-St. Bartholomew, 10,893; Salford-Christchurch, 9,414; Salford-St. Matthias, 7,194; Salford-St Philip, 11,415; Salford-St. Simon, 6,957; Salford-St. Stephen, 12,031; Salford Trinity, 12,192; Whalley-Range, 3,980; and Withington, 2,775. The livings of Manchester-St. Barnabas, Manchester-St. Clement, and Moston, are p. curacies, and all the other livings are rectories, in the diocese of Manchester. Value of M. St. Ann, 550; of M. St. Andrew, 155; of M. Albert-Memoria1, 217; of M. All Souls, 300; of M. St. Barnabas, 300; of M.St. Catherine, 300; of M. St. Clement, 149; of M.St. George, 300; of M. St. John, 344; of M. St. James, 343; of M. St. Jude, 300; of M. St. Mary, 170; of M. St. Michael, 300; of M. St. Matthew, 300; of M. St. Paul, 300; of M. St. Peter, 287; of M. St. Simon and St. Jude, 215; of Barlow-Moor, about 230; of Collyhurst, 320. Patron of M. St. Ann, M. St. George, M. St. Simon and St. Jude, and BarlowMoor, the Bishop of Manchester; of M. St. Andrew, off M. All Souls, of M. St. John, of M. St. James, of M.St. Mary, of M. St. Michael, of M. St. Matthew, of M.St. Paul, and of M. St. Peter, the Dean and Chapter of Manchester; of M. Albert-Memorial, of M. St. Barnabas, of M. St. Catharine, of M. St. Clement, of M. St. Jude, and of Collyhurst, Trustees. The values and the patrons of the other livings are stated in the articles on their own several localities.

The Diocese:- The diocese of Manchester was constituted in 1847-8. The collegiate church of St. Mary (or of Christ) then became the cathedral, and the warden and fellows of it became the dean and canons. The cathedral establishment consists of the bishop, the dean, four canons, two archdeacons, twenty honorary canons, a chancellor of the diocese, and two minor canons. The income of the bishop is 4,200; of the dean, 2,000; of each of three of the canons, 600; of one of the archdeacons, 200. The residence of the bishop is Mauldeth Hall, near Manchester. The first bishop, Dr. J. P. Lee, continued in occupancy till his death on 24th Dec. 1869. The last warden and first dean was the Hon. and Very Rev. W. Herbert. The diocese comprehends all Lancashire except the deanery of Furness and Cartmel in the NW, and most of the deanery of Warrington in the SW; and is divided into the archdeaconries of Manchester and Lancaster. Acres, 845,904. Pop. in 1861, 1,679,326. The livings are noted here as they stood in 1865; but some of that date have been raised in status, and some more have been formed; and all these, in our separate articles, are noted as they now stand.

The archdeaconry of Manchester comprises nine deaneries of Manchester, three of Blackburn, and one of Leyland. One deanery of Manchester contains only a tract around the cathedral; another contains twenty-five rectories and two p. curacies in Manchester township and contiguous places; a third contains twenty-four rectories, chiefly in Chorlton and Hulme; a fourth contains seven rectories, three vicarages, and 19 p. curacies, chiefly in Salford and Eccles; a fifth contains three rectories and fourteen p. curacies, chiefly in Prestwich and Bury; a sixth contains eight rectories and nine p. curacies, chiefly in the N parts of Manchester parish, and in Middleton and Bury; a seventh contains one vicarage and twentyeight p. curacies, in Rochdale and Prestwich; an eighth contains twelve rectories and nineteen p. curacies in the SE part of Manchester parish, and in Ashton-under-Lyne and Rochdale; and a ninth contains three vicarages and twenty-six p. curacies, chiefly in Bolton-le-Moors and Deane. One deanery of Blackburn contains one vicarage and twenty-four p. curacies, all in Blackburn parish; another contains fifteen p. curacies, all in Whalley parish; and a third contains one vicarage and twenty-four p. curacies, chiefly in Whalley parish. The deanery of Leyland contains the rectories of Brindle, Chorley, Croston, Eccleston, Hoole, Rufford, Standish, and Tarleton; the vicarage of Leyland; and the p. curacies of Chorley-St. George, Chorley-St. Peter, Bretherton, Mandesley, Douglas, Wrightington, Becconsal, Leyland-St. James, Euxton, Heapey, Hoghton, Whittlele-Woods, Withnell, Penwortham, Farington, Longton, Adlington, Charnock-Richard, and Coppul.

The archdeaconry of Lancaster comprises four deaneries of Amounderness, and one of Tunstall. One deanery of Amounderness contains a vicarage and seven pcuracies in Kirkham, a vicarage and four p. curacies in Poulton-le-Fylde, three p. curacies in Bispham, and two p. curacies in Lytham; another contains a vicarage and sixteen p. curacies in Preston, the vicarages of Ribchester, Longridge, and Chipping, and the p. curacy of Stidd; a third contains a vicarage and fifteen p. curacies in Lancaster, and a vicarage and three p. curacies in Cockerham; and a fourth contains a vicarage and three p. curacies in Garstang, a vicarage and four p. curacies in St. Michael-on-Wyre, and two p. curacies in Kirkham. The deanery of Tunstall contains the rectories of Claughton, Halton, Heysham, Tatham, and Whittington; the vicarages of Bolton-le-Sands, Melling, Tunstall, and Warton; and the p. curacies of OverKellet, Aughton, Arkholme, Hornby, Wray, TathamFell, Leck, Silverdale, and Yealand-Conyers.

John Marius Wilson, Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales (1870-72)