SALFORD, a town, a township, seven chapelries, a district, and a hundred, in Lancashire. The town stands on the W side of the river Irwell, on the Bolton and Bury canal, and on the Northwestern, the Lancashire and Yorkshire, the East Lancashire, and the South Junction railways, contiguous to Manchester; is separated from that city only by the river Irwell, and communicates with it by numerous bridges; was politically superior to it in the 9th century; became afterwards suburbanto it; is now, in participation of its trade, and for all other practical purposes, an integral part of it; presents a near resemblance to it in streets and edifices; contains several public buildings and a great public park, which belong fully more to Manchester than to itself; has railway stations and numerous institutions of its own, and a post-office, several receiving post-offices, and several postal pillar-boxes under Manchester; publishes a weekly newspaper; and is a parliamentary and municipal borough.and a seat of petty sessions, quarter sessions, county courts, and a court of record. The town hall was built in 1825, at a cost of £10,000; was enlarged, by the addition of a wing 204 feet long and 33 feet wide, in 1862; is a brick edifice, with stone facade, and with Roman Doric decorations; and contains an ornate council-chamber. The infantry barracks, in Regent-road, have accommodation for a commanding officer, 3 field officers, 30 other officers, and 978 men. The workhouse stands in Eccles New-road; is a conspicuous edifice of brick and stone, in the modern Gothic style; and has accommodation for more than 300 inmates. Other public buildings, the churches, the public park, and the public cemetery are noticed in our article on Manchester. The royal hospital and dispensary in Bank-parade, the ragged school in Broughton-road, and the Wesleyan schools built in 1865 in Regent-road are among the public institutions; and there are endowed charities to the amount of £1,822 a year. The borough was formed for parliamentary representation in 1832, for municipal government in 1844; sends one member to parliament; and is governed by amayor, 16 aldermen, and 48 councillors. The police force, in 1864, comprised 108 men, at an annual cost of £7,568. The crimes committed, in 1864, were 911; the persons apprehended, 200; the depredators and suspected persons at large, 411; the houses of bad character, 132. The fire brigade comprises 33 men, with 5 engines; and is maintained at an annual cost of £350. Gas is supplied from works belonging to the corporation, and rebuilt in 1835; and water is supplied from the Manchester water-works at Woodhead. The maintaining of the highways is vested in the town council, and costs about £5,000 a year. Improvements in sewering and paving were made, within Salford township, in 1844-54, at a cost of £63,637. The corporation revenue amounts to nearly £60,000. The borough boundaries are the same municipally as parliamentarily; and include all Salford, Pendleton, and Broughton townships, and part of Pendlebury. Amount of property and income tax charged in 1863, £27,220. Electors in 1833, 1,497; in 1863, 5,137. Pop. in 1861, 102,449. Houses, 19,128. The township comprises 1,220 acres. Real property, £199,407. Pop. in 1851, 63,423; in 1861, 71,002. Houses, 13,303.
The manor was constituted about 1085, and belongs now to the Queen. The seven chapelries are not far from being aggregately conterminate with the township; are all in Manchester parish; were constituted in years from 1828 to 1858; and are called St. Bartholomew, Christchurch, St. Matthias, St. Philip, St. Simon, St. Stephen, and Trinity. The livings are all rectories in the diocese of Manchester. Value of St. B., £300; of C., £666; of St. M., £290; of St. P., St. Simon, and St. Stephen, each £300; of Trinity, £1,296. Patrons of St. B., C., and St. M., Trustees; of St. P. and St. Stephen, the Dean and Chapter of Manchester; of St. Simon, alternately the Crown and the Bishop; of T., Sir R. G. Booth. The district is divided into the sub-districts of Regent-Road and Greengate, jointly conterminate with Salford township; the sub-district of Broughton, conterminate with Broughton township; and the sub-district of Pendleton, comprising the townships of Pendleton and Pendlebury. Acres, 4,830. Poor rates in 1863, £53,933. Pop. in 1851, 87,523; in 1861, 105,335. Houses, 19,670. Marriages in 1863, 646; births, 4,187, of which 273 were illegitimate; deaths, 2,859, of which 1,484 were at ages under 5 years, and 27 at ages above 85. Marriages in the ten years 1851-60, 3,982; births, 36,974; deaths, 25,076. The places of worship, in 1851, were 13 of the Church of England, with 10,786 sittings; 1 of the Church of Scotland, with 800 s.; 6 of Independents, with 4,712 s.; 2 of Baptists, with 500 s.; 1 of Unitarians, with 110 s.; 7 of Wesleyans, with 6,085 s.; 1 of New Connexion Methodists, with 225 s.; 2 of Primitive Methodists, with 1,004 s.; 3 of the Wesleyan Association, with 1,126 s.; 1 of Welsh Calvinistic Methodists, with 500 s.; 1 of the New Church, with 450 s.; 1 of Roman Catholics, with 1,030 s; and 1 of Latter Day Saints, with 70 s. The schools were 25 public day-schools, with 4,718 scholars; 87 private day-schools, with 2,805 s.; 40 Sunday schools, with 13,264s.; and 12 evening schools for adults, with 145 s. The hundred excludes Salford borough and Manchester city; and extends on the N to Blackburn hundred, on the E to Yorkshire, on the S to Cheshire, on the W to Leyland and West Derby hundreds. Acres, 204,836. Pop. in 1851, 412,234; in 1861, 435,423. Houses, 85,368.
John Marius Wilson, Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales (1870-72)