Worksop Parish. This is the largest and one of the most interesting parishes in the county, and has several objects worthy of attention of the antiquary. It includes Worksop Manor and Clumber Park, the princely seat of the Duke of Newcastle, and extends eastwards from Shireoaks (at the junction of the three counties of York, Derby and Nottingham), to Osberton and Rushey Inn, near Babworth, a distance of seven miles. Its population, which is thinly scattered, except in the handsome market town of Worksop, amounted in 1851 only to 7,330 souls. Its territorial extent amounts to 18,220 acres of land, a large portion of which is in woods and plantations, and in the two noble parks just mentioned, and the remainder is in a high state of fertility from superior cultivation. The commons and forest wastes were all enclosed under an act passed in 1803, but the award was not executed until 1817, when the tithes were commuted for a yearly corn-rent fixed by the Commissioners, according to the average of good marketable wheat in the county during the preceding 21 years, but subject to be altered either by the vicar or the land owners, so as to be on an equitable scale with the average price of wheat in every succeeding 14 years. This modus is charged on about 9,300 acres of arable land, which has generally a fine, deep sandy soil and, with the rest of the parish, was anciently part of the great Forest of Sherwood. The annual value of the parish is £25,500, and in the year 1842 £1,770 was collected for the poor and county rates In 1843 £2,400 was levied, which included about £400 for the cost of the land added to the church yard.
The parish is divided into six constablewicks, viz. Worksop, Radford, Gateford, Hagginfields, Shireoaks and Osberton-with-Scofton, all of which maintain their poor conjointly, and also their roads, except Osberton and Scofton, which make and repair their roads separately from the rest of the parish. These divisions comprise several manors, and hamlets, belonging mostly to the Duke of Newcastle, and to G.S. Foljambe Esq., as will be seen in the following description of each:- The Chesterfield and Trent Canal, and the small River Ryton, cross the parish from west to east, close by the town of Worksop, in which, and in the neighbourhood, there are upwards of 30 maltsters. Excellent barley and other grain is produced in the parish, but liquorice, for which Worksop was once famed, has long since ceased to be cultivated. The turnpike from Worksop to Retford and Mansfield was made under an act passed in 1822.
The Manor of Worksop forms a separate constablewick, and comprises the greater part of the town, the Manor House and Park, Worksop Lodge, and the scattered dwellings of Ratcliffe, Ratcliffe Grange, harness Grove, Darfould and Sloswick, on the borders of Derbyshire, two miles west of the town. The Duke of Newcastle is sole proprietor, and lord of the manor, purchased in 1842 from his Grace the Duke of Norfolk, for the sum of £375,000. But Radford, the largest township of constablewick of the parish, contains several manors and hamlets belonging to different lords, viz. Clumber and Hardwick Grange, the property of the Duke of Newcastle; Rayton or Ryton, on the north side of the rivulet of that name, two miles east by north of Worksop, belonged to the late Francis Thornhaugh Foljambe Esq.; and Kilton, a large manor, extending northwards from the canal near Worksop to Carlton, and Hodsock, of which the Duke of Newcastle is lord, and also owner of all the land, except the neat mansions and estates of Forest Hill and Forest Farm, distant about two miles north of Worksop. His Grace the Duke of Newcastle is also lord and owner of the Manor of Radford, which includes the parish church, all the eastern part of the town, and the hamlet of Manton, distant one and a half miles to the west.
Before the Norman Conquest, Worksop, or Wirchesop, was the property of Elsi, a Saxon nobleman, but he was obliged to yield it to the Conqueror's favourite, Roger de Busli, whose man Roger became his feudal tenant, and was succeeded by William de Lovetot, lord of Sheffield and Hallamshire, who founded the abbey in Radford, and built a castle here on the west side of the town, upon a circular hill, which is still called Castle Hill, and is enclosed with a trench, except on the north side, where its precipitous bank is defended by the River Ryton. Of the castle nothing now remains, but its site is marked by a small plantation.
After many generations, the estates of the Lovetots were conveyed in marriage with their heiress, Matilda de Lovetot, to the family of Furnival, and from them they passed to the Nevills, and afterwards to the Talbots, who first became, on that account, barons of Furnival, afterwards Earls and Dukes of Shrewsbury, though now extinct as a dukedom. However, the earldom, in a junior branch, John, the first Earl of Shrewsbury, was a man of great military prowess, and became such a terror to France as to be extremely useful to Henry the Fifth in his wars with that country. He became so much attached to Worksop as to build here an immense mansion, with a magnificence in full accord with the splendour of his family. This, however, was unfortunately burnt down in 1761, and it is much to be regretted, as it was a beautiful specimen of old fashioned elegance. The Talbot estates being divided amongst co-heiresses, this portion came to the Howards, earls of Arundel, and now Dukes of Norfolk, and for twelve successions was held by that noble family, as tenants in chief to the crown. It is now possessed by his Grace the Duke of Newcastle.
The historian of Worksop, who had to devote his best energies to give a faithful description of this noble House and Park, with its most noble possessions, is now spared that labour. For the late duke of Newcastle purchased in 1839 the whole of the Norfolk estates in Worksop, and has taken down the Manor House, excepting part of the shell and some of the outbuildings, and divided the Park (which was eight miles in circumference) partly into accommodation land, a considerable portion of which is let to the tradesmen of Worksop. This park, which comprised 1,100 acres, once formed a part of the great forest of Sherwood, and contained many large trees, one of which, Evelyn, in his Sylva, says, was 180 feet from the extreme ends of the opposite branches, covering more than half an acre of ground. The House was justly celebrated for its beauty and architectural skill, and the visitor was struck with astonishment, when told what he saw was only the fifth part of the original design. The ancient structure, which contained about 500 rooms, was burnt down by an accidental fire in 1761, and it was estimated that the loss sustained in paintings, antique statues (many of which were of the old Arundelian collection, and discovered in digging the foundations of some houses in the Strand, in London, on the site of Arundel House), and in the library, must have amounted to £100,000.
The family of Clinton, who now inherit the Clumber portion of the Cavendish estates, is of Norman origin, and settled in England at the Conquest. They took their name from the lordship of Climpton, in Oxfordshire. Roger Climpton or Clinton was Bishop of Coventry from 1228 to 1249. John de Clinton was summoned to Parliament at the first of Edward I, by the title of Baron Clinton of Martock. His second son, William, was Lord High Admiral of England in 1333, and created Earl of Huntingdon in 1337. The 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th Lords of Clinton distinguished themselves in the wars of Edward III and Henry V and VI. Edward, the ninth Lord Clinton, Lord High Admiral of England, was created Earl of Lincoln in 1572. His successor, Henry, second Earl of Lincoln, was one of the commissioners on the trial of Mary, Queen of Scots. henry, the seventh Earl, was Constable of the Tower and Paymaster of the Forces, in the reign of Queen Anne. Henry, the ninth Earl became Duke of Newcastle, and was succeeded by his son thomas, who married Anna Maria, daughter of William, second Earl of Harrington. Before his father's death, he was a major-general in the army, and served in the American war. After enjoying the dukedom about one year, he died in 1795, and was succeeded by his son, the late Duke, who was born January 31 1785, and died January 12 1851, and was succeeded by his eldest son, the [resent noble Duke, who was born in 1811, whose possessions, in this country only, amount to upwards of 40,000 acres of land, occupied by most respectable tenants, and in a high state of cultivation.
The elegant and magnificent residence of his Grace the Duke of Newcastle, is within the ample limits of the parish of Worksop, except about 40 acres belonging to the township of Carburton. It extends from two to five miles south-east of Worksop, and comprised 3,412 acres of land, all of which is in Radford Constablewick, except the 40 acres just named. It is about three miles in length and breadth, adjoins Thoresby Park on the south, and is crossed by the River Wollen, from Welbeck, which forms near the house a beautiful lake of 87 acres. About 100 years ago it was one of the eildest tracts of Sherwood Forest, being then "little more than a black heath full of rabbits, having a narrow river running through it, with a small boggy close or two". But now, besides a princely mansion and a noble lake, it has 1,393 acres of plantations, and 1,892 acres of richly cultivated land in tillage and pasturage. Within its precincts are the remains of two woods of venerable oaks, viz. Clumber Wood, from which it has its name, and Hardwick Wood, which gives name to Hardwick Grange, his Grace's farming establishment, at the north-east corner of the park. Throsby says "when I visited Clumber (1796), I entered the park 2 miles south of Worksop, through an entrance more than two miles from the house, crescent formed, and topped with the arms of the family." Within the park the country opens upon you with spendour, rich in effect, and delightful to the eye. The fir and woody scenery around, in May, were warmed with patches of broom and gorse, then in golden hue, left, it may be presumed, for ornament. the hills, or rather rising grounds, are beautifully clothed with woody scenery, the lawns smooth, the walks everywhere adorned with rich plantations, seated in the happiest succession, and the cross-roads all furnished with excellent direction posts pointing the way to the house, which being in rather a low situation, would not be easily found by a stranger without the aid of these friendly monitors, the want of which, our author sadly lamented in his rambles in the neighbouring parks of Thoresby and Welbeck, in the latter of which he met with one of these stationary 'gentlemen' who, putting on a forbidding aspect, told him in broad characters that there was 'no road that way'.
Clumber House, 4 miles south-east of Worksop, is a spacious and elegant mansion, built since the year 1770 of white freestone (brought from a quarry on the Duke's estate, about 5 miles from Clumber), and occupying a central situation in the park, on the north side of the serpentine lake, which is enlivened by a great number of swans, and by several handsome vessels, one of which is a frigate called the Lincoln, and another bears the appellation of the Clumber Yacht. So much has been said in praise of this mansion, that it is difficult to find novel terms in which to express its elegance. It has been said that it embraces magnificence and comfort more that any other nobleman's seat in England; that everything reflects the highest credit on the taste displayed in the accommodations and ornaments found in this delightful retreat; and that in this "princely abode, the writer of romance might enrich his fancy, and the poet imagine himself wandering through an enchanted palace".
The house consists of three fronts, and in the centre of that which faces the lake, there is a very light Ionic collonade, which has a pleasing effect, especially when viewed in connection with the rest of the edifice, which is best seen from the lofty and elegant bridge that crosses the expansive lake, to which the lawn descends by two terraces, forming ornamental shrubberies, and having on the lower one two fountains, and two flights of steps into the lake. The entrance hall, which is very lofty, and supported by pillars, contains several good paintings, an elegant marble medallion of Dolphin and Tritons, a marble table inlaid with landscapes, another tessellated, and some fine antique busts. The lofty staircase has a handsome railing, "curiously wrought, and gilt in the shape of crowns, with tassels hangind down between them, from cords twisted into knots and festoons". It is adorned with the Kitcat Club, and Dr Meavuobre giving lectures, by Doddridge; a marble model of the Lancoon group, exquisitely finished; a small painting of Apollo and the Hours preceded by Aurora; and in the upper part are some Roman monuments in good preservation. The library is 45 feet by 31, and 21 feet in height, and contains in elegant mahogany cases, a splendid and well chosen collection of English, foreign, and classical literature. A Corinthian arch, the columns of which are of jasper, opens into the new reading room (30 feet by 27) which was finished in 1832, and has an octagonal front, commanding a charming prospect of the lake and pleasure grounds. The Duke's study has several excellent family portraits, viz. John Holles, first Earl of Clare; Edward Earl of Lincoln, by Holbein; Thomas Duke of Newcastle; Mr Henry Pelham, in his gown, as Lord Chancellor of the Exchequer; his daughter, Miss Pelham, grandmother of the late Duke; Sir Henry Clinton, Commander-in-Chief of the British army during part of the American war; also a very remarkable small original of Henry VIII, and two good landscapes by Binge, the young artist of Tickhill, who was patronised by His Grace about thirty years ago. The principal apartments are superbly finished, and contain a great variety of exquisite paintings, amongst which are several by Rembrandt, Rubens, Vandyke, Snyders, Hoare and Corregio. One by the latter, or as some say, by Furino, is the famous piece pf Sigismunda weeping over the heart of Tancred.
But the greatest glory of Clumber is its State Dining Room, a most magnificent apartment, 60 feet in length, 34 in breadth and 30 in height. It is sufficiently large to accommodate 150 guests at table, independent of a superb recess or saloon for the sideboard &c. The ceilings and panels are extremely rich in stucco and gilding, yet chaste without glare. The lustres are of the finest cut glass, and the marble chimney piece and steel grate may be seen, but cannot be described; they are, in fact, an honour to English taste and execution. On the walls hang seven beautiful paintings, valued at no less than £25,000. Four of them are market pieces, by the joint pencils of Snyder and Long John, and consisting of a display of flesh, fish, fowl, fruit and vegetables; and the others are dead game by Wenix, and two landscapes by Zuccarelli. If Clumber possessed no other paintings than these gems, the time and attention of the tourist would be repaid by their examination.
The chapel is a very pleasing apartment, admirably fitted for its purpose, and having a very sombre effect from the four windows of stained glass, in which the family arms are very handsomely emblazoned. In the dressing room upstairs are seven fine paintings in water colours, of ancient Roman taste, brought from Herculaneum. The bedrooms are most superb; the beds are fitted up in imitation of tents and pavilions, with their curtains even picturesquely arranged. In short, everything about the house breathes the essence of taste and "the very soul of magnificence".
Gateford Constablewick has a small village of its own name on the Sheffield road, 2 miles north-north-west of Worksop, and several scattered houses. It comprises about 1,100 acres of land, belonging principally to John Machin Esq. of Gateford Hill. A handsome stone mansion, half a mile north of the village, occupies the site of the ancient residence of the Lascells family. Raymoth is a large farm belonging to John Machin Esq., and the Duke of Newcastle has an estate here, and the owners have the manorial rights of their own property.
Hagginfield is but a small hamlet and constablewick, having only 850 acres of land belonging to the Dukr of Newcastle, 2 miles west-north-west of Worksop. It is crossed by the River Ryton and the canal, and has on its eastern side a fine bed of clay, which makes excellent bricks. and on its western verge is plenty of good limestone, and also the noted freestone quarry and Limekilns, called Lady Lee.
Osberton and Scofton are two lordships, forming a joint constablewick, and lying on opposite sides of the River Ryton and the canal, from 2 to 5 miles east of Worksop. They are both the property of George Savile Foljambe Esq. of Osberton Hall, an elegant modern mansion, with a portico of four Ionic pillars, supporting a highly ornamented architrave and pediment. The country around is very romantic, and is richly clothed with wood, a large portion of which has been planted by the present owner, who charitably supports a school at Scofton, on the north side of the Ryton, for the education of 20 poor children. In the hall is a valuable museum, consisting of a complete collection of British birds, several cases of foreign and geological specimens &c. &c., also a carving in alabaster representing the Assassination of Thomas-à-Becket, which is the original altar piece of Beauchief Abbey, near Sheffield. Another antique relic which the visitor will find here is a Roman altar, that was found some years ago at Littleborough. The east front of the hall opens upon a spacious lawn, shut in on one side by a noble boundary of oak, and on the other by a screen of thriving planations.
The two lordships comprise 3,841 acres, of which 1,592 are in Osberton. Chequer House, at the eastern extremity of the latter, is partly in Babworth parish, and is intersected by the Great Northern Railway, which has a small station here. Scofton was the property of the late Robert Sutton Esq., of whom it was purchased about 50 years ago by the late F.F. Foljambe Esq., who pulled down the hall. In 1833, Mr Foljambe erected a small neat church of stone, with a tower. It is situated in the pleasure grounds, a short distance from the hall, and is substantially seated with oak benches, and has a richly carved oak pulpit. The east window is beautifully ornamented with stained glass, containing the various arms of the family, from the Plantagenets to the present proprietor. The Rev. William Bury is the incumbent curate.
Shireoaks, 2½ miles west-north-west of Worksop, is a manor and chapelry, which had its name from an ancient oak that stood many cenruries on the spot where the three counties of Nottingham, York and Derby converge. A fine thriving young oak occupies the site of the original tree, which is not remembered by any person now living. The Duke of Newcastle is the sole owner. William de Lovetot gave this lordship to Worksop Priory, but at the dissolution of the religious houses, Henry VIII granted it to Robert and Hugh Thornhill, together with Gateford and Darfould, for the yearly rent of 13s 4d. From the Thornhills it passed to the Hewitts, with whom it remained till Sit Thomas Hewitt disinherited his daughter for marrying against his will, and bequeathed this estate to his godson, John Thornhaugh Esq., for the term of his life, after which it passed to the Rev. john Hewitt, rector of Harthill, who built and endowed here a chapel of ease in 1809. in the following year he sold the Shireoak estate to the Duke of Norfolk who, after the deatj of of Mr Hewitt, pulled down the ancient manor house, except a small portion of the walls, fitted up as a dwelling by r Froggatt. Since the Duke purchased the estate, much of its fine timber has fallen a sacrifice to the woodman's axe.
The chapel is a neat stone edifice, consisting of a nave and chancel, with an octangular tower, surmounted by a cupola. The Rev. William Senior Salman M.A. is the chaplain, and the Duke of Newcastle the patron, in consideration of his paying £10 a year to the vicar of Worksop, agreeable to the original settlement made by the Duke of Norfolk. The endowment consists of £90 a year. A national school was established in the chapel vestry in 1841, and 26 children attend. Shireoaks contains about 850 acres, and is crossed by the Chesterfield canal and the Ryton rivulet. The Manchester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire railway has a small station here.
Sir William Cavendish, nephew of the first Earl of Devonshire, was created Baron Ogle, and Viscount Mansfield, in 1620, Baron Cavendish of Bolsover on 1628, Earl of Newcastle in 1631, Marquis of Newcastle in 1643, and Earl Ogle and Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne in 1644. This was the famous Equestrian Duke of Newcastle, who reside at Welbeck. He died in 1676, and was succeeded in his honours and estates by his son, Henry Cavendish, who married the daughter of William Pierrepoint Esq. of Thoresby Hall, and died in 1691, when his titles became extinct, in consequence of his leaving no male issue.
Margaret, one of his daughters and co-heiresses, married John Holles, fourth Earl of Clare, who in 1694 was created Marquis of Clare, and Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Previous to his marriage, he resided at Haughton, but he afterwards removed to Welbeck, where he died in 1711 when, for want of issue, his titles became extinct. He bequeathed his estates to his sister's son, Thomas Pelham, second Baron Pelham, of Laughton, in Sussex, who assumed the name of Holles, and in 1714 was created Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and in 1715 Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne. At his death, in 1768, all his titles became extinct, except those of Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne, and Baron Pelham of Stanemere, which descended in marriage with his niece Catharine, to Henry Fiennes Clinton, ninth Earl of Lincoln, who assumed the name of Pelham, and died in 1794. His son, Thomas Pelham Clinton, died in the following year, and was succeeded by his son, the late most noble Henry Pelham Fiennes Pelham Clinton, Duke of Newcastle, Earl of Lincoln, K.G. &c. &c., who died January 12th 1851, and was succeeded by his eldest son, the present, most noble Henry Pelham Fiennes Pelham Clinton, Duke of Newcastle and Earl of Lincoln, who was born in 1811, and highly distinguished himself in the House of Commons, before he succeeded to the dukedom.
The Priory, sometimes called the Abbey, was the greatest ornament of Worksop, and stood in that part of the town called Radford, adjacent to those fine specimens of gothic architecture, the Church and the Abbeygate, near which some few fragments of the cloisters &c. still remain, and some parts of the monastic walls have been converted into small dwelling houses. It was founded in the reign of Henry I, by William de Lovetot, for canons regular of St Augustine, and dedicated to St Mary and St Cuthbert. The first grant
"consisted of the whole chapelry of his whole house, with the tithes and oblations of the church of Worksop, in which these canons were, with the land and tithes, and all things belonging to the church, and the fishpond and mill near to the church, and a meadow adjoining to them; of the tithes of the fence of all his set rents, as well in Normandy as in England; of a carucate of land in the field of Worksop, and of a meadow called Cratelu; of all the churches of his demesne in the honour of Blyth, with all the lands, tithes of pannage, honey, venison, fish, fowl, malt and mills, and all other things of which tithes were wont to be given"
This grant was confirmed by King Henry the First, and added to by Richard de Lovetot, who approved of his father's gifts, granting also his part of the church of Clareborough, and two bovates of land. Cecilia de Lovetot gave the church of Dinsley, in Hertfordshire, also to this monastery, but that grant was not valid until confirmed by Pope Alexander the Third. Gerard de Furnival granted to it "pasture for 40 head of cattle in his park at Worksop, every year, from the close of Easter to the feast of St Michael". He also gave his body to be buried in the Monastery (this was always considered a bequest of some value, as it brought large sums in the shape of oblations, offerings, masses, requiems &c.; there have been many instances where the monks of one church have, by force, taken a rich man's body from the monks of another, in order to bring all the grist to their own mill!), and with it he gave to the canons a third of his mill at Bradfield, with the suit of the men of that soke. His wife, the pious Matilda, also granted them a mark yearly out of her mills at Worksop, to celebrate the anniversary of her husband. bertha, the widow of Sir Thomas de Lovetot, afterwards gave them an additional four pounds of silver out of the said mills at Bradfield, and they subsequently received many other benefactions, all of which were confirmed by the Roman Pontiffs, until Henry VIII, whether for the good of his own soul or not, we will not pretend to say, thought proper to take them into his own hands. It appears from a bull of Pope Alexander, in 1161, that the canons had a power of appointing the priests for their parish churches, "who were answerable to the bishop for the cure of the people's souls, and to the prior for the profits of their livings." At its dissolution, the yearly revenue of the priory was valued at £239 15s 5d.
The Church, which belonged to, and has the same tutelary Saint as the priory, has yet an august appearance, and its two lofty towers strike the eye of the beholder with an impression equal to those of Westminster Abbey. It is one of the principal remaining specimens of Norman architecture, in which style it was originally entirely constructed, but in the exterior much of the English style has been mixed with it. In form and size it resembles a Cathedral.. The west entrance is superb, copnsisting of a beautiful receding Norman arch with diagonal ornaments, and the towers which surmount it have Anglo-Norman, or circular and pointed arched windows in different gradations. On the north side of the edifice are some fragments of the Priory, and in the meadows below many traces of foundations have at various times been discovered. But the most spendid of antique architecture is the ruinous Chapel of St Mary, at the south-west corner, the windows of which are still in good preservation, and are perhaps the most perfect model of the lancet shape now remaining in England
On entering teh church, the visitor is struck with its spacious and venerable appearance, though it now consists of only a nave and two side aisles, 135 feet in length, the chancel and centre tower having long since disappeared. The roof of the nave is supported by eight pillars on each side, alternately cylindrical and octangular, joined by Norman arches, ornamented by quarterfoils. Over these are two alternate rows of windows, one over the arches, the other over the intervals above the respective pillars. The old pulpit was curiously ornamented in the Norman style, but this is now supplied by a modern neat oak one, which is placed in the centre aisle, over which is a high sounding board. In 1841 the churchyard was enlarged by the addition of three roods and sixteen perches of land. These improvements were completed at a cost of £400, defrayed by a rate on the parish. In 1846, the church was thoroughly restored both internally and externally, the contract for which was £2,122, 12s, twoards which £300 out of the church rates, £600 for old materials, and £1,429 19s raised by subscription, of which the Duke of Newcastle gave £500, the Duke of Portland £100, Earl Manvers £105, Sir Thomas W. White £50, Rev. John Stacey £50, Henry Owen Esq. £50, and the two churchwardens, viz. Mr Francis Henson and Mr John Miller, £40 each, and many more handsome subscriptions. Through the untiring efforts of the latter gentleman the whole of the subscriptions were collected.
The monuments are only remarkable for their antiquity, and are principally in the memory of the Furnivals and Lovetots, or as the Cleerone, who showed them to the Laird, designated them "morals of antikkity, merable of the Funnyfields and Lovecats". Most of these mutilated tombs have been removed from their original places. The approach to this venerable pile is through the Abbey Gate, a fine specimen of the latest gothic mode of workmanship, with aprtments over it, covered with a pointed roof, and lighted with florid windows and niches of great beauty. The statues which stood on each side of the gateway are gone, but there are still three over it. The gateway itself has a flat ceiling of oak, with gothic groins and supportes, but this is nothing more than the floor of the room above, which is now used as the boys' national school. The gateway was double, with a wicket, and the whole, even now, is a pleasing specimen of ancient architecture, especially when viewed in connection with the venerable cross that stands in front, and consists of a lofty conical flight of stairs, surmounted by a slender pillar, which has long since lost its transverse capital. Henry VIII, in 1542, granted to Francis, Earl of Shrewsbury,
"the whole site and precinct of the Priory of Worksop, and all messuages, and houses, and several closes and fields, and four acres of arable land in Manton, in the parish of Worksop, to hold to him and his heirs, of the King, in capite, by the service of the tenth part of the kinght's fee, and also by the royal service of finding the King's right hand glove at his coronation, and of supporting his right arm that day, as long as he should hold the sceptre in his hand; paying yearly £23 8s rent."
This grant was said to have been made in exchange for the manor of Farnham Royal, in the county of Surrey, which the Furnivals had held for many generations, by the aforesaid coronation service.
Edward VI granted to Henry Holbeach, Bishop of Lincoln, and his successors, in pure and perpetual arms, the reversion of the Rectory, and all the tithes of corn, hay &c., of the parish of Worksop, and all that yearly rent of £35 reserved upon the demise made to William Chastelyn, merchant of London. This grant was conferred on the said bishop in consequence of his having given up to the King many of the ancient possessions of the see of Lincoln, in which the impropriation of Worksop still remains, but is leased to the Duke of Newcastle, who has also the advowson of the vicarage, which is valued in the King's books at £12 4s 2d, now £388, and is in the incumbency of the Rev. James Appleton. The yearly sums of £12 on lady Day, and £6 13s 4d on Michaelmas Day, are paid out of the great tithes to the vicar, and he also received £10 annually from the Duke of Newcastle, for not exercising his right to the patronage of Shireoaks Chapel.
Worksop, with the eastern suburb of Radford, is a pleasant market town, situated on the Sheffield and Newark road, eight miles west by south of Retford, 12 miles north by east of Mansfield, 18 miles east by south of Sheffield by the turnpike, or 16 by the Manchester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire Railway, which has a handsome station here, opened in July 1849. It is 26 miles north of Nottingham, and 146 miles north by west of London. On the approach from the north-east, the town has a very picturesque appearance. The magnificent towers of the church are seen lying in a valley, and the elevated ground in the distance, beautifully clothed with wooded scenery, finely contrasting with the cultivated scene around you. Its situation is indeed delightful, and both nature and art have contributed to its beauty. The houses are, in general, well built, and the two principal streets spacious and well paved, and there are more noblemen's seats in this vicinity than any place in the kingdom can boast ofm so distant from London. Much of the bustle of business enlivens it, from being on the post road to Sheffield, and having the advantage of the Chesterfield Canal, and of the Manchester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire Railway, which runs close to the north side of the town. Though there are no manufactureres here, yet the place is noted for the making of agricultural machinery, and Windsor chairs, and the condition of the poor is better than in most other places. The numerous malt kilns, and several extensive corn mills, afford considerable employment, and the Duke of Newcastle has let, at the various extremities of the town, upwards of 60 acres of land at a moderate rent, as cottage allotments. There is no doubt but the poor will find as great a benefactor in his Grace of Newcastle, as they formerly had in that of Norfolk.
The Market, which is held on Wednesday, is well supplied, as also are the two annual fairs, held on March 31st for cattle, and on October 14th for horses, cattle and pedlery. The fair, which was held on St Waldberg's Day, June 21st, has long been obsolete. The Corn Exchange is a handsome building in Potter Street, in the Itlaian style, with a convenient and covered market at the back for butchers, poultry, butter, eggs, fruit &c. It was erected at the cost of £2,600, in £10 shares, and opened July 2nd 1851. In the upper storey of the Exchange is a spacious and handsome room, in which the courts, public meetings and assemblies are held. in the front is an illuminated clock, made by Mr Barlow, and given by the Duke of Newcastle. There is also a public news-room and a mechanics' institute.
The town of Worksop has been much improved over the last twenty years, and since the opening of the railway, many new houses have been erected near the station. Mr George Footit erected, in 1850, a large tillage warehouse, called the Portland Warehouse, and also in 1852 a steam bone mill, of 16 horse power, close to the railway.
Besides the Abbey Church, there are four other places of worship in the town, viz. A methodist Chapel in Bridge Street, built in 1813; an Independent Chapel in West Gate, erected in 1830; an Association Methodist Chapel, built in 1837; and the Catholic Chapel, erected in 1840, which is situated on an eminance at the top of Park Street, and was built by the Duke of Norfolk at a cost of nearly £3,000. It is a gothic building in the Tudor style, and while its roportions and details have been carefully selected, its carved enrichments have been executed with much freedom. In the interior, the harmony and simplicity of the nave, with the traceried roof, command the eye of the beholder, as well as the ancient architecture developed in the organ loft, the entrance porch, and the seats or stalls. The chancel is semi-hexangular, lighted by three windows of stained glass, the centre representing our Saviour and the Blessed Virgin, and the side ones the four Evangelists. The altar is of White Roche Abbey stone, richly carved,, and upon it rests an eleborate oak screen, the crocketed canopies and pinnacles of which reach the line of the window sill. Parts of the whole composition are slightly coloured and gilded after the ancient manner. The general effect of the design is exceedingly good, and reflects great credit on the architects. Messrs Weightman and Hadfield of Sheffield. The Rev. James Jones is the priest. A neat school was also erected at the same time near the chapel. The chapel at Sand Hill, neat the Park gate, erected and endowed about 70 years ago by Charles, the tenth Duke of Norfolk, of the Howard family, has been converted into a dwelling house.
The Boys' and Girls' National Schools were opened in 1813, and are supported by voluntary subscriptions. The boys are taught at the Abbey Gate, and the girls in a neat building erected a few years ago, near the church. A commodious infant school was established in 1837 by Robert Ramsden Esq., who also created a house for the master, and liberally supports the institution. The building is cemented, and has a very neat appearance. Sabbath Schools are attached to the Abbey Church, and all the chapels, which are numerously attended.
The Gas Works were erected in 1832 at a cost of £5,000, in £10 shares, on the canal bank, by Mr Malam. The Music Hall, in Ward Lane, was built in 1843 by Mr Thomas Ellis, which also serves as a theatre. The Savings Bank was commenced in 1817, and a handsome building appropriated to its use was erected in 1844, in Bridge Street, at a cost of about £300, taken from the surplus fund. Mr John Nunn is the secretary.
Charities. In 1716, the sum of £230, left in 1623 and 1628 by James Woodhouse, William Medley and Mary Storne, was laid out in the purchase of 17a 3r 30p of land in the parish of Ecclesfield, let for £30 per annum which, with the interest of £316 2s 6d, accumulated out of the former income, and now in the Savings Bank, swells the total yearly value of this charity to upwars of £30, out of which 4s each is given to 20 poor widows; 10s to the parish clerk; £3 to the vicar, for preaching sermons on Good Friday and St Thomas' Day; £14 to the Master of the National School; £14 to 60 poor families; and the remainder is expended in repairing the highways &c. In 1581, john Smith left a yearly rent charge of 10s to be distributed on Good Friday, amongst 30 poor persons, out of a house and garden now belonging to Mrs Bates, but anciently the property of the Ellots, from whom this is called the Ellot's Charity. The £20 left in 1681 by Rosamond Magson, was lost many years ago.
The Worksop Union comprises 26 townships, of which 11 are in Nottinghamshire, viz. Worksop, Carburton, Cuckney, Norton, Holbeck, Langwith, Carlton-in-Lindrick, Blyth, Hodsock, Styrrup, Oldcoates and Harworth. 11 townships are in Yorkshire, and four in Derbyshire. The Union House, situated on the common, is a handsome stone building, with a centre and wings, built in 1836 at a cost of £4,400. It includes three acres of land, and accommodates 20o paupers. The chairman is the Duke of Newcastle; Clerk and Superintendent Registrar, Mr John Whall; Master and Matron, Mr R. Marsden and Mrs Sarah Lambert; and Messrs Sampson White and john Glossop are the relieving officers, the former for Worksop and the latterfor Harthill. William Coates is registrar of births and deaths for Worksop district. Worksop County Court District comprises all the 26 parishes &c. in the Union, and also Boughton, Budby, Clipstone, Edwinstowe, Kirton, Ollerton, Pearlthorpe, Rufford, Walesby and Wellow. The court is held monthly at the Corn Exchange office, Bridge Street. Richard Wildman Esq is the judge; Mr W. Newton (of Retford), clerk; Mr John Wahll, assistand clerk; and Mr T. Rippingale (of Retford), high bailiff. petty Sessions for the Hatfield division of Bassetlaw are held at the Corn Exchange every alternate Wednesday, and Messrs Owen and Brodhurst are clerks to the magistrates. Worksop is one of the polling places for the Borough of East Retford, in which all the freeholders of Bassetlaw are entitled to vote for two members of parliament.