This page contains the Extra-Parochial places for Shropshire
"BOSCOBEL, an extra-parochial place, * in the Hales Owen division of the hundred of Brimstry, containing 5 houses, and 30 inhabitants, about 6 miles east of Shiffnal, remarkable in history, as the place in which King Charles the second concealed himself from his pursuers, after the unfortunate battle of Worcester. Boscobel house is now the property of Thomas Evans, Esq.
[* Boscobel is connected with Donington parish, so that it is not clearly extra-parochial.]
HISTORY OF KING CHARLES THE SECOND'S EXPEDITION. BY A CAVALIER.
[In this narrative the sentiments, and often, the language of the author have been preserved. The history is so original and interesting, that it was thought advisable to introduce it at full length.]
About the beginning of June, 1650, the young king, who had been for some time an exile in France, receiving an invitation from the royal party in Scotland, embarked at Scheveling, and having encountered a violent storm, by which he was cast upon a Danish island, and escaped the pursuit of the republican fleet, which had been sent out under Admiral Popham, to intercept his passage, landed at the Spey in the north of Scotland.
In the mean time, the Parliament of Scotland had deliberated on the expediency of raising an army for his Majesty's service, and an act was passed for training every fourth man through. out the kingdom, who was capable of bearing arms. The Earl of Leven, was made General of the foot; Holborn, Major General; David Lesley, Lieutenant General of the horse, and Montgomery, Major General. The supreme command was reserved for his Majesty, who, at his landing, was received with the strongest demonstrations of affection and joy, and on the fifteenth of July, was solemnly proclaimed king at Edinburgh Cross. His coronation was to have takenplace in the 'following month. But his Majesty had not been long among his Scotch subjects before they discovered an inclination to impose upon him such conditions as were very inconsistent with royal dignity.
When he arrived at Dundee, new propositions from the parliament and the Kirk, (for these two bodies ruled in conjunction) were sent to his Majesty to sign; and when, not long after, the town of Aberdeen presented him with £150, the committee of estates sent to different places enjoining them to bring whatever money or plate they had to bestow, into the publick treasury appointed by that committee. They then began to employ themselves in reforming his Majesty's retinue, and in purging his household of those malignants, (as they stiled them) whom he bad taken into his service. These were prohibited all employment both about the royal person, and in the army. His Majesty himself was surrounded by a strong guard, who continually watched his motions.
The English commonwealth having received full intelligence of the proceedings of the Scotch, and of their design to place his Majesty on the throne, resolved on open war, and prepared an army to invade that kingdom. They had at this time, a sufficient force at their disposal. Ireland was almost wholly subdued, and Cromwell, leaving his son-in-law Ireton as Deputy in his stead, with other experienced officers, to whom he committed the task of finishing the conquests he had himself so successfully begun, returned to England at the critical time when Fairfax, either from disinclination on his own part, to engage in a war against his brethren in Scotland, or by the persuasion of others, was about to resign the command of the army, Cromwell was easily induced to assume it, and advanceing to the borders of Scotland, about the end of June, sent, from the head quarters at Berwick, a declaration from the parliament of England, and another from the army, in order to justify their proceedings, and to state the reason of hostilities. The Scotch, alarmed at this sudden invasion, directed several papers to Sir Arthur Haslerigge, in which they expostulated with the English commander, and urged the solemn covenant, and the former union of the two nations.
The English army, nevertheless, moved forward, and by the end of July, arrived at Haddington, from whence Major General Lambert, and Colonel Whaley, being sent with a body of horse towards Musselborough, were attacked in the rear; but after an obstinate contest, in which Lambert was wounded and had very nearly been taken prisoner, the Scotch were repulsed with loss. The next day, the English were again attacked by Major General Montgomery, and Colonel Straughan, but the Scotch, not only failed in their object, but were completely routed, and pursued so far, that their camp was in danger of being surprised.
After this success, Cromwell marched onward, and encamping at a short distance from the Scotch army, endeavoured to bring them to an engagement. Being unable to accomplish this design, he ascended the Pentland hills, and took Collington house, and Readhall. In the latter, Lord Hamilton was taken prisoner, and a considerable quantity of ammunition and provisions fell into the hands of the English commander.
The hostile armies having moved for some time at a little distance from each other, on the opposite sides of a bog, only exchanging at intervals a few great shot, without coming to an engagement, Cromwell not being able, though very desirous to draw out the enemy, and being reduced to great straits, by the scarcity of provisions, retired back to the Pentland hills, from thence to Musselborough, and not long after to Dunbar. At this tune, it was thought, he was meditating a secret flight to England. But the Scotch pressed with advantage upon his rear, and General Lesley having the command of a high hill, at the foot of which he had stationed his main body, contrived to coop up the English within a narrow neck of land. There was now a universal jubilee in the Scotch camp, and a confident assurance prevailed that they could beat the English at their pleasure. But Cromwell, whose unwearied vigilance prevented any surprize, after gaining a pass at Copperspeth, between Edinburgh and Berwick, of which the Scotch had possessed themselves, not only extricated himself from the difficulty, but taking advantage of the presumptuous confidence and security that prevailed in the Scotch army, made that victory his own, which they had so surely promised to themselves. So complete was his success that they never recovered that fatal blow, which led the way to the entire conquest of their country.
The memorable battle of Dunbar, by which Cromwell was raised from a situation apparently hopeless to the height of triumph, was fought on Tuesday the third of September. The greater part of the Scotch, were either slain or taken prisoners; the horse fled, and most of the principal officers; and among the rest, General Sir James Lumsdale, Sir William Douglas, Lord Cranstoun, Lord Libberton (who was mortally wounded in the battle,) and Adjutant General Bickerton, were taken, together with all their ammunition, a great quantity of arms, and 200 stand of colours which were hung up in Westminster Hall. Immediately after the victory, some regiments were sent to take possession of Leith, a commodious port for receiving provisions from England, and Cromwell with the main army, entered the capital of Scotland.
The total defeat of the Scotch army at Dunbar, was not so great a source of grief to his Majesty, as the loss of two persons who were very dear to him, which happened about this time,- his sister, the princess Elizabeth, who died at Carisbrook castle, in the isle of Wight, after a lingering indisposition, under which she had laboured since the tragical death of her father; and, his brother-in-law, the prince of Orange, who had assisted his Majesty, on all occasions, to the utmost extent of his power. This prince died about the end of October; and soon after his death, his consort, the princess Mary, was delivered of a son.
His Majesty was the less affected by the late defeat, because he perceived that success would only have increased the imperiousness of the Scotch covenanters, whose severe impositions became so insufferable, that at length, taking horse in his ordinary habit, and accompanied by three, only, of his most trusty attendants, as if he had merely designed a hawking excursion, he departed secretly towards the north of Scotland, where he had been informed that the Marquess of Huntly, the Earls of Athol and Seaforth, Lords Ogleby and Newborough, and Major General Middleton, with the Gordons, and the men of Athol, were ready to appear for him in considerable force. His Majesty, however, would not cast himself upon them till be knew, more certainly, how far they were able to assist him; and, therefore, went first to Lord Dedup's, on the northern confines of Fife, intending to remain there privately, till he received their answer; and according to its tenor, he had resolved either to repair immediately to them, or again to leave the kingdom.
The sudden and secret departure of the king greatly perplexed the committee of estates at St. Johnston's, their own jealousy giving them reason to apprehend that he was going to Middleton, and the men of Athol. His Majesty's departure was not so secret as to prevent them from discovering, upon enquiry, that he was at the mansion of Lord Dedup. On receiving this information, it was warmly debated among them what course should be taken in reference to his return. Some of the more arrogant of the party were of opinion " That since he had thus deserted them, they ought not to trouble themselves any more about him, but leave him to himselfand his own ways;" but the more moderate thought it adviseable "to send to his Majesty, and let him know their resentment on account of his sudden departure, and his adherence to the malignants." This resolution was at length adopted through the influence of several lords and leading men even of the presbytery itself, who, sensible of the evil consequences of divisions, and of the necessity of uniting against the common enemy, began seriously to close in favour of his Majesty, with those of the royal party, who had by degrees crept into power. The resolution being formed, that no possible expedient to bring back his Majesty should be omitted, Major General Montgomery was ordered to march, immediately, with a body of horse, to Lord Dedup's, and to endeavour, by earnest supplications, to bring his Majesty with him to St. Johnston's. Montgomery having arrived at the place, first surrounded the house, and then sent to inform his Majesty that be came by order of the committee of estates, to entreat his Majesty to return. On being admitted to the King's presence, he fell at his Majesty's feet, and humbly besought him to forget all that had been done derogatory to his authority, and to be assured that on his return he would meet with greater duty and respect; urging at the same time, the ill consequences of deserting those who had so zealously appeared for him. His Majesty, though he ill digested the memory of those restraints and neglects he had so lately endured, and was earnestly solicited by the Gordons, and the men of Athol, to adhere entirely to them, who would undertake to secure him against the Kirk, and all others that should oppose him, was at length overcome by Montgomery's repeated importunities, enforced by the powerful persuasions of others who were as discreet as they were loyal, and returned to St Johnston's to the satisfaction of the moderate of all parties, both covenanters and royalists. By the good understanding of these hitherto opposing factions, affairs proceeded in a much more prosperous career than before, though not without some disturbance from the Ultras on both sides. On the Kirk part, a different faction of covenanters that associated chiefly in the west, and in some parts of the south of Scotland, formed themselves into a distinct sect, and were much dissatisfied with the recent transaction at St. Johnston's. On the royal side, the confederates of the north, were with difficulty pacified. The malcontents of the Kirk set forth a remonstrance to the committee of estates, in which they accused them "of too much haste and precipitation in their treaty with the King, and of entertaining and receiving him among them, before he had given any convincing evidence of a real change, nay when by divers actions (as they alledged) he had manifested the contrary." They also declared, "their utter mislike and disowning of theirs and the king's proceedings," and asserted that his profession of the cause was merely counterfeit," as they said appeared "by his favouring and frequenting the wicked company of Scotch and English malignant; that therefore they absolutely refused to submit to his power and authority." They also declared, "against their intention of invading England for his sake, being a nation not subordinate to them, without consideration of the lawfulness, or the necessity thereof"
The principal persons of this faction, were Colonel Kerr, Colonel Straughan, Lord Warreston, and Sir John Chiesly. They had a committee or synod of their own, called the synod of Glasgow, from which was issued a declaration (to the same effect as the remonstrance) which they sent by four of their commissioners to those of the Kirk at St. Johnston's. But this declaration of the synod at Glasgow, as well as the remonstrance of the western association, was very offensive to the leading men, even of the Kirk party, who endeavoured to bring over Kerr and Straughan, to their side. For this purpose, they sent the Earl of Cassilis, Lord Brody, Mr. Robert Douglas, and others to treat with them; but they were inexorable, and peremptorily declared both against the King and the Lords, on the one side, and against sectaries (as they termed the English army) on the other, resolving equally to oppose both.
The committee of estates were not, however, so anxious on this subject, as they were to bring in Huntly, Middleton, and the rest of the royal party in the north, who had refused to submit, though the King's authority was employed, enjoining them to come in within fifteen or twenty days. Having taken Aberdeen, they marched directly towards St. Johnston's, ill attacked Sir John Browne's regiment, and routed it. On the march, they were presented with an act of indemnity, which they declined, and would not be induced to submission, unless they might be received into places of trust. This proposition not being granted, they marched with two thousand foot, and nine hundred horse, within a mile of the town, and General Lesley being at hand with 1500 horse, an engagement would have ensued, had not his Majesty seasonably interposed and changed into a treaty what might have proved a bloody conflict.
The ministers at Sterling, were so far from consenting to this treaty, that they passed sentence of excommunication upon Middleton, to the great displeasure of the committee at St. Johnston's, who now began to see the necessity of taking in all parties, in order to oppose the common enemy. Argyle, and Douglas, were earnest for this measure, and Cassillis by degrees was brought to comply. The Earl ofLithgow and others, were consequently declared by the Kirk, capable of trust, and the estates having resolved upon a general meeting, to be held at St. Johnston's, consisting of the King, Lords, Barons, Burgesses, and assembly of ministers, to consult for the safety of the Kirk, King, and kingdom, summoned the commissioners of the Kirk at Stirling, to adjourn their sitting thither.
In answer to this summons, the commissioners of the Kirk at Stirling, sent an excuse by their messengers, raising many objections to the convention, advising them to be at a greater distance from the King and his council, and to fix upon Stirling as a more convenient place of meeting. The estates replied that they considered St. Johnston's the best place, and that if the commissioners at Stirling would not join their meeting, they would by themselves consult for their own security. After many debates, it was at last determined by a majority of voices, to go to St. Johnston's, though the committee of war remained at Stirling.
There now seemed to be an almost unanimous agreement among the several factions, against the common enemy, the English army. Some forces alone in the highlands stood out and refused to submit. Middleton was employed with a new commission and instructions from the King, estates and Kirk to treat with them, and several of the Scotch Lords, who had formerly been out of favour, were received, among whom were the Duke of Hamilton, and Lords Lauderdale, Leith, Dedup, and Crawford, who were designed for commands in the army; Some of these were admitted to sit in parliament.
In the west of Scotland, Colonel Kerr, was so far induced to comply with the Grandees of the Kirk, that he took prisoner Colonel Straughan, who still stood out, and was inclined to side with the English; but not long after, Kerr himself, attacking the English forces, under Major General Lambert, was routed, and with several other officers taken prisoner.
The siege of Edinburgh castle, having been carried on with great vigour for three months, it was surrendered to Cromwell, the 24th of December, with all the arms and the magazine that belonged to it, by the Governor Colonel William Dundas, son- in-law to General Leven. About the same time Nesbit, Berthwick, and Roswell, submitted to the English.
Soon after the reconciliation between the King and the estates, the solemnity of his Majesty's coronation took place at Scoots, the usual place of coronation for the Kings of Scotland, where forty-seven monarchs, before his present Majesty had been invested with the insignia of royalty. It was celebrated with loud acclamations, bonfires, and firing of cannon, and with as much pomp and ceremony as the state of affairs would permit. The nobility, barons, and burgesses, went from St. Johnston's to Scoon, in their robes, bringing with them the crown, sword, and sceptre; the Scotch forces under arms, lining the road as they passed along. In the presence chamber, where the Earl of Angns waited as Lord Chamberlain, was placed a chair of state, on which his Majesty, surrounded by his nobility and attendants, was seated. After a low obeisance from all present, the Marquess of Argyle, in a short speech declared "the affections of the parliament, the assembly and the people to his Majesty, and their hopes of good from him, to make them happy, in bringing England and all their enemies into subjection to him, and them. He added that the parliament of Scotland were come to present his Majesty With the crown, sword, and sceptre.
His Majesty was then attended by all his train, marching in order before him to the Kirk of Scoon, where, in the middle of a large stage of twenty-four feet square, was erected another with an ascent of two steps, on the top of which was placed a chair of state for his Majesty. The canopy of crimson velvet, under which the King walked, was supported by Lords Drummond, Carnegie, Ramsey, Johnstoun, Brechin, and Yester; his train was borne by four other Earl's sons, Lords Erskine, Montgomery, Newbottle, and Machlene; the supporters of the canopy being supported by six others, the sons of noblemen. On his Majesty's right hand, was the Lord Grand Constable; on his left, the Lord Grand Marshall; the honours were carried before him by the chief nobility. Immediately before his Majesty went the Earl of Argyle carrying the crown; before him, the sceptre was borne by the Earl of Crawford, and Lindsay; the sword by the Earl of Rothes; and the spurs by the Earl of Eglinton. When they had entered the Kirk, his Majesty took the usual oath, which his predecessors, the Kings of Scotland, were accustomed to take at their coronation. One of each of the three estates of Scotland, the Marquess of Argyle, (as one of the nobles) one Baron, and one Burgess, holding the crown amongst them, offered it to the King; they then delivered it to three ministers of the assembly of the Kirk of Scotland, who were appointed by the estates of parliament to present it to him. At the presentation of the crown to the. King by the three ministers, one of them made his address in this form; "Sir, I do present unto you, King Charles, the crown and dignity of this realm." Then, turning his face towards the people, he said, "are ye not willing to have him for your King, and to become subject to him?" On which, the King turning himself to them, the people cried out with a loud voice, "God save King Charles the second." After he had been anointed by the three ministers, the crown was set upon his head by the Marquess of Argyle; the sceptre was given into his hand by the Earl of Lindsay; and the sword carried before him by the Earl of Rothes. As soon as the crown was put upon his head, his Majesty made this short speech to the people, " I do esteem the affections of my good people, more than the crowns of many kingdoms; and shall be ready, by God's assistance, to bestow my life for your defence, wishing to live no longer than that I may see religion and this kingdom flourish in all happiness;" adding many other expressions of regard and affection to the people. Mr. Robert Douglas, afterwards, delivered an hortatory oration, or sermon, before his Majesty.
The ceremonies of the coronation being over, a plentiful entertainment was prepared, and the King sat down at one table, and the Lords at another; many, compliments and expressions of joy passing between them, during the repast. After dinner they returned to. St. Johnston's in the same order and pomp in which they came to Scoon.
The Scotch now prepared to raise a numerous army. His Majesty himself designed to go into the north, and set up his standard at Aberdeen, intending to appear at the head of his army. The Duke of Hamilton was appointed Lieutenant General, and David Lesley Major General; Middleton was to be Lieutenant General of the horse, and Major General Massey was to command in chief all the English forces. Sir John Brown was appointed Governor of Stirling, and Colonel Straughan was excommunicated for complying with the English army, and declaring against the proceedings of the estates of Scotland.
The parliament of Scotland, after a short adjournment, sat again about the beginning of March, when several lords were admitted, but not without much opposition, to their seats in the house. Among these, were the Duke of Hamilton, the Marquess of Handy, the Earl of Callender, and the Earl of Crawford and Lindsay. They had much indulgence shown them as to the form of submission, called the stool of repent. ance, and it was observed that the Duke of Hamilton performed his penance in a very stately manner, a table and a cushion, covered with black velvet, being prepared for him and on the same day, he gave a grnnd entertainment, to which many noblemen nnd persons of distinction, both of the presbyterian, and the royal party, were invited.
A committee was appointed at the beginning of this session, consisting of the Duke of Hamilton, the Marquess of Argyle, the Earls of Eglinton, Glencairne, Dumferling, Weems, and Callender, Chancellor Loudon, and Lord Kirkudbright, to consider of nffairs of state, and to examine and proceed against all who obstrncted the present designs. Some had their estates sequestered, and others were tried for their lives, for holding correspondence with the English army. Hume, and Timptallon, two very strong castles, which obstructed the passage between Edinburgh and Berwick, were, after a short siege, surrendered to the English commanders, Colonel Fenwick, nnd Colonel Monk.
The assemblies of the presbyters at Aberdeen and Stirling, discovered great discontent with the new levies,because so mnny. whom they esteemed malignants, were admitted to commands in the army, and allowed to bold their seats in parliament.: The commissioners of the Kirk, at St. Johnston's, endeavoured to remove their scruples, nnd reminded them of certain acts which commanded silence in matters of this nature, and forbade any one to speak against the publick transactions. of the state. The levies, therefore, went on with all possible speed. His Majesty himself was very active in giving out orders, and providing every thing necessary for raising a great army. At a general rendezvous, which was held in the east of Fife, he came into the field to encourage his soldiers by his personal presence, and made a speech to them in which he exhorted them to be valiant and faithful in his service; assuring them that he would rather die in the field, than be driven up into the mountains. He afterwards went to the assembly at Aberdeen, and endeavoured, by his presence and authority, to compose the differences among the. ministers there. In order to improve his interest, and maintain a correspondence abroad, he seat over the Earl of Dumferling as amhassador .to the states of Holland, Macdonnell, formerly Governor of Overysel, having long been his resident at the Hague. At the same time Lord Croft negotiated for him at the court of the King of Poland. By these, and other embassies, his Majesty, gained many compliments and fair promises, but reaped little or no advantage. Sir Henry Hide, his envoy to Constantinople, contending with Sir Thomas Baldish, who was there at the same time, as amhassador from the republick of England, was given up by the Vizier Hama, (who, like a trne politician, favoured the strongest party) to the disposal of Bend ish, who sent him over to England, where heing tried for his life, and condemned by the high court of justice, he was beheaded. A similar fate befel Captain Brown Bushell, an experienced naval officer, who had left the service of the parliament for that of his Majesty. He was beheaded on the 29th of March, 1651.
In the parliament of Scotland sitting at St. Johnston's, the Duke of Hamilton, and the royal influence, seemed to he most prevalent. The Marquess of Argyle, and other lords of the covenant party, were discontented, because they were not sufficiently noticed. The Earl of London, who had always by custom, been Lord Chancellor, was superseded, and Lord Raleigh substituted in his room. Among the discontented ministers, the principal were Mr. James Guthrie., who had been lung hefore confined for his clamours against the pro--mediate of the state, and still continued under restraint; Mr. Andrew Cant, who, though he had been brought by much persuasion, to a neutrality, if not to an absolute cola. pliance, remained so far refractory, that he joined with the synod of Glasgow, in protesting against the transaction, at Johnston's; and Mr. Durant, who, having been appointed by the Kirk; to attend the King as his chaplain, left the court, and betook himself . to retirement. On the other side Mr. Rohert Douglas, and Mr. David Dicks, so warmly favoured the measures of the royal party, that they inveighed vets. nently against all "who went about to keep up the same V malignants;" adding "that. now they mutt all become aye iron's bakes."
The parliament at St. Johnston's adjourned till the 17th of April, Waiting for the completion of the levies. In the mean time they devolved the civil power into the hands of a select council, and the military power into the hands of a committee of war, consisting of twenty persons, chosen out of the three estates.
Care was taken to fortify the town of Stirling. His Majesty often went thither to view the works, and hasten their completion, designing that place for his chief residence. He had obtained from the parliament, before their adjournment, an additional act for raising the levies to fifteen thousand foot, besides the horse, so that every thing was busily preparing for speedy action.
The English were not less diligent in pursuing their advantages, than the Scotch in reinforcing themselves. Blackness, a stronghold between Edingburgh and Stirling, was attacked by Colonel Monk, and soon surrendered on terms very advantageous to the besiegers; but the capture, not long after, of the Earl of Eglinton, a nobleman of great power and consideration, together with one of his sons, by Captain Crook, at Dumbarton, was a subject of greater concern to the King's party.
At the next meeting of the parliament of Scotland, they sat in close consultation about the militia, and other weighty and pressing matters of state. The court, at present, was kept at Stirling, which was also the head quarters, the whole Scotch army being quartered about the town. Middleton's northern levies amounted to nearly eight thousand, and it was strongly debated whether these forces should make up a distinct army by themselves, (as Middleton earnestly desired) or join the southern army. However, to prevent emulation and die. content between him and Lesley, his Majesty resolved to take the supreme command of the army himself.
The great business in debate in this sitting of parliament, was respecting a message from the king, in which he desired, first, that the act about the classes of malignants, might be annulled, and another act passed for its repeal; secondly, that there might be no mention of the name of malignants any more amongst them; and thirdly, that the Duke of Hamilton, the Earls of Seaforth, Callender, and others, might have full command.
The Marquess of Argyle made most opposition to granting these requests, and it was with great difficulty that the business was at last effected.
The twenty-ninth of May, being his Majesty's birth-day, was celebrated with much festivity. The parliament adjourned for that day, and his Majesty and the nobility dined together. The troops were drawn out, and at night the streets blazed with bonfires, and the cannon were fired from Stirling, Brunt bland, and the rest of the Scotch garrisons. The town of Dundee manifested its affection and loyalty to his Majesty in a particular manner. A large contribution was made for the King's assistance, and the citizens presented him with a stately tent, together with six pieces of ordnance, and equipped a regiment of horse, at their own charge.
In the beginning of June, the Scotch parliament closed. Before their dissolution they had given large commissions and instructions for the impressment of men in all parts of Scotland, beyond Fife, and in the western parts to hasten their new levies, which were to consist of fifteen thousand foot, besides horse. It was dissolved in a calm and peaceful manner, which tended to unite all interests, and to compose all controversies and differences among them. An unanimous determination prevailed to repress Cromwell and his English myrmidons. In order to ratify this union, they had passed the two grand acts which had been so long contended for the act of indemnity, and the act for repealing the classes of malignants.
The English, eagerly desirous to bring the Scotch army to an engagement, made at near approaches as possible; and, (while the Scotch forces lay encamped in Stirling park, and towards Torwood,) quartered about Lithgow, watching every opportunity to attack them. The Scotch, on the contrary, kept close in their trenches, and declined a battle, thinking it advisable to stay till the complement of their army should be made up by those levies, which were still expected to come out of the west, and some other parts. In order to expedite these, Argyle, Huntly, and Seaforth, were dispatched to their respective territories, to make their levies complete. Massey's instructions were to enter England with a body of English horse and foot, and in conjunction with the Duke of Buckingham and Lord Wilmot, to join a party in Lancashire, that designed to rise for the King, and for that purpose held a correspondence, not only with Scotland, but also with London, where the plot was principally contrived and promoted; but by the capture of a ship at Aire, which had been bound for the Isle of Man, and the seizure of Mr. Brickenhead, an agent in the affair, the whole confederacy was discovered. Mr. Thomas Cook of Gray's Inn, Mr. Gibbons, Mr. Love, Mr. Jenkins, Dr. Drake, and several other presbyterian ministers (who were one inveterate enemies of that cause in which they now conspired,) were immediately apprehended, and brought before the high court of justice. Two of these gentlemen, Mr. Love and Mr. Gibbons, were beheaded on Tower Hill, a little before the Scotch army entered England. Through the discovery of this plot, Massey's proposed expedition was, for a time, frustrated. Sudden action was, however, resolved on, for the English pressed so hard upon the Scotch army that the latter had no alternative, but, either speedily to give battle, or be shut up in their quarters, and reduced to a scarcity of provisions. The leaders of the Scotch army, therefore, consulted whether it would be better to engage the English in Scotland, or to give them the slip, and invade England. Different opinions were expressed upon this question, but his Majesty absolutely declared his to be for the invasion. He hoped, he said, that notwithstanding the late discovery, he had a sufficient number of friends left, who would readily join Lim at his approach. It was not long before this design was put into execution.
In the mean time, the English having failed in their endeavour to bring the Scotch to battle at Torwood, made it their next attempt to land some of their forces on the Fife side. With this view, Colonel Overton was sent with sixteen hundred foot, and four troops of horse, and with little trouble or Les effected a landing at Queen's ferry. Cromwell, at the same time, marched with his whole army close to the Scotch, intending to fall upon their rear, if they should move in that direction, and attempt to frustrate their enterprise. To drive the English out of Fife, four thousand horse and foot were appointed to march against them, under the command of Sir John Brown. To oppose thaw, and to assist and reinforce that part of the English army already landed in Fife, Major General Lambert, and Colonel Okey, with two regiments of horse, and two of foot, were transported over the water, and joining battle with Sir John Brown, completely overwhelmed him, taking Sir John himself, Colonel Buchanan, and 1400 men prisoners, and killing about two thousand. By this victory the English gained so firm a footing in Fife, that they were not easily to be repelled; and soon after, Brunt Island and Inchegawy, a strong castle upon the river Fife, were taken by surrender. His Majesty and the army were now impelled, by necessity, to take that course which had some time before been considered the most advantageous to march directly for England; for General Cromwell, that he might make himself master of the pass at Stirling, found it necessary first to attack St. Johnston's, which, after one day's siege, was taken. Stirling was next taken by General Monk, who advanced to that town on receiving intelligence that it was abandoned by the Scotch and royal forces, who, as soon as they heard that St. Johnston's was surrendered, began their march to the South. The main body of Cromwell's army returned over the Frith, and endeavoured to overtake them, but the Scotch were several days march before them, on the way to England. Major General Harrison, who, with about three thousand horse and dragoons, was in advance of the English army, was ready to attend the movements of the Scotch. Lambert, with as large a force, was ordered, by a council of war, to march with all possible expedition, and in conjuBction with Harrison, to endeavour to attack them in the rear.
General Cromwell began his march to England with a thousand horse and foot, the very same day (the 6th of August,) on which the royal army entered England by the way of Carlisle. In the expectation of their coming, a party in Wales began to rise, intending to join the Earl of Derby from the Isle of Man, but this design, undertaken precipitately and managed without order, soon proved abortive.
By the time his Majesty's army had advanced into Lancashire, it was beset both by the forces that followed him out of Scotland, and those that were raised in England. In the rear was General Cromwell, who had left Monk with a sufficient force to carry on the war in Scotland. In front were the two Major Generals, Lambert and Harrison, who were joined by two thousand of the militia out of Staffordshire; and four thousand men, and a Colonel Birch out of Lancashire, Cheshire, and other parts. On his flank appeared Lord Fairfax with a formidable body in Yorkshire; the city of London poured out her numerous militia, and the adjacent counties were strictly enjoined to send men and horses at their own charge. To complete the disaster, the Scotch army by no means remained entire, for no less than five thousand men having deserted at different times, not more than eleven or twelve thousand remained, when they entered England. His Majesty was also disappointed in his most sanguine expectation; that of being supported by the country. The most considerable force that joined him, was one troop of horse, commanded by the son of Lord Howard of Estrick; nor is this a subject of surprise, since the parliament forces had so overspread the country, that no opportunity was left to the well affected, to exert themselves in his Majesty's favour, Before the decisive blow was struck, we might have perceived ourselves in a lost and hopeless condition. There was, however, a great portion of courage and confidence among the JOVIAL CAVALIERS, even to the very last.
His Majesty, on his entrance into England, was proclaimed king of Great Britain, at the head of his army; and the same ceremony was observed in every market town through which he marched. Having forced his way to Warrington Bridge, in spite of Lambert's attempt to oppose him, both parties engaged near Knutsford Heath, with some little loss on the King's side. On the twenty second of August, his Majesty arrived at Worcester, of which he took possession, after one or two repulses from the republican forces that garrisoned the city. For this success his Majesty was much indebted to the inhabitants, who not only forebore to oppose his entrance, but even assisted in expelling the soldiers of the parliament. Here; the principal officers of the army held a consultation, whether it was most expedient to take up their quarters at Worcester, and there fortify themselves, or to make a resolute venture, and march with all speed to London. But in consideration of the long and tedious marches they had under- gone, and of the sick and Weary state of the army, it was determined to remain where they were, and to make good some passes in the neighbourhood. On the 27th of August a solemn fast was kept, and the next day, at a general rendezvous the country came in in far greater numbers than at any previous time since their arrival in England.
His majesty had, while on his march to Worcester, despatched messages and invitations to several governors of towns and castles, to deliver up those places which they had in possession. The principal of these were Sir Thomas Middleton, governor of Chirk castle, to whom the Earl of Derby also wrote; and Colonel Mackworth, governor of Shrewsbury. The letters to Sir Thomas Middleton were carried by a messenger, whom Sir Thomas caused to be seized, and sent to Wrexham. The letter and summons to the governor of Shrewsbury, were delivered by a trumpeter, and were to this purport:-
The Letter. "COLONEL MACKWORTH:- Having sent you herewith a summons to surrender into my hands my town, with the castle of Shrewsbury, I cannot but persuade myself you will do it, when I consider you are a gentleman of an ancient house, and of very different principles (as I am informed) from those with whom. your imployment ranks you at present. If you shall peaceably deliver them unto me, I will not only pardon you what is past, and protect you and yours in your persons, and all that belongs to you, but reward so eminent and seasonable a testimony ,of your loyalty with future trust and favour,- and do leave it to yourself to propose the particular, being upon that condition ready to grant you presently any thing you shall reasonably desire, and to approve myself your friend," - "C. R."
The Summons. "COLONEL MACKWORTH:- Being desirous to attempt all fair ways for recovering our own, before we proceed to force and extremity, and, (where the controversy is with subjects) accounting that a double victory which is obtained without effusion of blood, and where the hearts that of right belong to us are gained as well as their strengths. We do hereby summon you to surrender unto us our town with the castle of Shrewsbury, as in duty and allegiance, by the laws of God and the land, you are bound to do, thereby not only preventing the mischief which you may otherwise draw upon yourself; but also opening the first door to peace and quietness, and the enjoyment of every one, both king and people, that which pertains to them under certain and known laws; the end for which we are come. Given at our camp at Tong Norton, this 20th of August."
To this letter, and summons, Colonel Mackworth returned this answer.
For the Commander in chief of the Scottish army.
" Sir:- By your trumpet I received two papers, the one containing a proposition, the other a direct summons for the rendition of the town and castle of Shrewsbury, the custody whereof I have received by authority of parliament; and if you believe me a gentleman, (as you say you do) you may believe I will be faithful to my trust; to the violation whereof Beither allurements can persuade me, nor threatenings of force, especially when but paper ones, compel me: What - principles I am judged to be of I know not, but I hope they are such as shall ever declare me honest, and no way differing, herein, (as I know) from those engaged in the same imployment with me; who, should they desert that cause they are imbarqued in, I resolve to be found, as I am, unremoveable, the faithful servant of the commonwealth of England."
Some days before his Majesty's arrival at Worcester, the Earl of Derby, having landed at Weywater in Lancashire, came to the Bing with 250 foot and 60 horse, which he had brought with him out of the isle of Man. He immediately returned into Lancashire to raise a more considerable force, and, by his influence in that part of the country, soon collected a body of 1500 men, with whom he was hastening towards Manchester, where he was assured that 500 more intended to join him. It seemed probable that, in a short time, he would have raised a great number; but, while on his march to Manchester, Colonel Robert Lilburn, with his own regiment and three companies, with a few horse out of Cheshire, endeavoured with all his speed to join General Cromwell's regiment, which lay about Preston, and to attack the Earl. To prevent this conjunction, the Earl of Derby pressed upon Lilburn's men, and forced them to an engagement, just as they were about to draw off, and march in. his flank, to meet the regiment at Preston. The contest was severe, and doubtful for about an hour; but, at length, the Earl of Derby's men being but newly levied, and therefore for the most part raw and undisciplined, were put to general confusion, and fled. The Enrl himself was wounded, and very narrowly escaped being taken. Having made his way into Staffordshire, he concealed himself for some time at Boscobel-house, and at last got safe to Worcester. In this skirmish, Lord Withington, Sir Thomas Tilseley, Major General Sir William Throgmorton, Colonel Matthew Boynton, Colonel Richard Legg, Colonel Ratcliffe Gerrett, Major Trollop, and a great number of inferior officers, and private soldiers, were taken.
A few days after this victory, General Cromwell appeared before Worcester, with an army of seventeen thousand men, horse and foot, not including the forces commanded by Generals Lambert and Harrison, and several reinforcements from other quarters. On the west of the city, on the other side of the river Severn, lay the main body of the Scotch army, covering the space of two miles. The king's soldiers, within the city, made repeated and resolute sallies; but being overpowered by numbers were continually repulsed with loss. On the second day after General Cromwell's approach, fifteen hundred horse and foot sallied out at Sidbury Gate, intending, to attack a house (about two miles from the city) in which two hundred men were stationed. But the parliament army taking the alarm, they were obliged to retreat with the loss of fifteen men. All possible diligence, however, was employed in fortifying the city, and making good the mount, at the south-east extremity.
The next affair was at the pass at Upton, which Major General Massey kept for the Bing. General Lambert marched to this place from Esham with a body of horse and dragoons, who, though a great part of the bridge had been broken, at the news of their approach, contrived to pass the river, fired into the town, and took possession of the church; which Massey in vain endeavoured to recover. At the appearance of the horse his men fled, and were, for a short time, pursued. General Massey himself was wounded, and with difficulty avoided being taken, hiving had his horse shot under him. This little action was scarcely terminated, when General Fleetwood, with his whole brigade, came up to maintain the pass.
The third of September, the very day on which, the preceding. year, had been fought the unfortunate battle of Dunbar, was the fatal day which gave a decisive blow to the long controversy between the royal and the republican party. To the latter the fortune of this day fell, as of many others before; in a long series of successes, and for a time, gave full and undisputed possession of three kingdoms, to those who had fought for pretended liberty, and a commonwealth, against regal government.
Lieutenant General Fleetwood, having left a sufficient force at Upton to maintain the pass, resolved to form a junction with the rest of the army. With this object, he caused two bridges to be made, the one over the Severn, and the other over the Teme, at a point where those rivers meet. General Cromwell, in person, led on Colonel Hacker's regiment of horse, and the two foot regiments of Colonels Fairfax, and Ingoldsby, together with Major General Dean's and Colonel Goff's regiment, in order to assist General Fleetwood, and oppose the horse and foot, that were drawn out to hinder his passage. These troops scoured the hedges, and forced the Scotch to retreat to Powick bridge, where they made a stand, and for a time sustained a severe encounter, but at length retreated and fled into the city.
While this conflict was maintained, the King's troops sallied out at the other side of the city, and gave a desperate charge to. that part 'of the Parliament army. The battle continued three or four hours eager and fierce - till at last the besiegers overpowering the royal party in number, bore them down before them with irresistible force, put them into complete disorder and flight, and, pursuing' them to the very gates, rushed in among them, and in a short time made themselves masters of the royal fort and city. The victory was gained before half of General Cromwell's forces came up to engage their enemy, who seeing that victory had absolutely abandoned them, and that all was lost, thought of nothing but individual safety. As they fled in confusion through the city, there was a general cry of "Save the King O save the King!"
His Majesty himself, as soon as he perceived which way the victory inclined, was not unmindful to provide in time for his escape. He had, during the battle, performed all the offices, both of a valiant man, and a good commander, riding about incessantly to encourage his soldiers, and when he saw them begin to fail, he was heard to utter this pathetick expression " Rather shoot me than let me live to see the sad consequences of this fatal day." Many parties of horse were sent out through all coasts, after the flying troops. Few of the infantry escaped from the field alive, and but about three thousand horse, of whom a thousand were taken near Bewdley by Colonel Barton, and more by others, in other places: Many were taken; or knocked on the head, by rising parties of the country people.
MEN IN EXTREME ADVERSITY, GENERALLY FIND ALL THE WORLD THEIR ENEMIES.
In the grand engagement, the number of the slain was supposed Co be three thousand; among whom, the principal persons were, the Duke of Hamilton; Robert, Earl of Carnwarth; Alexander, Earl of Kelly, John Lord Sinclair, Sir John Packington, Major General Montgomery, Major General Piscotty, Mr. Richard Fanshaw, the King's Secretary; the General of the ordnance, the Adjutant General of the foot, the Marshall General, six Colonels of horse, thirteen of foot, nine Lieutenant Colonels of home, eight of foot, six Majors of horse, thirteen of foot, thirty seven Captains of horse, seventy. two of foot, with a number of inferior officers. A hundred and fifty eight stand of colours, the King's standard, his collar of SS., his coach and horses, and other things of great value were taken. Major General Massey, though be made his escape from the field, was unable, in consequence of his wounds, to continue his flight; and was brought to so weak a condition that he surrendered himself to the Countess of Stamford, whose son, Lord Grey of Groby, secured him as a prisoner, to be sent up to London, to the Junto, as soon as he should recover of his wounds.
This great victory, on the part of the commonwealth, was attended by others of less magnitude, which were gained in Scotland, by General Monk, and the forces left in that quarter.
When General Cromwell marched for England, Stirling castle was besieged, and, in a short time, surrendered by capitulation, with a considerable quantity of ammunition which was lodged there, five thousand stand of arms, and forty pieces of ordnance, all the records of Scotland, the chair and cloth of state, the sword and other rich furniture of the Kings, the Earl of Mar's parliamentary robes, coronet and stirrups of gold. Over the door of the chapel which belongs to the castle, was this motto, "J.C.R. Noble hire invicta miserunt centum sex proavi, 1617," importing that when James the first came to the crown, this place had remained unconquered for the space of one hundred and six kings reigns, and so it remained during his own life, and that of his son, but not of his grandson.
As soon as Stirling castle had surrendered, General Monk attacked Dundee. During the siege of this place, several Scotch lords, gentlemen, ministers, and others, met together at Ellit, in the county of Perth, to the number of about three hundred. The principal persons were old General Lesley, the Earl of Leven, Lords Ogleby, Crawford, and Lindsay, who designed to levy a large force for the service of the king, intending first to raise the siege of- Dundee. Information of this meeting was quickly brought to the Lieutenant General, who immediately dispatched Colonel Alured with six hundred horse, and four troops of dragoons, to the place. That officer surprising them on a sudden, overthrew them with ease, slew many, and took General Lesley, the Earl of Crawford, and Lord Leith, and all the chiefs of the conspiracy, prisoners. About the same time, a party of horse and dragoons attacked five hundred Scotch at Dumfries in Galloway, and either slew, or captured, all of them. Among the prisoners, was Sir Philip Musgrave, Mayor of St. Johnston's, who had a commission of Major General of all the troops to be raised in the four northern counties and many noblemen and gentlemen of quality.
Major General Lumsden, governor of Dundee, on being summoned to surrender the place, returned for answer a summons to the besieger, to submit to the authority of his Majesty; but notwithstanding this resolute reply, the town was quickly taken by storm, and the governor, and many others were slain. The reduction of St. Andrews,and Aberdeen, soon followed, with that of other towns, castles, and strong places, which either voluntarily submitted, or surrendered on the first summons.
His Majesty, after the battle of Worcester, was very narrowly searched for, and strictly pursued. It was on his account that the greater diligence was employed in following, waylaying and intercepting, the several parties of routed Scots who fled. But, notwithstanding all the search and inquiry, no news could he heard, nor could any one certainly tell, what was become of him. This circumstance gave occasion to many to conjecture, some one thing, and some another, as their different fancies suggested to them. Some were of opinion that he was gone to the North, others to the West, others again that he had fixed upon London as his safest place of retreat. The truth is, that when the enemy had forced the gate, all possible care was taken to secure his Majesty's person. For this purpose, the Earl of Cleveland, Sir James Hamilton, Colonel William Caries, Colonel Wogan, and Captains Ashly and Kemble, did all in their power to keep the enemy engaged in $udbury Street, while the King, unpursued, took his way with a body of horse through St. Martin's gate, about six &Clock in the evening. When he had arrived at Barbon's bridge, which is about half a mile from the town, he halted in order to advise with a few noblemen and gentlemen that were with him the Duke of Buckingham, the Earls of Derby and Lauderdale, Lords Talbot, Leviston, and Wilmot, Colonel Edward Roscarrock, Colonel Thomas Blayne, Mr. Marmaduke Darcy, Mr. William Armorer, Mr. Hugh May, and some others, as to-what course was best to he taken. The resolution adopted was, that since there was not the slightest probability of being Wet° rally again, they should make their way with all speed towards Scotland. One Walker, formerly scout master in the King's army, was chosen for a guide; but the 'rapid approach of a very dark night, put them sgain to a stand on Kniver heath, near Kidderminster. They now consulted how they might with safety, obtain a little repose that night, particularly on account of his Majesty, whom excessive exertion in the engagement had rendered exceedingly weary. In this difficulty, the Earl of Derby, from his own experience recom- mended Boscobel-house where he himself had found a secure hiding place after the misfortune of his defeat at Wigan. This he considered the best place for a temporary sanctuary, the keeper of the house and his relations, though poor, having proved themselves persons of incorruptible fidelity. This proposal being embraced, and Mr. Charles Gifford and his man Francis Yates having been chosen as guides, they arrived, at break of day, at a house a little on this side Boscobel, in the occupation of one of the Penderells. The house was formerly a monastery of Cistercian nuns, who, from their habit were denominated White Ladies. This name, notwithstanding the abolition of the order, has adhered to the house. Here his Majesty was committed to the care of George Penderell, and his four brothers, who were all immediately sent for. The rest of the company, with the exception of Lord Wilmot, after a very short stay, took their leave of the King, and departed to seek safety elsewhere, as so great a company could not conveniently be concealed in one place. In the mean time his Majesty had completely disguised himself. He had changed clothes with Richard Penderell; Lord Wilmot, who performed on this occasion the office ofbarber, had cut his hair in the most rustick manner that could be devised, and he had sullied his hands so as to resemble the coarsest complexion.
His Majesty and Lord Wilmot, having first appointed to meet, in case they both arrived safe, at the Green Dragon, in the Vintry, Thames street, his Lordship departed with a resolution immediately to go to London; John Penderell, another of the brothers undertaking to conduct him as far as his knowledge extended, through the safest and most commodious ways.
His Majesty thus transformed, attired in Richard Penderell's leathern doublet and green Kendal breeches, with a wood bill in his hand, assuming the character of a wood-cutter, and the name of William Jones, was led, through a back way into a wood called Spring-coppice, belonging to Boscobel-house, and about half a mile from White Ladies, by Richard, who attended there to accompany and wait upon the King, while the three other brothers coasted the confines of the wood, to make discoveries, and to give intelligence of any threatening danger.
It was in a fortunate moment that his Majesty betook himself to this woody shelter, which, though it could not defend him from the rain which fell in great abundance that day, secured him from a more dangerous storm; for in a short time after his Majesty had left the house, a party of horse, belonging to Colonel Ashenhurst's troop, came to search it, It was therefore thought the safest coarse for the King to remain in the wood all that day. His Majesty was much incommoded by the wetness of the weather, which however was rendered more tolerable by a blanket which was brought him by the wife of Francis Yates, by whom he was presented also with a dish of such fare as her cottage afforded. The King was somewhat alarmed at the sight of a strange face, till demanding of the good woman if she could "be faithful to a distressed cavalier," she answered "yes Sir, I will die before I will betray you."
At night the King was conducted to Hobbal Grange, the habitation of Richard Penderell, where the mother of the five brothers, after expressing great joy that it should fall to the lot of her sons to be the instruments of his Majesty's safety, entertained him with great decency, but in such a homely manner, that none of the rest of the family suspected who he was. The king remained not here, but, immediately after supper, departed with Richard for his guide, whom he could follow (such was the darkness of the night) only by the crackling sound of his leather breeches. Their destination was five miles farther towards Wales, to the house of a Mr. Wolfe at Madeley. When they arrived at Evelyn-bridge they were much alarmed by a miller at that place, Who having himself several cavaliers of quality concealed in his mill, and imagining that these persons were on the search, was not less alarmed than they were by a similar suspicion.
It had been his Majesty's intention to pass the Severn, and try his fortune in Wales, but learning that all the passages over the Severn were strictly guarded, and that all the ferry boats were stopped, his Majesty, with his faithful guide, having remained in Mr. Wolfe's barn, where a hay mow was their bed, till friday night, and then venturing for a short time into the house, where, he was entertained with all the respect that a sense of danger would permit, returned somewhat late at night towards Boscobel. Colonel Carles, who when his Majesty left Worcester, was bravely combating the enemy in Sudbury-street, to favour the King's escape, was now come to that place for refuge and relief. The Colonel who was well acquainted with the house, and its inhabitant William Penderell, having been born and educated not far off, was no sooner informed that the King was in the wood, than he hastened with joy and dutiful respect, to present himself to his Majesty. After mutual congratulations, they repaired together to the house, to refresh themselves, and then immediately retiring into the wood and finding a large oak, whose wide spread top, afforded them a very private and commodious lodging, they ascended the tree, and, with the help of cushions, made a tolerable abode there till night; his Majesty taking some repose, by leaning his head upon the Colonel's lap.
At night they betook themselves again to the house to which his Majesty thought proper, for the future, to trust himself while he remained in that part of the country, being much pleased with a secret corner which William Penderell shewed him, where the Earl of Derby had concealed himself, and which was probably, in times past, the dormitory of some of the old friars. His Majesty remained secure in the house from Saturday night till Monday; having passed the Sunday for the most part in reading and meditation, in a Little sum. mer house at the end of the garden.
In the mean time Lord Wilmot had been exposed to in. numerable dangers. He found his journey to London ob. strntted by multitudes of soldiers hurrying continually to and fro, in all parts of the roads and highways, insomuch that he was once obliged to commit himself and his horse, to the hospitality of a convenient marlpit. At length his good fortune brought him to a Mr. Whitgrave's, at Moseley, to whom, and to Mr. Huddleston, who was tutor to three of his children, he did not hesitate to discover himself, and found there both welcome and security. From this place he was safely conveyed to Colonel Lane's at Bentley, about five miles farther, having before sent back John Penderell to Boscobel, with instructions to enquire diligently after the King, and to inform his Majesty, if he found him, how affairs stood. John Penderell, finding the King at Boscobel, and having given him an account of Lord Wilmot, was immediately sent back to his Lordship, to give him notice of his Majesty's intention to meet him where his Lordship should appoint. Having found his Lordship at Bentley, John returned with all speed to the King, to conduct him to Moseley, whither his Lordship had determined to come, and wait for his Majesty. On Monday, the King prepared for his journey, and, not heing able to go on foot, on account of the fatigue he had already undergone, he was accommodated with a horse by Humphrey, another of the five brothers. This good man vied with the rest in loyalty and fidelity to his Majesty, which had, not long ago, been put to a Severe trial. For going to Shiffnal to pay his share of the monthly tax he was wooded at the house of Captain Broadway, to whom he came to pay the money, by a. Colonel who had come thither to enquire after the search at White Ladies. The Colonel, understanding that Hain. phrey lived near the place, put him to a strict examination, and after he had tried the effect of menaces to induce a confession, began to tempt him with the bait of reward, by telling him of the thousand pounds, (which was the price set upon his Majesty's person) imagining that a man of his mean condition could not resist so alluring an offer. The Colonel's supposition, and Humphrey's discreet answers, rendered his dissembled ignorance the more unsuspected, and the Colonel left him with a full persuasion that Humphrey knew no more than was generally known.
Colonel Carles (whom, for his faithful services, the King rewarded with an honourable coat of arms, by letters patent. under the great seal of England,) having friends and relations in these parts, with whom he intended for a while to remain concealed, here took leave of his Majesty, with many hearty prayers for his future preservation. The King, mounted on his, not steed of honour, set out from Boscobel, on Monday. evening, attended by four of the Penderells, and their brother in law Francis Yates, who guarded him on the road at equal intervals from each other, armed with bills and pike staves. Humphrey led the horse by the bridle through thick and thin, making a witty apology for his steed, by telling his Majesty it was no wonder he went so slow, since he carried the value of three kingdoms on his back. In this equipage, the King arrived by night at the appointed place, where Mr. Whitgrave, and Mr. Huddleston, were waiting for his coming. Here the faithful brothers, his guides and attendants, were dismissed, with thanks for their honest services, and assurances of not being forgotten, whenever it might please God that his Majesty should recover the throne. The King was then conducted by the gentlemen to Lord Wilmot, whose joy at this meeting, as well as that of his Majesty, was excessive. After they had entertained each other with the story of their adventures since they parted, his Majesty was conducted to a secret corner of the house, that he might take some repose. The next morning, while the King was in the house, some soldiers came in M search it; Mr. Whitgrave who had been formerly engaged in the King's service, being a suspected person. But Mr. Whitgrave's open deportment, his readiness to let them enter, and the advantageous report of his neighbours, gave these men so much satisfaction, that they went away with little more than a bare enquiry. Indeed, the King's lodging place was so well contrived for secrecy, that they might have searched the house very narrowly without finding him.
White Ladies was also searched the same day, on the information of an ensign, and the proprietor strictly questioned about the King, with a musket presented at his breast. But the good man pretending, that though a large company bad been there. who bad almost eaten him out of house and home, he could not tell whether the King bad been there or not, since be did not know him (relit any other man; and no such person being there to be found, the searchers at last went away. attuning that they bad troubled themselves so much in vain; and the ensign was paid for his diligence with blows and contempt.
The succeeding night, his Majesty, after having gratefully acknowledged the kindness of Mr. Whitgrave and Mr. Huddleston, and advised them what course to adopt if it should be discovered that he had been there, went with Lord Wilmot to Colonel Lane's, at Bentley, where he had an opportunity of being safely conveyed to Bristol,. in order to embark for France. Miss Jane Lane, the Colonel's sister, procured, without any difficulty, a pass for herself and a servant, a relation and his wife, to visit a pretended sister of hers, who was near the time of her delivery, the wife of Mr. George Norton, whose house was within two or three miles of Bristol. In this journey his Majesty assumed the character of Miss Lane's servant; Colonel Lascelles, Miss Lane's relation, with his wife behind him, accompanied them; and Lord Wilmot, with a hawk on his fist, as if he had met them accidentally, and had occasion to travel the same way, completed the cavalcade, intending, as soon as he cantle near Bristol, to turn aside to the house of Sir John Winter. In passing through Bromsgrove, where they were obliged to employ a smith to shoe one of the horses, the subject of conversation among the bystanders was the news of the times, the battle of Worcester, and the King's escape. His Majesty, amidst many conjectures, gave it as his decided opinion that the King had fled to Scotland, and lay concealed there. "I rather think," replied the Smith, "that he remains somewhere concealed in England, and how glad should I he if I knew where." At Stratford upon Avon they fell Into the veil, jaws of a troop of horse, which they met on the rond, and were considering how they might avoid; bat their fears were dissipated when the soldiers passed them with a transient salutation. They put up that night at the Crown, in Cirencester, and the next night came to Mansfield, where they were accommodated at the house of a relation of Miss Lane's. On the third day they arrived at the house of Mr. George Norton, at Leigh, about two miles from Bristol, where the King, whom Miss Lane introduced as a son of one of her father's tenants, on pretence of being suddenly attacked by a fever, kept his bed, and was attended by Doctor Gorge. The Doctor asked the sick man many questions about the news, and particularly about the King's escape, and being told by his Majesty that he did not wish to be troubled with such questions, declared he could not help thinking that his patient was a sider, with the round heads. His Majesty had not been here long hefore he was recognized by the butler, who had formerly served his royal father in Wales. This man, on his promise of close secrecy and loyalty, was entrusted by his Majesty in several important services. lie was first employed to look after a vessel, in which the King might embark for France. But as no ship that would suit his purpose could be found, his Majesty, on consultation with Lord Wilmot, who came from Colonel Winter's to Leigh, and was privately conducted to the King by the butler, concluded that his Lordship should go to Colonel Francis Windham; to know whether his Majesty could have a secure reception at his house, till some means should be devised for his embarkation. The Colonel was overjoyed at the opportunity of serving his Majesty, and engaged for the fidelity of his whole family. Accordingly Mrs. Norton being by this time brought to bed, Miss Lane pretending to have received a letter from her father, which informed her that he was very ill and wished her to return home, prepared for her, journey, and took with her Mr. Lascelles (whose lady was left hehind to keep company with Mr. Norton,) and her royal servant.. Having left Mr. Norton's, without exciting any suspicion, they. proceeded to Mr. Edward Kirton's, at Castle Cary, under the guidance of one Henry Rogers, whom Lord Wilmot had employed to conduct him from Colonel Winter's to Leigh, and arrived the next day at Colonel Windhiun's house, at Trent, in Dorset-shire: Here they were received as relations of the Colonel, who had been on a long journey, and had taken his house in their way home, for the sake of paying him a visit. The next day, Miss Lane and Colonel Lascelles took their leaveand returned home. His Majesty and Lord Wilmot continued at Colonel Windham's house nineteen days, during which time many different plans were proposed for transporting the King to France, but without success. At length Colonel Windham recollecting that Mr. Eldon, formerly a captain in his late Majesty's service, was then engaged in business at Lime, went to him with the hope of securing his assistance. The Colonel's confidence in this plan was the greater, because he remembered that Mr. Eldon had once employed his interest for Lord Berkeley, on a similar occasion. Eldon readily undertook the business, and bringing the Colonel to a master of a ship, with whom he was acquainted, bargained with him for his ship to transport Lord Wilmot and another nobleman, who had escaped from the battle of Worcester. The man embraced the offer, the price was fixed, and every thing seemed to promise a prosperous issue. In order to account for their remaining at Chayermouth till the ship could be made ready, and every thing prepared for their voyage, Henry Peters (a servant of the Colonel's,) who had been let into the secret, Went to a woman who let lodgings, at Chayermouth, and told her that the young nobleman whom he served having run away with an heiress, wanted some secure place to which he might bring her for a time, till he could dispose of het elsewhere; and, therefore, desired that she would be so kind to the young couple, and so much a friend to herself, as to receive them, at the same time, not only paying her some money in hand, but giving her the promise of a much greater reward. The woman, whose tender sensihilities were increased hy the inducement of profit, easily consented to admit them. In consequence of this 'arrangement his Majesty, with Julia Conisby (the heiress) behind him, set out for Chayermouth accompanied by Lord Wilmot, Colonel Windham, and Henry Peters. By the way they met Mr. Eldon, to whom his Majesty discovered himself, and who, after some consultation with the King and the rest of the company, rode away immediately to Lime, to take order for the ship. While his Majesty and his friends remained it their lodging, Henry Peters continued at the port to wait the arrival of the vessel, and give speedy information when it was ready.
The next morning his Majesty and his company were struck with consternation on receiving intelligence from Henry Peters, that, though he had waited at the port all night, he could hear no tidings of their ship. They soon, however, concluded that they could not continue where they were without the greatest danger. Accordingly his Majesty and his heiress, with Colonel Windhnm, set off for Bridport, leaving behind them Lord Wilmot, (who pretended that his horse must be shod) with instrnctions where to meet them; while Henry Peters was sent to Lime to enquire the reason of their strange disappointment. At Bridport there was a muster of soldiers who were marching for the Isle of Jersey, under the command of Colonel Haines. Colonel Windham, therefore, advised not to enter the town, but his Majesty, who could not bear the idea of disappointing Lord Wilmot whom he was to meet there, and who was weary with sitting up in expectation of the vessel and desired to have a little repose, resolved to venture.. When they were arrived at their inn, the Colonel went to look after some necessaries for their refreshment, while the Bing went into the stable to take care of the horses. Here the ostler having regarded his Majesty very. attentively for some time, began to claim acquaintance with him, not as knowing who he was, but as remembering he had seen him at Exeter, where during the late war, his Majesty had in fact resided. The king, very well pleased, to find the fellow had not a particular knowledge of him, and thinking it expedient to give him as little opportunity as possible of making a perfect discovery, seemed to acknowledge a slight acquaintance, by saying that be had been a servant to a Mr. Porter in that city, adding, that "since they could not conveniently drink together at that time, (for I see said he you are busily employed) he should be glad to have some conversation with him about their old friends at Exeter, on his return from London?'
In the mean time Captain Eldon was surprised beyond measure, pa learning from Henry Peters of his Majesty's disappointment. He had imagined that the ship had long ago set sail, and almost completed her voyage, nor could he conceive any reason of the master's failure in his engagement, except that as there had been a fair that day at Lime, he had fallen into company, and in the midst of his cups had forgotten his promise. The true reason was, that while the master was at Ms house, making preparation for his voyage, a pro-. clamation was made for the apprehension of his Majesty, in which, on the one side, a reward of one thousand pounds was promised to any one who should discover him, and on the other, the penalty of death denounced against any one who should conceal him. The shipmaster's wife (who was in the secret) hearing this proclamation, struck with sudden apprehension of danger, prevailed upon her husband, by her tears, intreaties, and clamours to suffer himself to be locked up by her in a room, a long while beyond the time fixed for his setting out. It was at a critical time that his Majesty quitted. Chayermouth, for the unfortunate failure of the ship's sailing was very near producing worse consequences. A conversation taking place between the ostler and the smith, who came to shoe Lord Wilmot's horse, respecting the strangers; the smith declared, that he knew by the manner of the nailing, that Lord Wilmot's hearse had been last shod somewhere in the north. They immediately conjectured from this, and from some other circumstances, that these were noblemen who had fled from the battle of Worcester, who had been thrown upon that coast by various accidents, and that one of them very probably was the King. The ostler, struck with the prospect of the reward, hastened directly to the parson of the place, (who was a man zealous for the cause) to give him information; but the parson's morning devotions lasting longer than the ostler's patience, he returned home, lest he should lose the present he expected from his guest. The parson at length having finished his long prayer, [this is not the only occasion which this writer needs to be reminded of the maxim, "De sacris autos bats sit una sententia ut conserventur."] and alarmed at the rumour which the wicked smith had raised in the town, took some auxiliaries with him, ran to the ion, and strictly enquired what persons were there last night, whence they came, what they did, and whither they had directed their course. The answers to these enquiries, still increasing his suspicions, Mr. Butler, the nearest Magistrate, was sent to, for his warrant to raise the country in search of the King. On Mr. Butler's refusal, a Captain Massey, who lay with his troop in the neighbourhood, having rode in quest of his Majesty, as far as Dorchester, returned as wise as when be set out. All the neighbouring parts of the country were searched with the mest severe scrutiny. The house of Sir Hugh Windham, uncle to the was then narrowly inspected - not a corner was left that was not peeped into - not a single servant of the family, that was not examined - and lest his Majesty should have concealed himself under female apparel, a handsome young woman was taken into custody, and could not he released till she was discovered not to be the King.
Before the hue and my was at its height at Chayermouth, Lord Wilmot, by good fortune, was safe out of the town, and having arrived at Bridport, as soon as he perceived his Majesty and the Colonel, at the place appointed, watching when he should pass, be, without seeming to take any notice of them, rode on towards London, and they, having their horses ready saddled, mounted and immediately overtook him.
For their better security from the multitude of passengers that filled the road (among whom they perceived one who had been a servant of his late Majesty's,) they took another way a little to the left, and somewhat late at night arrived within sight of a little tows, Lord Wilmot rode before to enquire what was called, whither it led, and what accommodation it afforded; and went, by chance, to an inn, the keeper of which instantly recognised him, having been formerly his servant, and a soldier in his late Majesty's army. Here they would have been comfortably entertained; had they not been suddenly molested by the arrival of a party of soldiers, whom, in their march for the Isle of Jersey, the constable had brought here to be quartered, and, disturbed, in the middle of the night, by the childbearing outcry of a lady attached to the camp.
The next morning, when the soldiers had marched, it was resolved, after much debate, as to the course they should take from Broad Windsor, which was the name of the village, that his Majesty should return, with Colonel Windham, to Trent, while Lord Wilmot went, with Henry Peters, to Mr. John Coventry, at Salisbury, (son of the late Lord Keeper,) to consult with him as to what coarse might yet be pursued to effect his Majesty's safe transportation to France. Mr. Coventry brought them to the house of a Mrs. Hide, a widow, who lived at Heale, a little village about a mile from Salisbury, where they met Colonel Robert Phillips, who had commanded in the late King's army. He being thought a proper person to be made acquainted with their Nosiness, hastened to Southampton to hire a vessel, and brought word that he had found one that would undertake the voyage, ready to go to sea. On receiving this welcome information, Lord Wilmot immediately returned to convey the news to his Majesty, and to conduct him to Heale. But before his arrival, this very ship was hired by the republican party, to convey the soldiers to the Isle of Jersey. Upon this disappointment, Colonel Phillips meeting with Colonel Gunter, one of his friends, a man whom he knew to be loyal, acquainted him with the whole affair, and entreated him to give his aid to the undertaking. Colonel Gunter readily promised to do all in his power, and departed for that purpose. In the mean time his Majesty arrived at Heale, and supped at the widow's, with several of her friends, [among them was Dr. Henchman, afterwards Bishop of Salisbury, and now Bishop of London] who noticed him only as an accidental guest, and, after supper, understanding that the plan had failed, discovered himself to the widow, who already knew who he was, by having accidentally seen him pass by some years before. This lady being made one of the council for his Majesty's safety, considered it most advisable that he should remain concealed in a place in her house, which was built at the time of the war for the purpose of hiding goods, till a convenient opportunity should be offeredfor his embarkation. That this design might be managed the more secretly, his Majesty, by her advice, pretended to take leave of her to go to London. The servants were all dismissed with leave to go to a fair which was kept that day at Salisbury. His Majesty, having only Colonel Phillips with him, rode as far as Stonehenge, and, taking a little compass about, returned to the house at an appointed time, and remained in the private place, till word was brought that, by the diligence of Colonel Gunter, a ship was hired at Brighthelmstone, a port in Sussex, and already provided for the voyage. His Majesty accordingly prepared to leave Beale, and, late at night, accompanied by Colonel Phillips, and the.widow's prayers, took his course to the house of a Mr. Simmons, near Portsmouth, and, the succeeding evening, arrived at Brighthelmstone, where ( Colonel Phillips having taken his leave) Lord Wilmot and Colonel Gunter met him. His Majesty was then introduced to Mr. Mansell, the Merchant from whom Colonel Gunter had hired the vessel, and to Tittershall, the master: the latter, perceiving that one of the persons he had to carry, though meanly clad, and hearing the character of a servant, was, in fact, the King, for he remembered him from the circumstance of having once presented to his Majesty a petition, took Mr. Mansell aside, and charged him with not having dealt plainly with him, in concealing the quality of the persons whom he had undertaken to transport, and remonstrated on the injury that had been done him by Mr. Mansell, who could not be ignorant of the late proclamation concerning the King.
The master's apprehension of the danger of the enterprise might have rendered this last attempt as fruitless as the former, had not the King and Lord Wilmot, who were informed of his objections by Mr. Mansell, and were well assured that they proceeded from fear, and not want of integrity, urged him, both with representations of the security of the undertaking, and with promises of certain reward; not omitting an immediate bounty. By these considerations the master was prevailed on to set sail. Without delay, therefore, he sent the mariners to the ship, which lay, half laden with sea coal about four miles off, at Shoreham, directing them to prepare for a voyage that night. This extraordinary haste caused his wife, whom he had sent to buy some necessaries, to guess that some unusual accident occasioned this sudden preparation, and so far did the sagacity of her conjectures go, that she told her husband she suspected, by the haste and secrecy of his setting sail he was employed to transport some great person, and she believed it was the King himself, but, she added, if it be so, God grant that you may prove an effectual instrument of his safety; and so it succeed according to my prayer, though I and my children suffer for it even to the begging of our bread all our days, it shall never grieve me. As soon as all things were in readiness, his Majesty and Lord Wilmot mounted their horses and rode with the master to Shoreham, where, after so many disappointments, they, at last, embarked on the 15th of October, passing for two Isle of Wight merchants, who had bought the remainder of the coals. They, therefore, at first, pretended that they were going to the Isle of Wight, till Lord Wilmot, who appeared to be the principal person, seemed to alter his mind, and, as if upon a new contract with the master of the vessel, directed him to steer for France. Being favoured with a prosperous gale, they arrived in a short time at Feccani, a small seaport town in Normandy, near Havre de grace, his Majesty himself assisting to steer the vessel. On landing, the King in the first place, gave thanks to God for his happy deliverance from the innumerable perils to which he had been exposed, and them dismissed the collier, who declined the offers made to him for his security; choosing to return to his family and employment, though at the hazard of being called in question for what he had done, rather than remain in a foreign country, though to his certain safety and advantage. From Feccani his Majesty proceeded to Roan, where be was visited by Dr. Earl, now bishop of Worcester, who warmly congratulated him on his happy escape from England, and his safe arrival in that city. By the assistance of two honest merchants who resided there, (Mr. Sambourn and Mr. Parker) his Majesty threw of his disguise, put himself into an equipage more becoming his rank; and on the 30th of October was met, on his journey to Paris, by his mother, the Queen dowager of Great Britain, his brother the Duke of York, the Duke of Orleans, and other nobles of France, with a great retinue of English and French gentlemen, on horseback, and was thus conducted with joy and triumph into the city, where he was honourably entertained at the royal palace of the Louvre, during the greater part of his abode in that kingdom.
Boscobel still continues an interesting monument of this portion of the life of the second Charles. The house is nearly in its original state, but some of the parts have been much changed. An outbuilding has been converted into a sitting parlour, the principal entrance has been removed, and an area, in the front of the house, has been laid out as a pleasure ground. But whatever could be traced, relative to the King's concealment, has been carefully preserved. The places in which be was concealed are chiefly in, and adjoining to, a large chimney. A flight of a few steps conducts into what was then used as a cheese loft, in which there is a trap door into what is denominated, from the circumstance of his Majesty's having for a considerable time concealed himself there,- THE SACRED HOLE. The large wainscotted parlour is in nearly its original form. In a pavement before the house, are the following words, inscribed in white pebble stones.
Sext. Id. Sept. 1651. In hac domo, Carolus Secundus, tutela quinque fratrum de inirpe Penderell, potitus est, eorumque denique ope incolumis evasit.
The Royal Oak, said to have sprung from an acorn of the original oak [from many circumstances it may be reasonably concluded that the present is the original tree] that sheltered his Majesty, stands near the middle of a large field, adjoining the garden. For the wall, which formerly surrounded it, are substituted iron rails; and the following inscription, on a brass plate, is affixed to the tree,-
Feliciss, arborem quam in asilum Potentiss. regis Car. 2di Deus Opt. Max. per quem reges regnant hic crescere voluit, tam in perpet. rei tames memoriam quam in specimen firnue in regem fidei, muro cinctam posteris commendant Basilius et Jana Fitzherbert. Quercus amica Jovi."
"BURFIELD, an extra-parochial place near Clun."
"DINMORE, an extra-parochial place, in the hundred of Purslow, near Clungunford. 1 house, 12 inhabitants. The population is reckoned in the parish of Clungunford. See appendix."
"HALSTONE, an extra-parochial place in the hundred of Oswestry. 4 miles south-west of Ellesmere. Halstone demesne formerly belonged to the Knights Templars or Knights of St. John, of Jerusalem. See appendix. Knights Templers. The church or chapel is of exempt jurisdiction. Halstone is the seat of John Mytton, Esq. It is called in ancient deeds Haly Stone or Holy Stone. Near it stood the abbey, which about a century ago was taken down. It had been formerly a sanctuary. Meyric Lloyd, lord of some part of Uwch Ales, in the reign of Richard the first, would not submit to the English government, to which the hundred of Dyffryn Clwydd and several others were at that time subject; and having seized some English officers, who came there to execute the laws, put several of them to death. For this fact his lands were forfeited to the King; he himself fled and took sanctuary at Halston, where its possessor, John Fitz- Alan, earl of Arundel, received him under his protection. In the Saxon era, the lordship of Halston belonged to Edric at which time, two Welshmen and one Frenchman resided in it. After the Norman conquest, Halston became the property of an earl of Arundel, and was given by that family to the Knights of St. John, of Jerusalem. (See appendix.) In the twenty sixth year of Henry the eighth, the commandery was valued at £160 14s. 10d. a year. Upon the abolition of many of the military religious orders, Henry the eighth empowered John Sewster, Esq. to dispose of this manor to Alan Horde, who made an exchange with Edward Mytton, Esq, of Habberley, which alienation was confirmed by queen Elizabeth. The church or chapel of Halston is a donative, without any other revenue than what the chaplain is allowed by the owner; and is of exempt jurisdiction. Halston was the birth place of the celebrated General Mytton, who was horn in 1608. In 1629, he married a daughter of Sir - Napier, Bart., of Luton, and being returned for the borough of Shrewsbury, he was, in 1645, chosen sheriff by the parliament, while Sir Francis Ottley, of Ottley park, held the same office from the King. Mytton in that capacity appointed a court to be held in Oswestry, August 27th, 1646, for the purpose of electing a representative for the County, in the room of Sir Richard Lea, of Lea Hall, Bart, who had been displaced. However, in the early part of the morning of that day, having only a few persons attending him, he secretly adjourned the meeting to Alberbury, at which place he returned his relative Mr. H. Edwards. Nearly a thousand freeholders assembled at Oswestry on this occasion, to give their suffrages in behalf of Andrew Lloyd, Esq., of Aston, of whom a great number petitioned parliament in Lloyd's favour, in consequence of the secret proceedings of Mytton. As a soldier, Mytton was able, active, and successful, on the side of parliament, during the Civil wars in the reign of Charles the first. By his courage and conduct, many strong holds in North Wales and Shropshire were subdued, and he greatly distinguished himself in several battles. The General had the honour of taking Harlech castle, the last fortress which held out for the King. An ardent love of liberty, and not ambition, seems to have been the motive which actuated general Mytton in all his conduct. Finding that Cromwell's views were different from his own, (which were merely to curb the arbitrary designs of the monarch,) he resigned his command, and retired. General Mytton died in London, in 1656, and his remains being conveyed to Shrewsbury, were deposited in St. Chad's church."
"HAUGHMOND (or HAGHMAN), an extra-parochial place in the hundred of Bradford South. 4 miles north-east of Shrewsbury. It contains 60 inhabitants.
Haughmond Abbey is situated on a rising ground, and in its front commands an extended view of the plain of Shrewsbury, and its town and castle, and of the fine demesne of Sundorn.
This once stately building is now fallen into almost total decay. Even its foundations cannot be entirely traced. Nothing remains of the church but the south door of the nave, a beautiful round arch, resting on slender shafts, between which have been inserted a Gothick tabernacle, inclosing statues of St. Peter and St. Paul. The chapter house which remains entire, is oblong, and with the upper end forms two sides of an hexagon. The entrance is by a finely ornamented round arch having a window on each side, divided into two arched compartments, by slender, short pillars. The spaces between the shafts of these arches have niches and statues of the virgin Mary, the angel Gabriel, St. Catherine, &c. On the south of the chapter house, opposite the site of the church, there are remains of the rectory, and beyond it a large building consisting of a spacious hall, eighty one feet by thirty six. This hall is lighted by Gothick windows on each side, and at the west end by a larger one, which has formerly been filled with tracery. On the north side there is an antique fire place.
At the eastern extremity, at right angles, and having a communication with this, there is another apartment of nearly the same size, which was once evidently divided into two rooms. At the south end is an elegant long window, and above this part has been an upper room. It is supposed that this range of building was the abbot's lodging and hall. The abbey is part of the demesne of Sundorn.
It was erected in the last year of William Rufus, (1100,) by William Fitz-Alan, who endowed it with the land on which it stood, and all its appurtenances. The grants made to the canons (of the Augustine order,) are confirmed in the charter of the thirteenth of Edward the second. William Zonet also, by deed, confirmed to them the grant of the mill of Rocheford, made by his ancestors.
Henry the second, at the request of Alured, abbot of St. John's, of Haughmond, granted to William Fitz-Alan and his heirs for ever, the keeping of this abbey, and all his possessions, in times of vacation; so that neither Henry nor say of his successors, (Kings of England) should ever intermeddle in the affairs thereof upon the death of any abbot.
In the third year of Henry the fifth, the abbot Ralph, and the monks of Haughmond, at the request of Thomas, earl of Arundel and Surrey, granted to Robert Lee, of Uffington, a corrody for life, to be esquire to the abbot, with one servant, and two horses; taking sufficient meat and drink for himself and his servant, with hay and corn for his horses, whensoever he should be in the monastery. It was also granted to him to have cloth for the habit or livery usually worn by the rest of the abbot's esquires.
Richard, bishop of Coventry, authorised this monastery to appoint a sacrist under the abbot, who might baptize as well Jews as infants, and exercise parochial jurisdiction upon their friends and servants. The abbot Nicholas ordered a new kitchen to be built, assigning certain revenues for defraying the expense of fish and flesh, and twenty hogs to be kept for bacon.
Pope Alexander the third, in the year 1172, granted to the abbots and monks of this monastery, mnny valuable privileges and immunities, which were all confirmed by the popes Honorious the third, Nicholas the third, Boniface the ninth, and Martin the fourth.
Leland says there was an hermitage and chapel on this spot before the abbey was built. William Fitz-Allen and his wife, with Robert Fitz-Allen and others, are there buried, and also Richard Fitz-Allen, who fell out of his nurse's arms, from the battlements of Shrawardine castle.
The yearly revenues of this abbey, at the dissolution, were £269 13s. 7d., according to Dugdale; and £294 12s. 9d., according to Speed. It is registered as in the custody of one William Barker, in the year 1653, who with his family, it is said, are buried under an old tomb stone, in the vestry of St. Mary's Church, Shrewsbury.
Behind the abbey, on the verge of the hill, is an extensive wood. Emerging from it, we see the lands of Mr. Corbet, adorned on one side by a fine plantation and a hill, crowned with a shooting box in the form of an ancient turret. Near this place Lord Douglas, at the battle of Shrewsbury, was taken prisoner, in attempting to precipitate himself down the steep, when his horse fell under him, and he received a severe contusion on his knee. The piece of armour covering the knee pan, was, some years ago, dug up, and is now in possession of the Sundorn family.
William Clarke was born at Haughmond Abbey in the year 1696. He received his education at the free grammar school at Shrewsbury, under Mr. Lloyd, for whom his pupil always entertained the highest esteem. He afterwards removed to St. John's College, Cambridge, of which he became a fellow, on the 22nd of January, 1716-17, for several nonjuring fellows having been removed about that time, by an act of parliament, the consequent vacancy occasioned Mr. Clarke's election at so early a period of life.
[The statutes require the fellows as soon as they as of that standing, to take the degree of B.D. But the oath of allegiance is required to be taken with every degree: so that after the revolution, several of the fellows not coming into the oath of allegiance, and the statutes requiring them to commence B.D., they were constrained to part with their fellowships. As to those who had taken the degree before the revolution, there was nothing to eject them upon, till their refusal of the abjaration oath, exacted on the accession of king George the first.]
In 1715, Mr. Clarke commenced B.A., and in 1719, became M.A. His reputation was so high that he was then chosen to be chaplain to Dr. Adam Ottley, bishop of St. David's, but the death of that prelate, in 1723, appears to have prevented Mr. Clarke from receiving any advantage in consequence of this appointment.
He afterwards held the situation of domestick chaplain to Holles, Duke of Newcastle. Here he continued not long before he was presented, by Archbishop Wake, to the rectory of Buxted, in Sussex. Partly on account of his uncommon merit, and partly from regard to the particular recommendation of the learned Dr. Wotton, whose daughter Mr. Clarke had married, this promotion was conferred upon him, without any solicitation of his own.
In the year 1730, Mr. Clarke gave a publick specimen of his literary talents, in an elegant Latin preface, prefixed to Dr. Wotton's Collection of the Welch Laws. Mr. Clarke took a copy of the famous Chichester Inscription; which he printed, and had it engraved in that preface. This plate was afterwards presented by the Rev. Edward Clarke, to the late Sir William Burrell; together with many curious papers relative to the county of Sussex; and a drawing of a piece of Roman pavement found in the Bishop's garden at Chichester, which by the preportions was supposed to have covered a room thirty feet square, and of which the Duke of Richmond gave the Society of Antiquaries a drawing, in 1749.
In September, 1738, Mr. Clarke was made prebendary and residentiary of Hova Villa, in the cathedral church of Chichester.
The "Discourse on the commerce of the Romans," a work which was highly praised by Dr. Taylor, in his " Elements of the Civil laws" was written by Mr. Clarke, and is reprinted in the volume of "Miscellaneous Tracts," and in "The Progress of Maritime Discovery," which has since been published by his grandson.
Maurice Johnson, in a letter to Roger Gale, Esq., dated March 17,1743-4, says: ' We had, last Tuesday, a letter from Mr. William Bowyer, the printer, a member, who wrote than his friend, Mr. Clarke, a prebendary of Chichester, (likewise a most learned and worthy member,) had informed him that there had lately been found in that city, a Roman coin, representing Nero and Drusus, sons of Germanicus, on horseback, and on the reverse, C. CAES. DIVI. AVG. PRON. AVG. P.M. TR. P. III. P.P. In the middle S.C. (which I find in Occo's Caligula A.W.C. 791 A.D. 40 p. 69) 'which' says he, 'though the very same which Putin on Suetonius, Mediobarbus, &c., have given us before, yet bring one advantage to the place where it was found, as it is a confirmation of the antiquity of the Chichester inscription, which, you know, is a little contested in Horsley, and proves the early intercourse of the Romans with the Regni, contrary to the opinion which Bishop Stillingfleet conceived for want of such remains.'
Mr. Clarke's principal printed work is "The Connexion of the Roman, Saxon, and English Coins; deducing the antiquities, customs, and manners of each people to modern times; particularly the origin of feudal tenures, and of parliaments: illustrated throughout with critical and historical remarks on various authors, both sacred and profane." This work was published in one volume, in 1767; and its appearance from the press was owing to the discovery made by Martin Folkes, Esq., of the old Saxon pound. In the dedication to the Duke of Newcastle, he takes a publick opportunity not only of thanking his Grace for the obligations he had received, but also of acknowledging that they were not the effects of importunity, but owing to that disposition of doing good to others, that spirit of beneficence by which his Grace was so remarkably distinguished. Mr. Clarke's performance was perused in manuscript, by the Right Honourable Arthur Onslow, Speaker of the House of Commons, who honoured him with some useful hints and observations; but he was chiefly indebted to Mr. Bowyer, the printer, who took upon him all the care of the publication, drew up several of the notes, wrote part of the dissertation on the Roman sesterce, and formed an admirable index to the whole. By this work, Mr. Clarke acquired a high and just reputation. Indeed it reflects honour upon the country by which it was produced; for there are few performances that are more replete with profound and curious learning.
Mr. Clarke obtained permission, in 1768, to resign the rectory of Buxted, (having held it more than thirty four years,) to his son Edward. This was effected by the unsolicited interest of Marquess Cornwallis; who was pleased to recollect the intimacy which had subsisted between himself and the Rev. Edward Clarke, in the island of Minorca.
In June, 1770, he was installed Chancellor of the Church of Chichester, to which office the rectories of Chittingley and Pevensey are annexed; and in August that year, was presented to the vicarage of Amport, on the death of Dean Harwood. Mr. Clarke did not long enjoy this preferment, dying October, 21, 1771, at the age of 75. He had been afflicted with the gout for three months, in the spring of that year.
So attentive was Mr. Clarke to the interests of the chapter of Chichester, and so admirably did he manage the jarring passions of its members, that it was observed after his death: 'The peace of the church of Chichester has expired with Mr. Clarke.'
The following inscription was written by him in 1746, intending that it should have been put up at the expense of the Dean and Chapter; but the rest of that body being averse, the plan was laid aside:-
"Hans Patrum et Episcoporum seriem quam sacravit olim Sherboniana pietas, ipso tandem operis vetustate evanidam fere et deletam, revocavit denuo at restituit Matthias Cicestriensis, A.D. 1746. Cujus beneficii memoriam Posteris traditam at conservatam esse voluerunt Decanus et Capitulum."
In addition to the writings already mentioned, Mr. Clarke joined with Mr. Bowyer, the celebrated printer, in the translation of Trapp's Lectures on Poetry, and in the Annotations on the Greek Testament; and was the author of several notes subjoined to the English version of Bleterie's Life of the Emperor Julian.
He left behind him a considerable number of manuscripts, among which were some excellent Sermons. The publication of these at the express recommendation of the late Bishop Begot, has not appeared. Some of the best were given, at his Lordship's request, to the late Bishop of Chichester, Sir William Ashburnham, Bart., and at his death were inadvertently burned with some other papers.
Among his MSS. are some very valuable letters from the different Literati of the age, who had corresponded with himself and Dr. Wotton.
He had also drawn up a short account of the " Antiquities of the Cathedral of Chichester," which was presented, by his grandson, to Mr. Hey, the historian of that city.
Some letters of Mr. Boyle, in the possession of the Rev. Henry Miles, F.R.S., of Tooting, increased by a part of the collection which had been communicated to Dr. Wotton, by Mr. Boyle, were presented by Mr. Clarke, to Dr. Birch.
In a letter to his friend Mr. Bowyer, Mr. Clarke says ' I find the Archbishop (Secker) and you are intimate, and that he trusts you with secrets; but I could tell you a secret, which nobody knows but my wife; that if our deanery should be ever vacant in my time, (which is not likely) I would not accept it. I would no more go into a new way of life, furnish new apartments, &c., than Mrs. Bowyer would go to a Lord Mayor's ball. I have learned to know that at the end of life these things are not worth our notice.'
[To this we may add the following fact. When the Duke of Newcastle had retired from the duties of his high station, and was one day in familiar intercourse with an old friend, that friend asked his Grace, how it happened, that amidst the many Divines he had raised to the Episcopal Bench, he never thought of Mr. William Clarke? 'thought of him!' replied the Duke, why my dear Sir, he was seldom out of my mind: but Mr. Clarke never asked me.']
An honourable and classical tribute was paid by the Rev. Edward Clarke to his father's memory, in the following epitaph.
Memorial Sacrum Wilhelmi Clarke, A. M. Cancellarii et Canonici Ecclesiae Cicestriensis: Quem pietate, literis, moribus urbanis, humanitate et modestiā ornatum concives et familiares sui uno ore ubique confessi stint; et si ipsi siluissent testarentur ipsius scripta: In commune vita comis, betas, utilis, facile omnes perferre ac pati promptus, ingenui pudoris, magni et liberalis animi In ecclesia suadens, facundus concionator, at non solum in cures fidelium, sed etiam in anima veridica stillaret oratio, precibus offerendis fervidus et profluens ut, tanquam sauctior Ilamma, In caelos ascendere viderentur: In parochia pastor vigil, laborum plenus, indoctis magister, aegris solamen, abjectis spec pauperibus crumena; tames eleemosynas suas adeo occulte adeo late disseminavit, ut illasonen nisi dies ultima judicii ultimo revelare potuerit: Natus est anno 1696, in comitatu Salopiensi et caenobio de Haghmon Primis literia imbutus in Salopiae schola; collegii Sancti Johannis, Cantabrigiae, socius: Primo Adamo Ottley, Menevensi Episcopo, postea Daci Novo-Castrensi, Thomas Holles a sacris domesticis: tandem ad rectoriam de Buxted inter Regnos a Willielmo Wake, Archiepiscopo Cantuariensi, propter sus et egregia soceri sui Wilhelmi Wottoni merits sine ambitu collatus. Obiit Cicestriae, Oct. 21, A.D. 1771.'
Sepulchrale marmor quo subjacet Cicestriae virenti adhsc viridi senecta mente solida et terms, sic inscripsit:
[This was not long before his death.]
The sic inscripsit refers to the following short Inscription, which is engraved upon the tomb-stone in Chichester Cathedral, behind the choir, near the entrance to the Duke of Richmond's vault:
Depositum Gulielmi Clarke, A.M. Canonici et Cancellarii hujus Ecclesiae, qui obiit [Octobris 21,] A.D. [1771,] aetatis [75.] Uxorem Annam, Gulielmi Wottoni, S.T.P, et Annae Hammondi filiam; et Liberos duos superstites reliquit.'
Mr, Hayley, the poet, was intimately acquainted with Mr. and Mrs. Clarke, and has left the following characters of his two excellent friends,
' Mr. Clarke was not only a man of extensive erudition, but he had the pleasing talent of communicating his various knowledge, in familiar conversation, without any appearance of pedantry or presumption. There was an engaging mildness in his countenance and manner, which brought to the remembrance of those that conversed with him, the countenance of Erasmus.- Indeed, he bore a great resemblance to that celebrated personage, in many particulars; in the delicacy of his constitution, in the temperance of his life, in his passion for letters, in the modest pleasantry of his spirit, and in the warm and active benevolence of his heart. As men they had both their foibles; but foibles of so trivial a nature, that they are lost in the radiance of their beneficial virtues.
' Antiquities were the favourite study of Mr. Clarke, as his publications shew: but he was a secret, and by no means an unsuccessful votary of the muses. He wrote English verse with ease, elegance, and spirit. Perhaps there are few better epigrams in our language than the following, which he composed on seeing the words Domus Ultima inscribed on the vault belonging to the Duke of Richmond, in the Cathedral of Chichester:
'Did he who thus inscribed the wall Not read, or not believe St. Paul, Who says there is, where'er it stands, Another house not made with hands; Or may we gather from these words, That house is not a house of Lords.'
[The inscription which is on a mural tablet at the east end of the Duke's vault, near St. Mary's chapel, is in these words,
Sibi et suis, posterisque eorum Hoc Hypogasum vivus F.C. Carolus Richmondiae, Liviniae, et Albiniaci dux anno aerie Christiana 1750: Haec est domus ultima.]
' Among the unstudied pieces of his classical poetry, there are some animated stanzas, describing the character of the twelve English poets, whose portraits, engraved by Vertue, were the favourite ornament of his parlour: but he set so modest and humble a value on his poetical compositions, that I believe they were seldom committed to paper, and are therefore very imperfectly preserved in the memory of those to whom he sometimes recited them. His taste and judgment in poetry appears, indeed, very striking, in many parts of his learned and elaborate "Connexion of Coins." His illustration of Nestor's cup, in particular, may be esteemed as one of the happiest examples of that light, which the learning and spirit of an elegant antiquary, may throw on a cloudy and mistaken passage of an ancient poet.
' He gave a very beneficial proof of his zeal for literature, by the trouble he took in regulating the library of the Cathedral, to which he belonged. He persuaded Bishop Mawson to bestow a considerable sum towards repairing the room appropriated to this purpose. He obtained the donation of many valuable volumes from different persons: and, by his constant and liberal attention to this favourite object, raised an inconsiderable and neglected collection of books, into a very useful and respectable publick library.
' As to his talents as a Divine, he might, I think, be esteemed an impressive and doctrinal, rather than a highly eloquent preacher. In the more important points of his professional character, he was entitled to much higher praise. In strict attention to all the duties of a Christian pastor, in the most unwearied charity, he might be regarded as a model to the ministers of our church. Though his income was never large, it was his custom to devote a shilling in every guinea that he received, to the service of the poor. As a master, as a husband, and as a father, his conduct was amiable and endearing; and to close this imperfect sketch with his most striking feature, he was a man of unaffected piety, and evangelical singleness of heart.
' Having thus given a slight, but faithful account of Mr. Clarke, let me speak of the admirable woman who was the dear companion of his life, and the affectionate rival of his virtues. Mrs. Clarke inherited, from her father Wotton, the retentive memory by which she was distinguished, and she possessed the qualities in which Swift considered him as remarkably deficient,- penetration and wit. She seemed, indeed, in these points, rather related to the laughter loving dean of St. Patrick's, than to his solemn antagonist. The moral excellence of her character, was by no means inferior to the sprightly activity of her mind. Nature and education never formed, I believe, a more singular and engaging compound of good humoured vivacity and rational elevation. Her whole life seemed to be directed by the maxim, which one of our English Bishops adopted for his motto, 'Serve God, and be cheerful. * There was a degree of irascible quickness in her temper, but it was such as gave rather an agreeable than a dangerous spirit to her general manners. Her anger was never of long continuance, and usually evaporated in a comick bon mot, or in a pious reflection. She was perfectly acquainted with the works of our most celebrated divines, and so familiar with the English muses, that even in the decline of her life, when her recollection was impaired by age and infirmities, she would frequently quote, and with great happiness of application, all our eminent poets. She particularly delighted in the wit of Butler; and wrote herself a short poem, in the manner of Hudibras, Her sufferings on the death of her excellent husband, were extreme; and though she survived him several years, it was in a broken and painful state of health, Through the course of a long life, and in the severe maladies that preceded her dissolution, she displayed all the virtues of a Christian, with uniform perseverance, but without ostentation.
' Mr. Clarke had three children, two of whom survived him. Edward, who became Rector of Pepperharrow, Surrey, in 1758, who was, like his father, a man of genius and learning, and the author of several learned works;- and a daughter, who inherited not only the virtues of her parents, but their passion for literature. She died at Chichester, and was buried in a cemetery adjoining the Cathedral. The celebrated traveller Dr. Edward Daniel Clarke, was the son of the above Rev. Edward Clarke, and the grandson of the Rev. William Clarke.'
* Dr. John Haoket, Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry. It is inscribed on his print, prefixed to his century of Sermons.