"IPSWICH, comprising the parishes of St. Clement, St. Lawrence, St. Margaret, St. Mary-at-Elms, St. Mary-at-the-Quay, St. Mary Stoke, St. Mary-at-the-Tower, St. Matthew, St. Nicholas, St. Peter, St. Stephen, and Holy Trinity, it is a market town, municipal and parliamentary borough, and the principal port in county Suffolk, being the capital of the eastern division of the county, 17 miles from Colchester, 24 from Harwich by rail, or 12 by river, and 68 from London by the Great Eastern railway, which has its station at Stoke, about 1 mile from the centre of the town. Here the East Suffolk line branches off. During the summer months steamers sail from Ipswich for London daily, calling at Harwich and Walton-on-the-Naze; besides numerous small steamers to Harwich, which are constantly plying upon the river Orwell. The town of Ipswich, which stands on a gentle acclivity about 12 miles from the sea, on the N. bank of the Orwell, here crossed by two bridges, is a place of great antiquity, having been a mint town in the Saxon times. It became a free borough in the reign of Richard II., from whom the inhabitants purchased their freedom, and was incorporated by charter of John."
From The National Gazetteer of Great Britain and Ireland (1868)