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Magna Britannica et Hibernia

Volume 6: Westmorland

by Thomas Cox (Vicar of Bromfield, Essex) 45 pages, printed in 1731.

1-30 History & Gazetteer

Westmorland.

Westmorland is an inland County, no where touching on the Sea, but
bordering on the East on Part of Yorkshire and the Bishoprick of Durham, on
the South on Lancashire, and on the West and North on Cumberland: It
extendeth thirty Miles in Length, but is not much above twenty-four Miles in
Breadth, which making it 120 Miles in Compass, it contains in it thirty-two
large Parishes, in which are a great Number of Chapels of Ease, eight
Marker-Towns, Six thousand five hundred and one Houses, Five hundred and ten
thousand Acres of Land, which is divided into two large Baronies, viz. the
Barony of Westmorland, which is a large Champian Country, and the Barony of
Kendale, which is full of Mountains, or as they are called by the
Inhabitants, Fells. These two Parts belong to two Dioceses, viz. the former
to Carlisle, and the latter to Chester.
This County was Part of the large Country of the Brigantes, of whom we
having given a large Account in Cumberland, we shall supersede any
Description of them here, as we shall also of the Northumbrian Kingdom
established by the Saxons, of which this Shire was a Part, because we have
also set down the Succession of the Kings thereof in Northumberland, to
which we thought it most properly to belong, because from that County it
took its Name, and thither also we refer our Reader.
How the Conqueror, after England became perfectly subject to him, dealt
with this little County, our Historians are altogether silent. 'Tis
probable, it was so remote from his Eye, that he little regarded it; and
though his great Commanders were greedy to heap to themselves great
Inheritances from the Saxons Spoils; yet this being an hilly barren Country,
we do not find it disposed of to any, till the Reign of King John, who
rewarded the great Services of Robert de Vipont, who had been with him at
the memorable Battle of Mirabel, in which the French and Poictovins received
so terrible an Overthrow; with a Grant of the Castles of Appleby and Burgh,
and the whole Bailiwick of Westmorland, to hold during the King's Pleasure.
This Robert still continuing in the King's Wars, had the next ensuing Year
another Grant for his better Support of the Premisses, together with the
Services of all those that held not by military Services, to hold to him and
his Heirs, by the Wife that he then had, by the Service of four Knights Fees
for all Service; provided, that he should not commit Waste in the Woods of
Winesell, nor hunt in them during the King's Life, except he were there
himself in Person, and saving to the King and his Heirs, all Pleas of the
Crown.
In the two Baronies of Westmorland and Kendal before-mentioned, we find
no Hundreds, but only Wards, Deaneries, Parishes, and Constablewicks; all
which but the Deaneries, not being distinctly known to us, we are obliged to
treat of the Towns in an Alphabetical Order, putting the Market-Towns in
capital Letters for the more easy finding them. The Reason given by our
Antiquaries, why this County was not divided into Hundreds, Rapes or
Wapentakes, as all the other Counties of England are, is, because in antient
Times these Parts paid no Subsidies, being sufficiently charged in Border
Service against the Scots. The Towns and Villages are




AMBLESIDE, a small Market-Town, situate on the upper End of the Lake,
known by the Name of Winandermere, whose Market is weekly on Wednesday, and
Fair yearly on
(blank). It was antiently a large City, as appears, not only from the many
Ruins of the Walls, and from the Rubbish of old Buildings still to be seen
without the Walls. The Romans had a Fort here of an oblong Figure,
fortified with a Ditch and Rampire, in Length an Hundred and thirty-two
Ells, and in Breadth eighty. That it was a work of the Romans, not Saxons
or Danes, is evident from the British Bricks and Mortar tempered with small
Pieces of Brick. To which, if we add, that little Urns, glass Vials, and
Roman Coins are commonly met with here, together with round Stones like Mill
stones (of which, being sodered together, they used of old to make Pillars)
and paved Ways leading to it, we have Proofs beyond Contradiction.
But the old Name is quite lost, unless we may infer from the Name
Ambleside, that it was the Amboglana, mentioned in the Notitia, where the
Cohers prima AElia Dacorum had their Quarters; but against that Conjecture
it is said, 1. That the Notitia places it ad Lineam Valli, which, if we
interpret of the Line or Track of the Picts Wall itself, it is not possible
it should be meant of this Place; but if we suppose it to signify (as it may
well) the Line of Communication, which several Auxiliaries had with those
who were quartered upon the Picts Wall, our Opinion may be reconcilable
enough with the Notitia. But some farther object, 2. That it is beyond all
Doubt, that the Cohors prima AElia Dacorum was quartered at Williford in
Cumberland, as appears by several Inscriptions, which have been found at a
little Distance from it (which see in Cumberland). But to this it may be
answered, there was at Williford (or rather at the Bank-End) A Fort assigned
for that Cohort, when they were called out upon extraordinary Occasions to
defend the Picts Wall; but Ambleside was their chief Station or standing
Quarters, of which this is a good Argument, that many Pieces of Roman
Antiquities have been found here, about the old Works, viz. several Medals
of Gold, Silver, and Copper, some of which are in the Collection, which Mr.
Thomas Brathwaite of Ambleside gave by Deed, dated Novemb. 26. 1674, to the
Library at the University of Oxford.
A small Mile North of the Town stands Ridal-Hall, a convenient and
large, but antient House; and in the Manor is a very high Mountain called
Ridal-Head, from the Top of which there is so large a Prospect, that in a
clear Day, Lancaster-Castle and much farther may be seen. The Manor
antiently belonged to the Family of Lancaster, to whom it defended from the
Brus's of Skelton, by the Marriage of Margaret de Brus, one of the Coheirs
of Peter de Brus, with Roger de Lancaster; for he & Edw. I procured a Grant
and Confirmation of the Forest of Ridal, which his Wife had before made over
to him, which proves 'twas her Inheritance. From the Family of Lancaster it
passed to that of Plaiz by the female Heir 8 Edw. III. And from them by the
Howards to the Flemmings in the Reign of King Hen. IV. Who had seen Lords of
it ever since. Sir Daniel Flemming, a Lover of antient Learning, was of
this Family, who was very helpful to the late Editors of the Britannia, in
giving them several useful Informations in this County and Lancashire.

APPLEBY, a small Market Town, memorable for nothing but its Antiquity and
Situation, otherwise little superior to a Village. Its Market is kept
weekly on Saturday, and Fair yearly on Whit-Monday. The Antiquities of it
are, That it is situate on a Roman military Road, still visible by its high
Ridge; and tho' in the Itinerary and Notitia, it is called Aballaba, and it
is contracted into Appleby, yet the Derivation is so plain and almost
entire, that there is no Room left to dispute, whether it be the same, as
also that under the Romans it was the Station of the Mauri Aureliani, a Band
of Soldiers so called, because they were sent hither by the Emperor
Aurelian, to secure the Borders of his Empire in these Parts.
The Situation of this Town is in a pleasant Field, almost encompassed with
the River Eden, but it is but thinly peopled, and the Houses and other
Buildings are so mean, that if Antiquity did not set it above the other
Towns of the County, and the Assizes were not held in the Town Hall, as they
were formerly in the Castle, which in Part made the common Gaol for
Malefactors, but that's now removed to the End of the Bridge, it would be of
little more Note than the best Villages. What is most remarkable in it is
the Corn Market, which is the best in all those northern Parts, and a
beautiful broad Street, which runs from North to South with an easy Ascent,
at the Head of which is the Castle, which is almost surrounded with the
River, and Trenches, where the River comes not. This Castle is now the Seat
of the Earl of Thanet.
But as mean as it at present is, it has several Testimonies of its antient
Splendor, King Hen. I, endowed it with Privileges equal to the City of York;
the Charter of this latter (as 'tis said) being granted in the Forenoon, and
that of this Town in the Afternoon. King Hen II. Granted it another Charter
with the like Immunities, and King Hen. III (in whose Time there was an
Exchequer here, called Scaccarium de Apleby) a third; all which are every
Way conformable to that of York, and have been confirmed by the succeeding
Kings of England, even almost down to the last Century.

When it was first governed by a Mayor doth not appear; but is evident
that in the Reign of Kind Edw. I, it had a Mayor and two Provosts (who seem
to have been then Men of principal Note, i.e. Sheriffs, or at least such as
we now call Bailiffs, who signed the publick Acts of the Town together with
the Mayor, though at present their Office is nothing else, but to attend the
Mayor with two Halberds). Brompton makes Mention of Apelby shire, which
seems to imply, that it then had Sheriffs of its own, as most Cities had,
tho' they are now called Bailiffs; for 2 Edw. I in a Confirmation Charter of
Shap-Abbey we find this Subscription, Teste Thoma, filio Johannis tunc Vice
Comite (i.e. Sheriff) de Apelby, unless we should say that Westmorland was
called the County of Apelby or Apelby-shire, as Brompton seems to intimate,
and may perhaps be more clear from this. That in the Returns of the most
antient Writs for summoning Parliaments, bearing Date 26 Edw. I, only the
Name of the County is specified, not the Town, which may imply, that the
Shire had its Nomination common with the Town.
This seems confirmed by this, That we never meet in our antient Histories
of the Barony of Westmorland, but with the Barony of Apleby often, including
all the Villages of the North Part of the County; and when it lost the Name
of Aplebyshire and took that of Westmorland, the Barony also was so called,
otherwise 'tis hard to imagin, how this Barony should take the Name of the
County.

In the Scotch Wars this Town suffered so much, that it was reduced to a
very low Condition, for 22 Hen. II it was set on Fire by the Scots, and
again 11 Rich. II. Insomuch that of 2200 Burgages (by a due Computation of
the Fee farm Tenants ) there remained not above a tenth Part, as appears by
the Inquisition then taken, and yet preserved in the Town Chest. From these
Desolations it hath never recovered it self, but hath ever since lain, as it
were dismembered, and separated one Street from another at such a Distance,
that one would believe them so many several Villages, nor indeed is it to be
know but by the Records, that they ever belonged to the same Body. For
though Burghgate is mentioned above as the principal Street, yet Bongate,
Battleburgh, Dungate and Scattergate, are all of them Parts of it, and
probably the Burrals also, which may be an Evidence, that the Whole was once
walled round (the Word signifying Borough Walls) and so much the more,
because at Bath in Somersetshire, they call the Town Walls, Burrals: To
confirm our Relation of the low Condition and Misfortunes of the Place, we
esteem it necessary to set down the following Inscription, which is set up
in the Garden belonging to the Schoolhouse, of which we shall speak
presently.

ABALLABA, QUAM (not equal to sign) C.C. (not equal to sign)
i.e. Circum
FLVIT ITVNA, STATIO FVIT
RO. TEMP. MAVR. AVREL.
HANC VASTAVIT (cross) F.F. (cross sign)
i.e. Funditus
GVIL. REX SCOT. II76.
HIC PRESTIS SAEVIT 1598.
OPP. DESERT MERCATUS
AD. GILSAVGHLIN * F. * FVGIT.
Or fuit
DEVM TIME.

By this Monument we may understand both the Excellencies and Decay of
this Town; the former is expressed in the Situation, and in this, that it
was a Roman Station in the Time of Marcus Aurelius; the latter befell it by
the Desolation brought upon it by William, King of Scots, in the Year 1176,
by the Plague, which raged here in 1598, when the Market was removed from it
to Gilshaughlin, a Town lying four or five Miles distant from it on the
North-West.
At the lower End of the Town stands the Church, which now is but one, but
it seems that here was antiently two Churches; for we find that Ranulph,
Earl of Chester, who died Anno 1129, 29 Hen. I. gave to the Abbey of St.
Mary's at York, the Church of St. Michael, and the Church of St. Laurence,
belonging to his Castle of Appleby in Westmorland. Near the Church stands
the School, built at the Expence of Robert Langton, LLD. A Native of this
Town, who by his Last Will and Testament bequeathed to Queens College,
Oxford, Two hundred Pounds to purchase Lands, and thereon to build a
School-house in this Town, which being endowed with several Benefactions
since by Dr. Thomas Smith, Bishop of Carlisle, and others it is become a
famous School, and hath had divers learned Men, Masters of it. Mr. Cambden
mentions one of them, viz. Mr. Reginald Bainbrigg, with very great Respect.
This Town, after it was taken by William, King of Scots, by Surprise,
remained some Time in his Hands, but was at length recovered by King John,
and by that Prince given to John de Vipont, or de Veteri Ponte, as a Reward
of his many good Services; but we are not to understand this Gift of the
King to include the Borough of Appleby, but the Castle and Barony only; for
the former had been before granted to the Burgesses there by King Hen. II
and been confirmed to them by King John himself, Reg. I. Nor was the Grant
of the Barony, a Gift too little for a King; for to it belonged not only the
Castle of this Town, but that of Burgh also, and many Manors, Forests, and
Chases; all which, together with the Sheriffwick and Services of the Tenants
of other Lordships, which held of it by Cornage, made up a large and noble
Jurisdiction. The Viponts enjoyed the Barony and Sheriffwick divers
Successions, till Robert de Vipont, joning with Monfort, Earl of Leicester,
in a Rebellion against King Hen. III was slain in the Battle of Evesham, and
his Estate being seized, was given to Roger Clifford and Roger de Leyboure,
who married his Daughters Isabel and Idonea, and afterwards deserved so well
of the King, that he totally remitted the Forfeiture of their Father. Upon
the Division of the Vipont's Estate, the Barony fell to the Cliffords (the
Ancestors by Mother side of the Earls of Thanet) who have been Lords of the
County, and flourished at this Place for above 500 Years; but Issue Male
failing in George Lord Clifford, the Inheritance of this Barony, and all his
Castles and Lands descended to his only Daughter and Heir Anne, who had
thereby the honourable Titles of Clifford and Westmorland vested in her.
This noble Lady, who was and Example of true Piety and Charity, may not
be passed over without a special Notice of her Benefactions to this Town,
without digressing to those of other Places, viz. Anno 1651, April 23. she
laid the first Stone of an Hospital, which she founded in this Town, for a
Governess and twelve other Widows, commonly called now, The Mother and
twelve Sisters, which she finished in three Years following; and for the
Endowment thereof of she purchased the Manor of Brougham, and certain other
Lands called St. Nicholas's near this Place. And not long after purchased
Lands of eight Pounds a Year at Temple Sourby in this County, which she
settled on the Town to keep up the Repairs of the Church, School-house,
Town-Hall and Bridge of this Town: She also rebuilt a great Part of the
Church at Appleby, which was become ruinous, and made a Vault at the
North-East Corner of the Chancel for her own Burial, and over it erected a
stately Monument of black and white Marble for her self; and dying in the
eighty-sixth Year of her Age, Anno 1675 was deposited in it. She likewise
totally rebuilt the Church at Bongate (which we have before said to be a
Part of this Town) and the Chapel of Brougham.
This Town hath given Birth and Education to several Men of great worth,
viz. Dr. Christopher Potter, Provost of Queens College, Oxford, Prebendary
of Windsor, and Dean of Worcester, a Person of great Learning and a devout
Life, comely in his Person, and exemplary in his Behavior. When the
Troubles began, he was Vice-Chancellor of Oxford, in which Office he was
much disturbed by the factious Party of the University and Town; and when
the Civil Wars broke out, he sent all his Plate to the King, saying, He
would drink as Diogenes is said to do, in the Hollow of his Hand, before his
Majesty should want, though he had Reason to fear, he should be stript of
all his Preferments by the Enemy. One Knot, a Jesuit in his Time, published
a Book which he intitled, Charity Mistaken. This Book our Doctor ansered in
a Treatise, which he named, Want of Charity justly charged on all such
Romanists, as affirm that Protestancy destroys Salvation Oxford 1633. Knot
answered this Book in a Tract he called, Mercy and Truth, or Charity
maintained by Catholicks, Anno 1634. The Doctor finding (as he said) that
Controversies could no more be ended by Writing than a Fire be quenched with
Oil, refused to reply, and so Mr. Chillingworth undertook Knot, and hath
excellently confuted him. He died March 3 1645, and was buried in the
Chapel of his College. He was nominated Dean of Durham a little before his
Death, by his Majesty, but never was installed.
Christopher Bambridge, Doctor of Laws of Queens College in Oxford, Dean
of York, Bishop of Durham, and at length Archbishop of York; he was sent
Ambassador by King Hen. VIII to Rome, where he so managed Affairs, that he
procured his Master to take Part with the Pope, against Lewis, King of
France, for which Piece of Service the Pope took himself so much obliged to
him, that he created him Cardinal of St. Praxis; but he enjoyed this Honour
but a small Time; for falling out with his Steward Rivaldus de Modena, an
Italian, and caning him for his Faults, the revengeful Italian poisoned him,
and so he died July 14, 1511 and was buried at Rome.
Thomas de Appleby, who was legally chosen Bishop of Carlisle by all,
that had any Right of Election, but was so timerous, that he durst not own
the Choice, till he had obtained his Confirmation from the Court of Rome,
and then being consecrated, Anno 1363. sat thirty-three Years in it, for he
deceased December 5 1395.
Roger de Appleby, who went over into Ireland, and there became Prior of
St. Peter's near Trimme, which House was founded by Simon de Rupe sorti,
Bishop of Meath. He was at length preferred by the Pope to the Bishoprick
of Ossory in that Kingdom, and died Anno 1404.


Apelthwate, an Hamlet in Winandermere Parish, to whose Inhabitants all
the Fishing upon the Mere belongs, and all the Tithe Fish to the Rector
thereof, who has a Pleasure boat upon the said Lake, and a Prescription for
so much a Boat, in Lieu of the Tithe of all the Fish that are taken in it.
The Abbey of Furness had two Boats upon this Mere, the one for the Carriage
of Timber, and other Commodities, and another for Fishing, given them by
William de Lancaster, Baron of Kendal; but we suppose not exempt from paying
the like Sum for Tithes to the Rector, as the other fishing Boats.

Adelathes, a Lordship of William Lord Dacre, who dying without issue 33
Edw. III left it with his other Estates to Ranulph de Dacre his Brother,
then Rector of the Church of Prestecotes, his Mother Margaret being then
alive, but dying soon after, all the Estate of his Family became vested in
him. He, though a Clergyman, was in the Wars with Scotland, with the King,
39 Edw III. Being obliged thereto, as we may suppose , by the Tenure of some
of his Lands, and the 45th of the same King was constituted a Commissioner
for the Guarding the West Marches. He died 49 Edw. III. And left his
Estates to his Brother Hugh.

Annerholme, the Lordship and Estate of Thomas de Tweng, a Clergyman,
Rector of Lythum in Lancashire, who died possessed of it 48 Edw. III and
left the whole Estate of his Family to the Posterity of his three Sisters,
Lucy, Margaret, and Katharine, but to which of them this Manor, upon the
Partition came, we can't discover.

Afcome, the Lordship of Roger Lord Clifford 4th, of which he died
seized 13 Rich. II. And left it to his Son and Heir Thomas, with many other
Estates.

Ashby-Wyenderwaith, the Manor and Estate of Roger Lord Clifford 4, of
which he died seized 13 Rich. II as above, as he did also of
Ashby Cotesford, and
Ashby parva.

Aykescoghe, the Manor and Estate of William Lord Graystoke, who died
possessed of it with other Estates 32 Edw III. And left it with them to his
Son Ralph, and his Heirs.

BURGH under Stanmore, or Market Burgh, a small Town, having its Market
weekly on Thursday, and Fair yearly on St. Matthew's Day. Antoninus and
the Notitia mention a Roman Fort, called Vertere, where, in the Declension
of the Roman Empire, a Prefect of the Romans quartered with a Band of the
Directores, which by their Description of it must be this Place; and to
confirm the Conjecture it seems a good Proof,

that upon a Mountainadjoining, called Brough-fair-hill, there are found
some Tumuli, Barrows , and antient Burying-laces of the Roman Soldiery.
The Town is now dwindled into a Village, which is defended with a
small Fort, and is therefore called Burgh, and because there is another
Village near it of the same Name, it is usually called Burgh under
Stanmore, i.e. under Stony Mountains, of which there is a Ridge by it,
dividing this Shire from Yorkshire.

The Town, though but small, is divided into two Parts, viz. Upper, or
otherwise Church Brough, because the Church standeth in it. Robert
Eglesfield, Founder of Queens College in Oxford, was Rector of this Place.
He procured the Appropriation thereof to his said College. Here also stands
the Castle of Burgh, and a Tower called Cesar's Tower, which is the Fort
before mentioned. The Castle, which had been razed to the Ground was not
long since rebuilt by the Countess of Pembroke. 2. The lower Brough from
its Situation, and Market-Brough from the Market kept in it every Thursday.
The Change of the Name from Vertere to Burgh seems to have risen from hence.
In the Time of the later Emperors of Rome, little Castles, which were built
for emergent Occasions of War, and stored with Provisions for that Purpose,
were called Burgi, from the Greek Word (not able to transcribe) , as may
reasonably be supposed, which Name being given to the little Fort here,
easily became the Name of the Town. We read no more concerning the Town,
but that in the Beginning of the Norman Conquest the English formed a
Conspiracy here against King William.
This Town and Lordship, with the Castle thereunto belonging, was a
considerable Part of the Barony of Appleby, as appears from the first Gift
of it to Robert de Vipont by King John, Reg. 4. for the Grant was of the
Castles of Appleby and Burgh with the Bailiwick of Westmorland, and many
Manors. From the Viponts, after divers Successions, these Estates (as is
shewed in Appleby) came to two Sisters, Isabel and Idonea, the Eldest of
which being married to Roger Clifford, this Barony, upon the Partition,
passed to his Heir Robert Clifford, who being slain at the Battle of
Bannocks bourne in Scotland, left it to his Son Roger, a Minor; but leaving
a Widow, Maud, one of the Heirs of Thomas de Clare, this Lordship, with
divers other Estates, was assigned to her in Dower: Roger was taken in
Battle at Burrough-brigg, and suffered Death for his Rebellion at York.
Robert his Brother succeeded him, in his Honour and Estate, being next in
Blood; he purchased of Idonea, his Great Aunt, all her Right and Title in
the Bailiwick of Westmorland, and procured a Charter 4 Edw. III for a weekly
Market on Thursday in this Place, and a Fair yearly, to begin two Days
before the Feast of St. Matthew, and continue on the Day and Morrow after.
His Posterity long held this Castle and Manor, till the good Lady Anne
Clifford afore-mentioned came to be Heir of it, and transferred it to other
Families.
Cuthbert Buckle, Son of Christopher Buckle of this Town, and a Vintner of
London, was Lord Mayor of that City in the Year of our Lord 1593.

BURTON, a Market Town, situate on the utmost Southern Point of this
County, which Borders upon Lancashire. The Market is weekly on Tuesday, and
Fair on Whit-Monday. Burton was the Lordship of Roger Lord Clifford 4th, of
which he died in Possession, and left, as other Estates before-mentioned.

Barton, or as it is called in our Historians, Barton-Kirk, a Village
situate on the River Eimot, almost at its coming out of the Lake called
Ulleswater. The Parish wherein it is, is remarkably large, for it reaches
from the Bounds of Rydal and Ambleside on the South to the River Loder, or
Lowther, on the North fifteen or sixteen Miles. The Lordship of this Town
did most antiently belong to the Lord Dacre of the North, for Ranulph de
Dacre died possessed of it 13 Edw. III. His Posterity enjoyed it divers
Successions, till Ranulph Lord Dacre, Brother of Thomas late Lord Dacre,
firmly adhering to the House of Lancaster against the House of York, and
being slain in Towton-field, by which Victory King Edward IV obtained the
Throne, was attainted in the following Parliament, and all his Estates being
forfeited to the Crown, that King gave them all to Sir Richard Fienes, or
Fenys, his Chamberlain, who had married Joan the Daughter and sole Heir of
the above mentioned Thomas Lord Dacre, accepting and declaring him by his
Letters Patent Lord Dacre, and by his Grant settling upon him and his Wife
Joan, and the Heirs of their Bodies, this Manor, and all other the Lands of
Thomas Lord Dacre her Father, by the Attainder of the late Lord Dacre
Ranulph, her Uncle. In this Family of Fienes this Lordship continued till
36 Eliz. Margaret Fienes transferred it by Marriage to Sampson Leonard,
Esq: who thereupon claimed the Barony of Dacres, and obtained it.
This Place is famous for the Births of two great Men, viz.
Dr. Gerard Langbain, who from a poor Scholar in Queens College, Oxford,
became first Fellow of the said House, where he was so eminent for all Kinds
of Learning, and especially of Antiquities, that he was chosen by the
University Keeper of the Archives or Records in 1644, and the next Year
after Provost of his College; and in June following proceeded Doctor of
Divinity. He was of a great Esteem for his Honesty and Skill in satisfying
Doubts and composing Controversies. His great Learning rendered him
acceptable to Archbishop Usher, Selden, and other Prodigies of Literature of
his Time, and his Piety and publick Spiritness to all that knew him. He
wrote several Things, but that which deserves to preserve his Memory here
is, that a little before his Death, he settled twenty-four Pounds per Annum
upon the Free-School of this Town, towards which he owned, that he had
received twenty Pounds of a certain Doctor in Oxford, who desired to have
his Name concealed. He died Febr. 10 1657-8.
Dr. William Lancaster, late Provost also of the same College, was a
Native of this Place, and on that Account, 'tis probable, was a considerable
Benefactor to the School.
Dr. Lancelot Daws, educated in Queens College, Oxford, where he was
made Fellow, and being a studious Person, became a singular Ornament of his
House. Removing from his College he became Minister of this his native
Place, and being eminent in this Station, was raised to a Prebend in the
Church of Carlisle, and further preferred to the Rectory of Ashby in this
County. He submitted to the Men in Authority in the rebellious Times, but
seems no Ways concerned in defending or maintaining their Transactions, but
rather seems to have lamented the Disorders of his Time, by certain Sermons
entitled, God's Mercies, and Jerusalem's Miseries. He was forty-eight Years
Pastor of this Church, and died March 11 1653. He was buried under the
Communion Table in the Chancel belonging to this Parish Church.

Bampton, or Banton, a Village situate upon the River Loder, in which we
observe nothing memorable but a good Free-School built, and endowed by Dr.
Thomas Sutton, a Native of it. He was educated in Queens College, Oxford,
and having taken Holy Orders, became Minister of Culham in Berkshire, and
Lecturer of St. Helens at Abingdon, which he at length exchanged for the
Lectureship of St. Mary Overhees in Southwark, where having continued some
Time, he was desirous to finish a Work of Charity which he had began, and to
that End took a Journey to this his native Place, and there put his Hand to
the Finishing of this School which he had began. Having done this, he
hastened to London again to his Charge, taking Ship at Newcastle, but in the
Way was with many others cast away, and drowned in 1623, being then not
forty Years old. Some of their Bodies were taken up, and among them Dr.
Sutton's, as was thought, which was buried at Aldborough in Suffolk. Drury,
the Jesuit, rejoiced greatly at the Doctor's Death, and the more, because he
said it was a Judgement on him for being so zealous against Popery in his
Preaching; but Drury's Censure was returned upon his own Head two Months
after, for he was killed by the Fall of a Chamber in Black-Friars, at an
Assembly of Romanists, to whom he was Preaching.
Bampton-Candale and Bampton-Patrick, two Manors belonging to Roger Lord
Clifford 4th, of which he died possessed 13 Rich. II. And left them with
other great Estates to his Son and Heir Thomas.

Betham, a small Village-standing near the River Can, famous only for a
Catadupa or Waterfall, made by the Waters tumbling Headlong from an higher
Ground, with an hideous Noise. The Neighbours form a Prognostication of the
Weather from it thus: When the Noise of it sounds clear, they are sure of
Rain and Mists. There is another Waterfall in this River at Levens, a
Village lying above this Northward, of which in its Place: The Earl of
Derby hath a Seat here, called Betham-Castle.

Bibreke, a Village famous only for the Birth of Nicholas Close, one of
the original Fellows, whom King Hen. VI placed in his new erected College at
Cambridge, which he named Kings College. The King had so great Confidence
of his Abilities and Fidelity, that he made him Overseer of the Works, which
Trust he discharged with singular Honesty. He was afterwards made a Bishop,
first of Carlisle, and then of Lichfield, where he died anno 1453.

Bolton, the Lordship of Roger Lord Clifford 4th, who died possessed of
it, and left it, as above.

Bowes, a Castle committed by King John, Reg. 5. to the Custody of Robert
de Vipont, from whose Family it passed with the Manor through many Hands to
John de Beaufort, Marquis of Dorset, whose Heiress Margaret, marrying to
Edmund of Hadham, Earl of Richmond, was by him Mother of King Henry VII.
The military Port Way tending Southerly leads to this Place, which is
thought to be the old Station mentioned by Antonius, which he calls Lavatre,
which we mention here, because Sir William Dugdale places it in this County,
and says, Robert de Vipont, Baron of Appleby, had the Custody of it; but we
think it more truly in Yorkshire, and shall there speak more largely of it,
because there are several Antiquities found there.

Brampton-hill, the Lordship of William Lord Greystoke, who died
possessed of it 32 Edw. III and left it to Ralph his Son, in whose Posterity
it remained.

Brampton, the Lordship of Roger Lord Clifford, who died possessed of
it, and left it as is said in other Manors above.

Brougham, the Lordship and Castle of the Viponts, included in the
Barony of Appleby and Burgh, given Robert de Vipont by King John, Reg. 4.
from whose Family, after a few Descents, it passed by the Heir general to
the noble Family of Cliffords, who enjoyed them uninterruptedly divers
Successions; for though we find them with other Estates in the Hands of Guy
Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, and others, 7 Edw. II. Yet they held them not in
their own Right, but as Guardians to Roger de Clifford, who was then in his
Minority, and had them all restored to him, when he became of Age. He was
succeeded in his Honour and Estate by Robert his Brother, who being
possessed of this Castle of Brougham, entertained Robert de Baliol, King of
Scotland, when he came a Hunting in the Woods and Chases of this Robert.
How this Manor came to be alienated from the Cliffords, we do not find, but
that it was so, appears from hence; That the Lady Anne Clifford, when she
endowed her noble Alms-house at Appleby, purchased this Manor to settle upon
it. This Place stands upon the Roman military Way, called the Maiden-Way,
just upon the Confines of Cumberland, and is thought to have been the old
Broconiacum (written in other Copies Brownacis, and Brocovum, and in the
Notitia, Broconiacum) mentioned in Antoninus's Itinerary, which is rendered
almost certain, not only by its Distance from Vertere, Burgh, but from the
several Roman Coins, Altars, and other Antiquities, which have at Times been
found here. The company of the Desensores had their Abode here, as the
Notitia expressly tells us, but Age has consumed the Castle and other Roman
Buildings, which might have confirmed what we have said, so that only the
Place hath the Name of Brovoniacum, ie. Brougham stamp'd upon it, being
almost the same.

Buley-Castle, situate on the River Eden, a little above Appleby on the
North-West, and belonging to the Bishop of Carlisle. It is said to have
been erected at two or three Times by the Bishops of that See, several of
whom have kept their Ordinations here, as there are still in Being several
Registers to testify, if a Proof of it were necessary.

Burgham Castle, with the Wood of Quinsell, and and a third Part of the
Manor of the Town, the Possessions of Roger Lord Clifford 4th, of which he
died seized with many other Estates 13 Rich. II. Leaving them to Thomas his
Son and Heir. He had Summons to Parliament from 31 Edw. III. To the 12
Rich. II.

Cabergh, a Manor of the same Lord, and left by him to the same Heir, as was
also

Clibburn-Talboys, though probably deriving its last Name from Ivo de
Talbois, the first Lord of Kendal, whose Possession it was, and whose
Posterity assumed the Name of de Lancaster, and from them it passed to the
Cliffords through several intermediate Owner's Hands. And
Clibburn Herny.

Casterton, the Lordship and Estate of John Marquis of Dorset, whose sole
Heir Margaret carried it into the Family of Edmund of Hadham, Esq. as is
said in Bowes above.

Clifton, the Lordship of Roger Lord Clifford 4th, who died possessed of it,
as of other Manors above; otherwise of Note only for the Birth of
Christopher Airay, educated in Queens College, Oxford, where having taken
his Degree of Master of Arts, and entering into Holy Orders, he became
Bachelor of Divinity and Vicar of Milford in Hampshire in or about the Year
1642. It is said in his Epitaph, that in the Time of the Troubles he kept
in the right Path, but we have no Account of his Demeanor then. He wrote
some Books, but we find not what, except his Fasciculus Preceptorum
Logienlium, (etc?) printed at London, 1660. He died on St. Luke's Day in
1670, and lies buried in the Chancel of his Church of Milford.

Coleby, the Lordship of the Lords Clifford, left as the former Manors.

Crakanthorp, a Village famous for its Hall, or Manor-House and Moor. The
Hall is a pleasant Seat, situate on the East-side of the Town, where the
Family of Machels, who are Lords of the Manor and have long been Men of good
Note in this Country, have had their Residence from the Conquest downwards
to this Day, and perhaps some Years before, if we had any Records to
enlighten us in the Things of the preceding Ages. It may seem a little
Strange, that Gentlemen of so antient a Family should not be found in the
Catalogue of Knights of the Shire for this County' but if we consider that
'tis probably they were of a Saxon Descent, 'tis no Wonder that the Norman
Kings would not trust any of such Descent, supposing them to be
irreconcilable Enemies. 2. The Moors over which the Roman military Way
passeth, called, the Maiden-way, and on which there are observable several
wonderful Camps, near which other Antiquities have been discovered. To
these Things we may add, that the Family of Crakanthorps, which hath
produced several Persons of Note, may be justly thought

to take their Name from this Place, seeing they are every where
in our Histories said to be Natives of this County, but not of what
Place certainly, and seem to be more eminent than the Machels;
for John de Crakenthorp was one of the Knights for this Shire,
9 Rich. II. And the 13th of the same King; William de Crakanthorp
was in the same Office, 15, 18, and 21 of the same King, which
John and William held the same Place 1 (?) 3 Hen. IV. And Robert Crakanthorp
was chosen into the same Post 1 and 3 Hen. III. 5 Hen. VI. Which shews, that
the Family was in great Credit in those Kings Reigns. In later Time Richard
Crakenthorp brought a Reputation to this Family by his singular Virtues and
Learning, for which he was made the King's Chaplain, and preferred by Sir
John Leveson to the Rectory of Black-Notley near Braintree in Essex, but far
short of his Deserts, as all that knew him believed; for he was replenished
with all Kinds of Virtue and Learning, being a great Philosopher, a profound
Divine, a subtle Canonist, and so well versed in the Fathers, Councils, and
Schoolmen, that non in his Time went beyond him, as his Writings
sufficiently prove. K. James I. used to say, he ought to have been a
Bishop, but he never made him one; so that he died Rector of Black-Notley,
and was buried in the Chancel there Nov. 25. 1624. This Manor is placed
among the Estates, of which Roger Lord Clifford 4th died possessed 13 Rich.
II. And left to his Heir Thomas, which how it is consistent with what is
said before from Cambden, its hard to reconcile.

Crawdundale Waith, a Place hard by Whelp-Castle, where there appear Ditches,
Rampires, and great Mounts of Earth cast up, among which was found this
Roman Inscription, cut in a rough Sort of a Rock, but the fore Part worn
away with Age.

(Untranscribable)

This (S with an umelot) is set down in the last Edition of Cambden, but Mr.
Burton on the Itin. P. 126, puts a C instead of it, which seems more
agreeable to the Reading. Plus Mr. Burton gives us this for the whole
Inscription.

It thus read: Varronius Prafectus Legionis Vicefime Vatentis ViEtricis,
AElius Lacanus Prefectus Legionis fecunda Augufte caftrametati funt. The
Manner of Graving, the one rude and deep, the other in a finer Character,
proves them to be different Inscriptions, of which this may be the
Interpretation. The first of them imports, That Varonius, who with his
Legion lay at Deva, or West-Chester; and the other, that Lucanus, who was in
Garrison with the seconti Augustan Legion at Isea or Carleon in Wales, being
both detached against the Enemies in those Parts, pitched their Camps for
some Time in this Place; and 'tis probable that the Officers in Memory
therof might engrave these Lines on the Rock. Mr. Machel, late Minister of
Kirby-Thore, who made a Collectionof the Antiquities of this County, in
order to compose the History of it, found here the following Inscription,
never before observed, viz.

(Untranscribable)

but we do not find any that have attempted to read it, and so must leave it
to bolder and more experienced Antiquaries to spell out the Meaning of it.

Crosby-Gerard, the Lordship and Estate of Roger Lord Clifford 4th, of which
he died possessed 13 Rich. II. And left it to his Son and Heir Thomas, with
many large Estates, of which

Crosseby-Rundewyth was at the same Time a Part.

Crossethwaite, an Hamlet, whose Manor was, 30 Hen. III. The Possession of
William de Lancaster, Baron of Kendal, who died then possessed of it; but
leaving Agnes de Brus his Wife surviving, she had for her Dowry an
Assignation of this Manor and divers others which she held for her Life.
Tho whom it passed from this Family, we do not certainly know, but find
Robert de Thweng dying possessed of it, and other Estates in this County 48
Edw. III. He had no Issue, and so his Estates descended to the Heirs of his
three Sisters, Lucy, Margaret, and Katharine; but to which of them this
Manor fell in the Partition doth not appar; for we observe nothing of it,
till John de Beaufort, Marquis of Dorset, died possessed of it 22 Hen. VI.
And leaving it to his only Daughter Margaret, with his other great Estates,
she by Marriage carried them to Edmund of Hadham, Earl of Richmond, whose
Son Henry by her became King of England, by the Name of Henry VII.

Dufton, the Lordship of John Lord Graystoke, who having no Issue of his Own,
and his Brothers and Uncles being dead without Issue Male, settled this and
divers other Estates upon his Nephew Ralph, the Son of William Fitz-Ralph,
Lord of Grimthorpe in Yorkshire and Joan, his Aunt, and dying 34 Edward I.
left them to the said Ralph. He was summoned to Parliament by the Name
of Ralph FitzWilliam, and dying 9 Edw. III. Left this Lordship, and his
other Lands to his Son Robert, who outlived him but one Year, yet left a Son Ralph
eighteen Years old, Heir of his Estates. Elizabeth his Wife survived him,
and had for her Dowry an Assignation of this Lordship, and several others.
The aforesaid Ralph being come to Age assumed the Name of Graystoke,
and was summoned to Parliament under that Title. He was poisoned at
Gatsheved as he was at Breakfast, and left his Estates to his Son and Heir
William Lord Graystoke. He was summoned to Parliament from 22 to 31
Edw. IIII. Dying 32 Edw. III. Was found among other Estates to be possessed
of this Lordship, which he left to his Son Ralph Lord Greystoke, and his
Heirs, some of whom it seems alienated it, for we find Roger Lord Clifford 4th
dying possessed of it 13 Rich. II. And leaving it to his Son and Heir Thomas.

Slasecogh (Flafecogh) was another of the Lordships left by the said Lord
Fitz-William to his Son Ralph and his Heirs; but we have no Account of it
before or after him.

Frothwayt, the Estate of John Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, who dying 22
Henr.
VI. Left it with many other Estates to Margaret his only Child and Heir.
She married
to Edmund of Hadham, Earl of Richmond, Half Brother to King Hen. VI.
And by him had Henry, Duke of Richmond, who seated himself on the Throne
by the Victory over Rich. III in Bosworth-Field.

Gallabar, a Field lying upon the Banks of the River Birkbeck, in which
there
is a red Stone, commonly called Brandreth-stone, about an Ell high with two
Crosses cut deep on one Side. The Tradition among the Inhabitants is, that
antiently it was the Mete-stone between the English and Scots. How true it may be,
we can't affirm, but observing that it is about the same Distance from Scotland that
Rerecross upon Stanmore in Cumberland is, we are willing to subscribe to Hector
Beothius, the Scotch Historian's Judgement, who tells us, That that Stone as set
for a boundary between England and Scotland, when William I. gave Cumberland
to the Scots, upon this Condition, that they should hold it of him by Fealty,
and attempt nothing to the Prejudice of the Crown of England; and so 'tis probable was
this.

Greenholm, an artificial Mount near the Road, which crosses the River
Birkbeck near it, which was raised to prevent the Incursions of the Scots, in the
Road to Penrith, as another at Castle bow near Tebay was in the Road to Appleby,
both which have such a Command over the Highway, that an Enemy can't pass for them.

Gilshaughlin, a small Town, to which the Market was removed in the Time of
Pestilence from Appleby, four or five Miles North-West of it.

Gresmere, the Lordship and Estate of William de Lancaster, Baron of Kendall,
who died possessed of it with divers Estates 26 Hen. III but his Wife Agnes de Brus
surviving him, she had this Manor with other Estates for her Dowry. He died without
Issue, and Peter de Brus and Walter de Lindsey were his next Heirs; yet Roger de
Lancaster had, by the Gift of the said William his Half Brother, some of the Lands
of his Father; and Margaret de Brus, one of the Daughters and Coheirs of Peter,
made over some other Estates of his Ancestors to him, among which was the Common
of Pasture for his Cattle in and about this Place, which he procured a Confirmation of
from King Edward I. Reg. 3. and so settled them all upon his Heirs.

Halested, the Lordship of William Lord Greystoke, who died possessed of it 32
Edw. III. And left it with the Rest of his great Estate to Ralph his Son and Heir.

Hamelset, the Demesne of John Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, who died seized of it
22 Hen. VI. And left it to his sole Daughter and Heir Margaret, who marrying to
Edmund of Hadham, Earl of Richmond, Half-Brother of King Hen. VI. Was the Mother
of King Hen. VII who by the Slaughter of King Rich. III in Bosworth-field,
obtained the Crown.

Harkla-Castle, a Seat of the antient Family of Musgraves, Men of great Renown
in this County, for Thomas Musgrave, Knt. Was one of those Gentlemen in these Parts,
who, upon that Invasion in the North made by David Brus, King of Scotland, put himself in
Arms, and commanding the Van of the Army, gave him Battle, and having routed
the Scots, took the King himself and divers of his Nobles Prisoners. He sat in Parliament
from 24 Edw. III. To the forty-seventh Year of the same King, but he was the
only Baron of the Family. His Descendants still kept up their Grandure, for another
Thomas Musgrave, was one of the Knights of the Shire 1 Hen. IV. And in the Reign of
King Philip and Queen Mary, Sir Richard Musgrave of this House was so
considerable for Honour and Wealth, that Thomas Lord Wharton, who in the Reign of King
Henry VIII. Had, with the Assistance of Sir William Musgrave, put 1500 Scots to
flight at Carlisle, took his Daughter Anne to Wife.

Heartley-Castle, another Seat of the Musgraves, more antient than the former at
Harcla-Castle. We find nothing material of the Family relating to their Seat here,
but this, That Thomas Musgrave of Queens College, Oxford, who was created Doctor of
Divinity in 1685, Octob. 10 was Son of Sir Philip Musgrave, Bart. Of this Place, who
was a Person of signal Loyalty to King Charles I. in his Troubles. This Doctor
became Archdeacon of Carlisle in 1669, was installed Prebendary of Durham, July 12,
1675. as also Prebendary of Chichester, Nov. 10 1681, and at length Dean of Carlisle
upon the Promotion of Dr. Thomas Smith to the Episcopal See in 1684. He died in the
Beginning of April 1686. The Manor of Hertley, 13 Rich. II was the Estate of Roger
Lord Clifford 4th, who died then possessed of it, and left it to his Son and Heir Thomas.

Helbeck-Soar by the River Gelt hath an Inscription engraven on it, which the Romans
left behind them, as was usual in other Places, to be Marks, where they had been, but
what it was our Author doth not particularly inform us. The Manor of Helbeck was the
Lord Clifford's above-mentioned, 13 Rich. II and left as there.

Helsington, the Lordship and Estate of Marmaduke Thweng, a Parliamentary Baron,
who sat in Parliament with the Barons from 35 Edw. I to 16 Edw. II. He made over
this Manor, and some other Estates, to William his Son and Heir in his Life-time, and
left him many more at his Death, which happened 16 Edw. II. William his Son and
Heir had Summons to Parliament 18 Edw. III but never after. He died without
Issue 15 Edw. IIII. And left this and his other Estates to Robert his Brother, a
Clergy-man, as he did for Want of Issue to his Brother Thomas, A Clergyman also,
and Rector of Lythum, who died possessed of them, and left them all to be divided
between the Posterity of his three Sisters, but to which of them this Manor in the
Partition came, is not particularly set down in our Author.

Helton-Bacon, the Estate of Roger Lord Clifford, of which he died seized 15
Rich. II. As above, as he did also of Helton-Fletham,

Hep, Hepe, or as now 'tis called Shap, a small Village, once famous for a small
Monastery, of which we shall hereafter in its Place particularly speak, but now
of no Note, save for certain great Stones in the Form of Pyramids, (some of them
nine Foot high, and fourteen thick) almost in a direct Line, and at equal Distances
for a Mile together. They seem intended to be the Memorials of some Action or
other, but Distance of Time hath made it impossible for us to find out the Occasion,
having no History of this County. Robert de Vipont, a Parliamentary Baron, and a
Person much in Favour with King John, was Lord of this Town as Part of his Barony
of Appleby, and it seems upon some Occasion laid up his Arms (for he was a very
warlike Person) in the Abbey of Hep. He died indebted to King Hen. III. Reg 12 in
the Sum of 199 pounds, 11 shillings 6 pence five great Horses, and five Tan of Wine;
whereupon the King after his Death, sent his Precept to the Abbot of Hep, to deliver!
up all the Arms belonging to the said Robert, which were in his Custody, to this
Bailiff to be kept in his Castles. Roger Lord Clifford 4th died possessed of this
Manor 13 Rich. II. But how it came into his Family from the Viponts we have not
discovered as yet.

Hendring, the Lordship and Estate of William Lord Greystoke, who sat in Parliament
among the Barons from 22 to 31 Edw. IIII. And dying July 20, 32 Edward III. Left it
with his other great Estates to Ralph Lord Greystoke his Son and Heir, whose Posterity
enjoyed it for divers Successions, till they all became vested in the Heir general, who
marrying to Thomas Lord Dacres, had Livery of all her Lands, but with Limitation to her
and her Heirs, 22 Hen. VII. Her Name was Elizabeth, sole Heir of Ralph Lord Greystoke.

Hosse, the Lordship of Ranulph de Dacre, Rector of the Church of Presvecotes,
descended to him by the Death of William de Dacre, his Brother, who left no Issue.
He enjoyed the Estates of his Ancestors about fourteen Years or more; was in the
Wars with Scotland, and was constituted one of the Commissioners for the Guarding
of the West Marches; and dying 4 Edw. III. Left this Manor with his other Estates
to his Brother Hugh, whose Posterity enjoyed them divers Successions, till Ranulph
de Dacre adhering to the Lancastrian Succession, lost his Life in Towton-field,
fighting against Edward Duke of York, who by the Victory was created King of
England; and in his first Parliament having caused him, and divers other Nobles
who fought against him, to be
attainted, seized on their Estates, and so this Manor fell into the King's
Hands. Humphry his Brother and Heir behaved himself with that Fidelity and
Obsequiousness to King Edward, that he was made Chamberlain to Margaret the
King's Sister; but whether he recovered the Estate of his Family, we do not
find. Some Part he did not, for this Manor was found to be in the Possession of
the Lord Cliffords in the Reign of King Hen. VII

Hoton, the Lordship of John Beaufort, Marquis of Dorset, of which and divers
other great Estates he died possessed May 27. 22 Hen. VI. Leaving Margaret
his only Daughter and Heir, who marrying to Edmund of Hadham, Earl of
Richmond, carried her great Estates into his Family, and by him had Henry Earl of
Richmond, who afterward became King of England, by the Stile and Title of Hen. VII.

Howgill Castle, situate upon Burnibeck, a small River at a little Distance from
the Maiden-way Northward, belonging to the antient Family of Sandfords,
who were in their Time of great Repute, for Sir Walter Sandford was Knight of the
Shire for this County 15 Edw. II. And Sir Robert de Sandford was Knight of the
Shire for this County 16 and 19 Years of King Edw. II. His Son Robert as we
suppose, was so acceptable to the Men of this County, that he served for them in
Parliament many Times in the Reign of King Edw. III. Viz, 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 9,
14, and the 17 and 18 Years of that Reign, and Thomas de Sandford and William de
Sandford 20th.

Hornby, a small Village, famous only for being the native Place of a Divine, Mr.
Simon Birkbeck, a noted Preacher, both in the University and Country. He was
educated in Queens College, Oxford, where having taken his Degrees, he entered into
Holy Orders, and became Vicar of Gilling and Chapel of Sorcet near Richmond in
Yorkshire. In which Place being settled, and complying with the Powers in Being,
from 1642 to his Death, he kept his Living, and was in good Esteem both with the
Clergy and Laity for his exemplary Life. He wrote a Book, which was much valued
by Mr. Selden, and other learned Men, called The Protestants Evidence, shewing,
that for 1500 Years after Christ, the Fathers and Guides of Christ's Church taught,
as the Church of England now doth, printed at London in 1635, and after in 1657,
against the Doctrine of the Church of Rome. He died in 1656, and was buried
at Sorcet near the Font.

Hugh Seat-Morvil, or Hugh Morvill's Hill, so called from the Family of Morvils,
one of whom was some Time Lord of Westmorland, and 'tis likely had his Seat
on or near it. Out of the Hill run two Rivers, viz. Eure and Swale into
Yorkshire.

Jeffreys-mount is an Hill standing on the West-side of the River Lune,
over-against Rownthwait, from which there runs a Ridge of Mountains as far
as Ulles-water, which is near half cross the County.

Isanparles, a Rock in the northern Parts of this County, much taken Notice
of, which Nature hath made of an very difficult Ascent, with several Caverns
and Windings, as if she designed it for a Receit in troublesome Times. The
Eimot empties itself into the Eden near it.

KENDAL, Candale, or Kirby Candale, in Latin Candalia, signifying a Vale
upon the River Can, which runs along the Valley near it in a stony Channel.
Dr. Gale will have it to be the Brovonaca of Antonius, and Cambden himself
was once of the Opinion, that it was the old Roman Station Concagi, but it
seems he altered his Opinion before he wrote his Britannia; yet his
Judgement not being infallible, others have taken the Liberty to fix them
here rather, than in any other Place, because in the Notitia it is placed,
as it were in the Middle of the northern Stations; for whereas between York
and Derwent, the Notitia speaks of fourteen Stations, the Concangii are the
Seventh, and the very next that come after it are Lavatre, which our
Antiquairies unanimously place at Bowes, a Castle upon the military Way,
upon the Edge of this County; Vertera at Burgh-Castle, and Brovoniacum at
Brougham, which are further in it; and they are the more certain of it,
because on the other Side of the River is an old square Fort, of which the
Banks and Ditches are still visible, in which are found Roman Coins, Altars,
and other Antiquities. But after all, Dr. Brady, a very skilful Person in
Things of this Nature, will have the Concangii, which was the Station of the
Prefectus numeri Vigilum, to be placed on the northern Side of the Wall, or
as others, at least nearer it, than this Town.

It is a fair, large trading Town, but of no great Antiquity, and therefore
of Note principally for its Manufactures of Cottons, Cloths, Druggets, Hats,
Stockings, etc. in which the Inhabitants have driven a good Trade, as early
as King Rich. II. And King Hen. IV for in those Reigns we find special Laws
enacted for regulating Kendal Cloths, viz. 13 Rich. II and 10 and 9 Hen.
VI., c 2. The Cloth Trade was first settled here by King Edw. III. Who
brought certain Dutchmen into England, Reg. 11. to teach the English how to
improve their Wool, and placed them in the several Counties for that
Purpose, as in Essex at Colchester, and here, and etc. It hath been
incorporated but of late Years, for Queen Elizabeth, Reg 18. first erected
it into a Corporation by the Name of Aldermen and Burgesses; but King James
I. by a new Charter incorporated them into a Body subject to a Mayor, twelve
Aldermen, and twenty-four Burgesses or Common Council Men, who have a
Recorder and other Officers subordinate to them: It hath two great Streets
crossing one another, and in them a great Market weekly on Saturdays, and
two Fairs yearly, viz. on St. Mark's Day, April 25. and on St. Simon and St.
Jude's Days, Octob 28. and between those Fairs a great Beast Market every
Fortnight. There are belonging to this Town seven trading Companies, viz.
Mercers, Sheermen, Corwainers, Tanners, Glovers, Taylors, and Pewterers,
each of whom have their Hall or Place of Meeting. The Church here is very
large, and yet hath twelve Chapels of Ease thereunto belonging. Near the
Church is a Free-School well endowed with Exhibitions for such Scholars as
having been educated at it, are sent to Queens College, Oxford.

The Lordship of this Town was most antiently in Ivo de Taylbois, who was
from it intitled, Baron of Kendal. His Heirs and Successors Ethred, Ketel,
and Gilbert inherited it, but we have no Account of them, and so must pass
to the next Heir William, who being probably Governor of Lancaster-Castle,
assumed the Surname of De Lancaster, which his Posterity ever after bore.
He had a Contest with the Abbot of Furnesse about the Boundaries of his
Barony of Kendal from the Territories of the Abbey, which was by an Accord
fixed by certain Metes and Limits, yet had Verison and Hawks allowed him out
of the Monks Parts. His Posterity for four or five Generations inherited
this Barony, till William, the third of that Name, leaving no Issue, his two
Sisters, Halewyse and Alice inherited his Estates, of which the Eldest being
married to Peter de Brus of Skelton, brought the Barony into his Family.
Her Grandson Peter de Brus becoming Baron of Kendal, made that Place his
capital Seat; but departing the Life without Issue, his four Sisters became
his Heirs, of which the Third, Margaret, being married to Robert de Ros,
having this whole Barony allotted for her Share, he, and his Posterity were
called, for Distinction sake, Ros of Kendal. Her Son William had the Castle
for his Seat, as had also his Descendants, William, Thomas, and John, but
the last of these leaving only one Daughter and Heir Elizabeth, who married
Sir William Parre, carried this Barony into his Family, who from it were
called Parrs of Kendal, after whom it falling into the King's Hands 4 Edw.
IV. it became a Title of Honour, as so the Barony was not reckoned, as
before.

The Barons, Earls and Dukes, that have had their Titles from this Town.

John de Lancaster, third Son of King Henry IV. who in his Life-time made
him Constable of England, Governor of the Town and Castle of Berwick, and
Warden in the East Marches, was by his Brother King Hen. V. created Earl of
Kendal and Duke of Bedford. He was in the Minority of King Hen. VI
constituted chief Councillor and Protector of England as long as he lived;
but after his Death, which happened 14 Hen. VI. It revolved by Degrees to
Charles the Dauphin, who called himself all along King of France. He died
possessed of many great Estates, and among others of this Town with its
Members, and the Forest of Troutbeck, and the three Parks there,
Troutbeck-Park, Colt Park, and Cals-Garth, and was buried in the Church of
Notre Dame at Roan, under a plain marble Tomb. He left no Issue and so the
Honour for a Time became vacant, and this Lordship returned to the Crown.

John Beaufort, descended of John of Gaunt by his last Wife, the Lady
Katharine Swinford, his Father having in the 20 Rich. II. Been created Earl
of Somerset and Marquis of Dorset, was 21 Hen. VI. Created Duke of Somerset
and Earl of Kendal, and by that Title Lieutenant and Captain General of the
whole Realm of France. He served that King in his French Wars that Year,
but died the next, being then seized of this Barony. He left only one
Daughter Margaret for his Heir, who marrying to Edmund of Hadham, Earl of
Richmond, carried this great Estate into his Family, to which King Hen. VII.
Was Heir; but it seems that the Barony remained in the King's Hands, and was
a little after, 24 Hen. VI. Conferred on

John de Foix, Son of Gauston de Foix, Earl of Benanges, and Knight of
the Garter. This John having married Margaret, Neice of William de la Pole,
Duke of Suffolk, a powerful Man with King Henry VI. Was by the Duke's
Procurement made Earl of Kendal, and endowed with great Possessions in
England, as well as in his own Nation in Guien. Some of his Family still
remaining in France, call themselves Earls of Longuevile and Kendal.

William Parr, Descendant of that Sir William Parr, who married
Elizabeth, the daughter and Heir of Thomas Ros, Baron of Kendal, 14 Rich.
II. And Son of Sir Thomas Parr, being Squire of the Body to King Hen. VIII.
And Ranger of the Bailiwicks of Brigstock and Rockingham, was in the
thirtieth Year of that King created Baron of Kendale; and when that King,
five Years after, married his Sister, the Lady Katharine Parr, he was
created Earl of Essex; and because he was one of those whom the same Prince
associated with his Executors for their Assistance in Matters of the
greatest Importance, he was by King Edw. VI. Further created Marquis of
Northampton. He died without Issue, whereupon the Herberts, Earls of
Pembroke, descended from the Lady Anne his Sister, succeeded to his Rights
and Interests, and at this Day have the Title of Baron Ros of Kendal and
Parr.

Charles Stuart, third Son of his Royal Highness, James, Duke of York,
(afterwards King James II) soon after he was born, was declared Duke of
Kendal, anno 1666, but died the next Year after, and the Title lay dormant
above twenty Years.

George, Prince of Denmark, having married the Lady Anne (afterwards
Queen Anne) the youngest Daughter of James, Duke of York, was created by
King William III. And Queen Mary II. April 9, 1689. Duke of Cumberland, Earl
of Kendal, and Baron of Ockingham, with Precendancy of all Dukes by Act of
Parliament; and at the same Time, or soon after, made Lord High Admiral of
Great Britain and Ireland. He died Octob. 28. 1708. universally lamented,
having been eminently instrumental in the Revolution, and settling King
William on the Throne, and having shewed on all Occasions an hearty
Affection to the Protestant Religion, and true Interest of Britain. After
his Death the Title was again laid aside for a few Years, till at length

Melisina Evengart Schulanberg, a German Lady, who came over into England
with his Majesty King George I. having been before created Dutchess of
Munster in Ireland, was further honoured by the same King with the Dignity
of Baroness of Glassenbury, Countess of Feversham, and Dutchess of Kendal.
She attended King George in his last Journey to Hanover, in which he died,
and is now living in 1727.

Persons of Note born in, or inhabiting this Town.

Katharine Parr, Daughter of Sir Thomas Parr, was born at the Castle of this
Town, the prime Seat of this Barony, devolved to her Family from the Ros's,
as has been shewn above; she was first married to George Nevil Lord Latimer,
and afterwards to King Hen. VIII. Who chose her for his Wife upon the
Account of her great Repute for her Fidelity to her former Husaband. She
was a great Favourer of the Gospel Doctrines then reviving, and sometimes in
Dispute spoke such Things against the King's Opinions (for he held the six
Popish Points) as did not a little Displease him; insomuch as we are told by
a Jesuit, that the King intended to have beheaded her for an Heritic, had he
lived longer, but without Proof; she afterwards married Thomas Seymer, Baron
Sudeley, Lord High Admiral of England, and died in Child bed of a Daughter,
Anno 1548.

Barnaby Potter, born within this Barony, Anno 1578, and having been
educated in Queens College, Oxford, became Scholar, Fellow, and at length
Provost thereof, by the unanimous Consent of the Fellows, when he was at his
Cure in Totness in Devon, and never thought of, much less fought it. He
held it about ten Years, and then resigned it (being one of the King's
Chaplains) and by his Interest got his Nephew Christopher Potter to succeed
him. From the University he resorted to the Court, where he at first
attended on Prince Charles, and was accounted the penitential Preacher
there. When the Prince came to the Throne he was made Bishop of Carlisle,
notwithstanding there were other Suitors for it, and he ne'er fought for it.
He was consecrated at Ely house in Holborn, London, and being a constant
Preacher, and a devout Man in his Family, was commonly called, The
Puritanical Bishop. He died in Honour, being the last Bishop that died a
Member of Parliament, for soon after the Rest of the Bishops were excluded,
viz. in 1642, and was buried in the Parish of St. Paul's Covent Garden,
London. He has some Lectures and Sermons in Print.

Richard Kendal, whose Name points out his Original. He was an
excellent Grammarian, and was thought the best Instructor of Youth in his
Age. He made a vast Collection of Grammars, that he might by Extracting out
of them their Quintessence, be compleat in that Art, in which, as he
excelled in Knowledge, he did too much in Conceit; for he publickly boasted,
that no Man could make elegant Latin, but by his Rules; a proud and
pedantick Expression. He flourished in the Reign of King Hen. VI.

Christopher Potter, Nephew of the above-mentioned Barnaby Potter. He
was educated in Queens College, Oxford, where he became Fellow and Provost,
Being a Lecturer at Abingdon in Berkshire, he was accounted a Puritan, and
being in Archbishop Laud's Favour, an Arminian. He was made King Charles I'
s Chaplain in 1635, and soon after was preferred to the Deanery of
Worcester; he was also nominated to a Canonry of Windsor and the Deanery of
Durham, but never enjoyed the, because the Dissentions between King and
Parliament began: He was a very religious and exemplary Person, a learned
Man in general, and a Champion against Popery, as he shewed in his Writings
against Knot the Jesuit, whom Mr. Chillingworth encountered afterwards. He
died in Queens College, March 3, 1645-6. and lies buried in the Middle of
the inner Chapel.

George Wharton was descended of an antient and wealthy Family in this
Town, and after his School-Education sojourned in Oxford, but never became a
Member of any College; his Temper not allowing him to digest Logick and
Philosophy, but wholly leading him to Astronomy and Mathematicks. From the
University he retired to his Patrimony, and following his Genius, published
Almanacks under the Name of George Naworth of West-Awkland. But the
Troubles coming on, he grew discontented, and selling his Patrimony, raised
a gallant Troop of Horse, and engaged boldly in his Majesty's Cause but
without Success; for joining with Sir Jacob Altley, whose Forces were
totally routed at Stow on the Would in Glocestshire, he fled to Oxford, his
Majesty's chief Quarters at that Time, and there in Recompence for his Loss,
obtained the Place of Pay-master of the Magazine and Artillery. After
Oxford was surrendered, he was put to his Shifts, and lived chiefly by
writing Pamphlets; which gave such Offence to the Men in Power, that he was
often in Prison; but at length the King's Restoration brought him not only
Liberty but Preferment, being made Treasurer and Pay-master to his Majesty's
Ordnance, in which Office he was so great a Gainer, that he purchased an
Estate, and in Consideration of his Losses and Services was created a
Baronet Dec 17, 1677, which Dignity his Posterity enjoy. He died at his
House in Enfield, Middlesex, Aug. 10, 1681, and was buried in the Chapel of
the Tower, London.

Kirkby Stephen, a noted Market-Town, situate upon the River Eden. The
Market is weekly upon Friday, and the Fairs on St. Mark's Day, and the
Morrow after, and another on St. Luke's Day and the Morrow after. Here is a
Free-School founded and endowed by the Family of Wharton, of which we shall
speak in its Place.

Kings-Meburne, the Lordship of Roger Lord Clifford, who being inveigled,
or rather forced to join with Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, 13 Edw. II. In his
rebellious Attempts, was taken Prisoner by the King's Forces at
Burrough-brigg, and beheaded at York. His Estate becoming thus forfeited,
the King bestowed this Lordship on Anthony de Lucy, Esq.; for Term of Life.
But upon the loyal and dutiful Behavior of his Son and Grandson, both Rogers
it seems, this Lordship returned to the Family; for the last of them died
possessed of it, with other the forfeited Estates of his Ancestors, 13 Rich.
II. Leaving them with his other Lands to Thomas his Son and Heir, who was a
great Favourite of King Rich. II. And sat in Parliament 13, 14 and 15th
Years of that King's Reign, but died young in the last of those Years.

Kontmire or Kentmeire, a small Village, famous only for the Birth of that
eminent Person Bernard Gilpin, the Son of Edwin Gilpin, Esq; educated in
Queens College, Oxford, where he proceeded Master of Arts, and was made
Fellow thereof, being esteemed a good Disputant, and well skilled in the
Greek and Hebrew Tongues. This his Eminence in Learning recommended him to
be chosen one of the Masters of Christ-Church, when it was first founded for
a Dean, Canons, and Students by King Hen. VIIII, but he did not continue
long there, his Mother's Uncle, Cuthbert Tunstall, Bishop of Durham, sending
him to travel. When he returned, the Bishop gave him the Rectory of
Esington, with the Archdeaconry of Durham annexed; but he pretending them to
be too burdensome for one Man to bear, was presented to Houghton in the
Spring in the same County, and there settled. Preaching he made his chief
Business; and that the Gospel might be both thoroughly believed and
practiced, he frequently preached as well in the remote Towns as near,
insomuch that he was called, The Northern Apostle. His Alms also were so
frequent, equal, and constant, that he was called The common Father of the
Poor; and because a good Education of poor Children is one of the greatest
Charities, he boarded and kept in his own House full four and twenty
Scholars, most of them poor Men's Sons upon whom he bestowed Meat and Drink,
Clothes and Learning. His Hospitality was equal to his Almsgiving; for his
Parish being very large, viz. consisting of fourteen Villages, he kept a
publick Table for his Parisoners every Sunday from Michaelmas to Easter,
which he divided into their several Degrees, of Gentlemen, Husbandmen, and
the poorer Sort, and set them at several Tables; and beside treated them all
at Christmas according to the common Custom. On the Death of Owen
Oglethorp, Mr. Gilpin had a Conge d'Eslier to be chosen Bishop of Carlisle
by Queen Elizabeth, but he refused it. A little after he erected a Grammar
School at Houghton, and bestowed 460 pounds besides what was given by John
Hath of Kepier, Esq; to buy Land for a Stipend for the Master and Usher,
which School was settled in 1572, and out of it since, the Church hath been
supplied with several learned Men. And as he abounded in good Deeds, so he
was careful not only to avoid all Evil, but all Suspicions of it, so that he
was accounted a Saint by all that knew him, for Enemies he could have none.
He died March 4, 1582, in the 66th Year of his Age, and came to his Grave
like a Shock of Corn in its Season. He was buried in the Church of
Houghton, and by his Will dated Octob. 17, 1582, he left Half his Goods to
the Poor of his Parish, and the other Half for Scholars and Students in
Oxford. He hath written several Things, but has nothing in print but a
Sermon on St. Luke 2. 41, 48, preached before the King and Court at
Greenwich on the first Sunday in Epiphany in 1552, and in 1630.

Kirkshead, as the Ruins of an antient round Building standing on the
Southside of the river Can, or Kent, of which some are still to be seen, are
called. It is said to have been formerly a Temple dedicated to Diana. And
not far from it are the Ruins of another Building, which are thought to have
belonged to the same Place. The Park adjoining is well stocked with Deer.

Kirk Oswald, the Lordship and Estate of Roger de Iseyburne, given him by
King Hen. III. Reg 49. for his signal Services after that King's Recovery of
his Regal Power by the Victory of Evesham. It had lately been Part of the
Possession of Thomas de Multon of Gillesland.

Kirkby-Thore, or Whelp-Castle, a small Village standing upon the River
Eden, whose Lordship was in the Lord Clifford, 13 Rich. II. below which
appear the vast Ruins of an antient Town, where Roman Coins and Urns are now
and then dug up, and about the End of the 16th Century, this Inscription was
found there, viz.

DEO BELATVCAD
RO LIB VOTV
M FECIT
IOLVS.

Time has worn out the old Name quite, and the People call it at this Day,
Whelp Castle, Cambden guesses, that it was the Gallagum mentioned by
Ptolemy, and called by Antoninus in his Itinerary, Iter. X. Gallatum, and
in some Copies Galacum, yea, Calacum, which Conjecture (he says is not only
favoured by the Distances, but the present Name; for it is unusal with the
Saxons to turn such British Names as begun with Gall, into Wall, as is
evident from Galena, which the Saxons turned into Wallingford. It was
doubless a Place of considerable Note, seeing the old military Way, (now
commonly called the Maiden Way) runs through it almost directly to Caer
Vorran, which our Antiquaries will have to be Walwich, which stands near the
Picts Wall. Dr. Gale is of Opinion, that Catguoloph is the same that is now
called Whelp, or Whellop-Castle, but the Editor of Cambden says, 'tis a Man'
s Name, and not a Place's.

But whether it be the old Gallagum, or not, 'tis almost certain, that the
old Saxon God Thor (from whom our Thursday takes its Name) had a Temple
here, and seems implied in the Name. What his Worship was, and how
magnificient his Temple, we refer our Reader to Mr. V (illegible) to be
informed, and shall now only take Notice of a curious Coin relating to this
Idol, lately discovered here. (picture of both sides of coin)

It is about the Bigness of a silver Groat, but what it really was, and for
what End it was coined, our Antiquaries dispute about several Ways. We can'
t spare Room to relate them all; that which is best supported, is this:
Stephanus describing the God Thor, in his Notes upon Saxo Grammaticus says,
That his Head (in his Image) was surrounded with a Flame like the Sun, and
in his Hand he held a Seepter, which exactly agrees to the Figure on this
Coin. On the Reverse are these Words, as the Learned read them:
Thur gut Luetis, ie. As some interpret them, Thoris Dei facies, or
Effigies, i.e. The Face or Effigies of the God Thor; but Dr. Hicks tells us
the Meaning of them is, Thor Deus Patrius, ie. Thor the God of our Country.
The Figures of the Half-Moon and Stars, which are stamped round the
Idol, confirm this Opinion, for the Gothick Nations had the same Notion of
their God Thor, that the Phoenicians had of the Sun, whom they called, The
God of Heaven, to whom the Stars were all Subject, and worshipped him as
such, above all other Gods; and so did the Saxons. What is said of it by
others, 1. That it was an Amulet; 2. That the Figure is our Savior's, as
King of Kings, and Thurgut is the Name of the Mint-Master; 3. That it is a
Medal struck in Honour to the Danish Admiral who blocked up London, we pass
over, as Lusus ingenioforum.

Knockalsock, the Lordship of Roger Lord Clifford 4th, who died possessed of
it 13 Rich. II. And left it his Son and Heir Thomas, as is above observed in
divers other Manors and Towns.

LONSDALE, or Kirkby Lonsdale, that is, the Church Town in Lonsdale, so
called, because it stands in the Tract, which adjoining to the River Lone,
is called the Vale of the Lone, where it is the chief Town, to which the
neighbouring Inhabitants resort to Church and Market. The Market is weekly
on Tuesday, and Fair yearly on (blank)
This Town is chiefly of Note for giving the Title of Viscount to the
antient and reputable Family of Lowther, of whom Sir John Lowther,
Vice-Chamberlain to King William III and Queen Mary, and one of their Privy
Council, was created by their Majesties Baron Lowther, and Viscount
Lonsdale; but because their chief Seat is at Lowther Hall in this County, we
shall defer our Account of that noble Family, till we come to speak of that
Place.
John de Kirkby, that stout Prelate who vanquished the Scots almost
miraculously, was born (as is supposed) in this Town. He was first a Canon,
and then Bishop of Carlisle, which Place, when the Scots invaded England,
and burnt it, with an Army of Thirty thousand Men under the Conduct of
William Dowglas, Anno 1345. he not being able to bear the Insult, stirred up
the Gentry of that Country to oppose them, and with the Help of Thomas Lucy
and Robert Ogle, Persons of the greatest Interest in those Parts, got such a
Company together, that make Use of an advantageous Station, he utterly
vanquished and ruined the Scots. If it be said, that this Bishop had more
Passion than Piety, and that it had better became him to pray than to fight,
the Answer is ready, That it was a Kind of Necessity that forced him to act
St. Peter's Part in drawing his Sword, for his Own, and the Nation's just
Defence, which neither Religion nor Reason forbid. He must want Piety as
well as Courage, who will not oppose a publick Enemy; and it a Bishop may
not be Plaintiff in a military Case, surely he may be a Defendant.

Langeden, the Lordship of John Beaufort, Marquis of Dorset and Duke of
Sommerset, who died seized of it 22 Hen. VI. Leaving it to Margaret his only
Daughter and Heir, then but three Years old, but being afterwards married to
Edmund of Hadham, Earl of Richmond, became Mother of King Hen. VIII. Who
inherited this and her other Estates.

Lang hill, situate upon the River Lune, where the learned Dr. Thomas
Barlow, the late Bishop of Lincoln, was born, a Person famous for his great
Reading and his Zeal against Popery. He hath written divers metaphysical
Exercitations about the Nature of GOD, and some Things against the Popish
Doctrines.

Langton, the Lordship of Roger Lord Clifford 4th, who died possessed of
it, and divers other Lordships and Estates 13 Rich. II. And left them to his
Heir Thomas, etc.

Levens, where there is another Catadupa, or Water-fall of the River Can,
from which is a Conjecture of fair Weather made, as is said at Betham, that
doth of Rain and Mists. Here is also a fair Bridge over the River Can, or
Kent.

Leuge-crag, a Rock from whence 'tis probable the Romans dug much of the
Stone, with which they built the Picts Wall, which is confirmed by the
Inscriptions left here, according to their Custom in other Places, as at
Helbeck-Scar by the River Gelt, etc.

Logarig, we suppose now written Langreg, the Lordship and Estate of John
Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, who died possessed of it, with many other
Estates, 22 Hen. VI, and left them to his only Daughter and Heir Margaret,
who after married to Edmund of Hadham, Earl of Richmond, and by him had
Henry Earl of Richmond, ,the Heir of her Estates, who was after the Death
of King Rich. III made King of England by the Title of Henry VII.

Long-briggs, the Manor of Roger de Lancaster, which he obtained by his
Marriage with Margaret de Brus, one of the Sisters and Coheirs of Peter de
Brus; who have settled it upon him, with the Forest of Rydale and the Common
of Pasture adjoining to it, it was confirmed to him by a Grant from King
Edw. I. Reg. 3.

Lowther, a Village situate upon the River Loder, from when our
Antiquaries believe it took its Name, as Strickland doth from the River
which runs by it. In the Reign of King Rich. II. Reg 13. it was the Demesne
of Roger Lord Clifford 4th, who died possessed of it that Year, and left it
to his Son and Heir Thomas, by whose Heirs general his great Estates passed
into divers Families, and among the Rest to the Family of Lowthers, who took
their Name from it, and have for many Ages had their Seat here, called
Lowther-Hall. But least we should diminish any Thing from so antient and
noble a Family by our Derivation of their Name from the Town, we will not
pass over the Conjectures of the Learned concerning it. Olous Wormius, the
Danish Antiquary, being consulted by Sir Henry Spelman, at the Instigation
of Sir Peter Osborn, about the Derivation of this, among other English
Names, says he finds it among the antient Danish Names of their Kings, and
tells us it is derived from the Words Loth and Er, which signify Fortune and
Honour, and so make it carry a fortunate Stock of Honour in the very
Etymology. Others look upon it as a very honourable Name, because they
observe many of the Emperors and Princes of Germany to be called Lotharius;
but since most of our English Names, and that of the most noble Families are
taken from the Towns of which they were Lords, we shall rather prefer our
first Opinion.
This Family Lowther hath made a great Figure in this County for many
Generations, and several of them have born Offices of State; for Sir Hugh
Lowther, Knt. was Attorney General to King Edw. I. and another Sir Hugh
Lowther, Knt. was one of the Justices of the King's Bench 5 Edw. III. Sir
John Lowther was Sheriff of Cumberland 26, 27, and 28 Edw. III. Hugh
Lowther, Esq; was Knight of the Shire for Westmorland, 14, 33, and 46 Edw
III. John Fitz hugh de Lowther was also Knight of the Shire 50 Edw. III.
And 2 Rich. II. Sir Hugh de Lowther was made Knight of the Bath at the
Marriage of Prince Arthur, eldest Son of King Hen. VII. Sir Richard Lowther
was Sheriff of Cumberland, and Lord Warden of the West Marches. Sir
Christopher Lowther, Knt. was one of the Judges of the Court at York, and
his Son John was created a Baronet by King Charles I. His Son Sir John
Lowther being a Person of great Accomplishments, and of a considerable
Interest in this County, appeared early for King William at the Revolution
in 1688, which acceptable Service that Prince having taken Notice of, made
him Vice-Chamberlain of his Household soon after he and his Princess were
advanced to the Throne, as also one of his Privy Council, Keeper of the
Privy Seal, and one of the Lords Justices in that King's absence; in which
Stations having done his Majesty and the Nation good Service, that King was
pleased further to advance him to the Honour of Baron Lowther and Viscount
Lonsdale. He much adorned and beautified his Seat here, called Lowther
Hall, with curious Paintings and rich Furniture, but it hath lately been
burnt down. In his Honour he was succeeded by

Richard his eldest Son and Heir, who came of Age March 1712-13, but died
of the Small-Pox in December following, and was succeeded in his Honour and
Estate by

Henry his Brother, now Lord Viscount Lonsdale, then a Minor, and though
now of Age, we do not understand that he is married.

Lych, the Lordship of William de Lancaster, Baron of Kendal, the Third of
that Name, who dying 30 Hen. III left Agnes his Wife surviving, who had this
Manor and divers other Estates assigned for her Dowry; the Rest passed to
his Heirs, who were his Sister's Children, of whom Peter de Brus, the Son of
Helewyse, his Sister, had the Barony of Kendal, to which this Manor
belonged. From his Family it passed by the female Heir also to Robert de
Ros, who was on that Account stiled Baron of Kendal.

Le Lythe, the Lordship of Thomas de Theweng, who died seized of it, and
divers other Estates, 48 Edw. III leaving them to the Descendants of his
three Sisters, viz. Lucy, the Wife of Sir Robert Lumley; Margaret, to Sir
Robert de Hilton, and Katharine of Sir Ralph D'aubeny; but to which of them,
upon the Partition, this Manor fell, we cannot discover. It is an Hamlet to
Helsington.

Maiden-Castle and Maiden Way ought to be treated of together, because
the former is denominated from the latter; of both of them we find this
Account.
The Maiden-Way is a Roman military Way, which coming out of Yorkshire
keeps this Course through this County. In its first Entrance into it, it
passeth
through a large Camp, where the Stone of King Marius formerly stood; but now
there is another erected in the Room called by the Name of Rere crosse on
Roycrosse.
>From thence it goes to Maiden-Castle, a small square Fort, in which has been
found Roman Mortar. Next it runs quite through Market-Brough; over
Brough-Fair-Hill, on which are some Tumuli, Barrows, or antient Burying places;
then leaving Warcop
(which gave Name to the Warcops) on the Left-hand it passes along Sandford
moor, and so down

A delicate Horse-Race to Coupland-beck-brig, where on the Right are the ruin
'd Foundations of a noble round Tower, and near it on the Left Ormside-Hall,
the Seat of the antient Family of the Hiltons; then by Appleby to the Camps
on Crakenthorp-moor, so through the Down-end of Kirkby-Thore, and through
Sawer-by, a Village of the Dalstons of Akernbanke; then all along by the
Side of Whinfield-Parke to Hart-horn tree, which may seem to give Name to
Hornby-Hall, a Seat of the Dalstons, and to have borrowed its own Name from
a Stag, which was coursed by a single Greyhound to Red Kirk in Scotland, and
back again to this Place, where, being both spent, the Stag leaped the
Pales, but died on the other Side, and the Greyhound attempting to leap,
fell, and died on this Side. In Memory of this Fact their Heads were nailed
upon the Tree just by, and (the Dog being named Hercules) the Rhyme was made
upon them:

Hercules killed Hart-a-greese
And Hart-a-greese killed Hercules

In the Midst of the Park, not far from hence is the Three-Brother-Tree (so
call'd, because there were three of them, of which this was the least)
thirteen Yards and a Quarter in Circumference, a good Way from the Root.
>From Harthorn-Tree the Way goes on directly Westward to the Countess's
Pillar, erected by ANNE, Countess Dowager of Pembroke, and adorned with
Coats of Arms, Dials, Etc. with an Obelisk on the Top coloured with Black,
and this Inscription on Brass, declaring the Occasion and Meaning of it.

This Pillar was erected, Anno 1656.
By the Right Hono. ANN Countesse Dowager of
Pembroke, and sole Heir of the Right
Honourable GEORGE, Earl of Cumberland, Etc.
For a Memorial of her last parting in this Place
With her good, and pious Mother the Right Honorable
Margaret, Countesse Dowager of Cumberland,
The Second of April, 1616. In Memory whereof
She also left an Annuity of four Pounds
To be distributed to the Poor within this
Parish of Brougham every second Day of Aprill
For ever upon the Stone Table hereby
LAVS DEO

>From this Pillar the Way leads on to Brougham-Castle mentioned above, and
from thence goes on directly to Lowther-Bridge, and so over the River Eimot
into Cumberland, through which it runs up to the Wall.
Mayburg, or Mayborough, a great Fort of Stones, heaped up in the Form of an
Horse-shoe, so called by some, though by others King Arthur's Castle. Near
it are very remarkable Remains of Antiquity, if we may believe them to be
(as we think we may) Monuments of that Treaty of Peace and Union, which was
finished by King Æthelstan in the Year 926, with Constantine, King of Scots;
Hacval, King of the western Britains, or Stratcluid-welsh, Etc. of which St.
Dunelmensis (and from him R. Hoveden in the same Words,) gives us this
Account. Hi omnes, Etc. i.e. All these desiring Peace of him, met in the
Place called Eimotum, now Mayburgh, and entred into a League, that was
confirmed by Oath. The very Name of Mayburg extreamly favours this Opinion;
for our Dr. Hicks observes upon the Saxon Word Mago, Magu, Etc. that it
signifies Affinitas, Kindred, and Juricus adds, Ab hoc nexu, Etc. From the
Relation of

Blood, the Word came by Degrees to be transferred to any intimate Union or
Friendship among Men, or Societies; and so Mayburgh seems to have been (upon
the Occasion of the fore-mentioned Treaty) so called; as if one should say,
The Fort of Union or Alliance.
Merton, and Mertone, the Lordship of Thomas Holland, Earl of Kent, who dying
possessed of it, and leaving Joan his Wife, who had been parted from William
de Montacute, Earl of Salisbury, surviving, she had allotted her, as Part of
her Dowry, this Manor and divers other Estates. She within a Year married
to Edward, Prince of Wales, commonly called the Black Prince, and held it to
the ninth Year of King Rich. II. which was twenty one Years from her Husband
's Death; she died that Year, and it passed to her Son Thomas Holland, Earl
of Kent; but how, or when he alienated it, it doth not appear; yet four
Years after, we find Roger Lord Clifford 4th died possessed of it, and left
it to his Son Thomas, and his Heirs, with other Estates.
Milthrop, a Sea-port situate at the Mouth of the river Can; it is the only
Sea-Town in this County, and the Commodities, which are brought hither, are
imported in small Vessels from Grange in Lancashire.
Musgrave Great and Little, are two small Villages of no Note, but for giving
a Name to the warlike Family of the Musgraves, which is Cambden's Opinion;
but our more modern Antiquaries think, and as they add, with greater
Probability, that the towns had their Names from the Family. For the Name
of Musgrave is to be reckoned among those that are taken from Offices, and
civil or military Honours, and is of the like Original as Landt-graff,
Markgraff, and Burghgraffe; and 'tis probable that this Name, and
Markgraffe, (now turned into our English Marquis) are much the same. Their
Signification is Dux Limitaneus, which we call a Lord Warden of the Marches:
'Tis probable that this Family of Musgraves had a Seat here, because Thomas
Lord Musgrave, 32 Edw. III. obtained a Charter of Free Warren in all his
Demesne Lands here, with a Power to impark his Woods called Hevenings in
these Towns, containing Two hundred Acres. What more is remarkable of this
Family, see above in Herkla-Castle, and Heartley Castle. The family of
Musgraves, though none of them noble after the Death of the said Thomas, yet
have continued almost ever since Men of Note; but these Lordships after his
Death must have been some Way alienated from his Posterity, because we find
Roger Lord Clifford 4th died possessed of these Manors 13 Rich. II. and left
them to his Son and Heir Thomas, Etc.
Milburn, or Milneborn, the Lordship of the aforesaid Lord Clifford 4th, left
to his Son Thomas, with other his large Estates, as above mentioned, as was
also Murtone another Village, as also
Naceby, and New-bigging, two Lordships of no Note in any other Respect.

ORTON, or Overton, a Market-Town, whose Market is weekly on Wednesday, and
Fair yearly on St. Simon and St. Jude's Day. It was the Lordship of Ranulph
de Dacre, 54 Hen. III. when upon the Death of his Father William de Dacre,
he was constituted Sheriff of Cumberland. He had before been ever firm to
that King in his Wars with the rebellious Barons, and among other Advantages
obtained of him and his Successor, King Edward I. had a Grant from this
last, Reg. 6. to himself and his Heirs, for a Market every Week upon Tuesday
at Overton, and likewise for a Fair there yearly upon the Eve, Day, and
Morrow of the Apostles St. Simon and St. Jude, October 28. How the Market
his since been removed to Wednesday, we do not know. This Manor continued
some Successions in this family of Dacre; for Margaret the Widow of William
de Dacre, who died 33 Edw. III. had a Moiety of this Lordship for her Dowry,
which after her Decease passed to her Son Ranulph de Dacre,

Rector of Prestecotes, and his Heirs; but it seems not to have continued
long in them, because Roger Lord Clifford 4, died possessed of this Lordship
13 Rich. II. and left it to his Son Thomas, and his Heirs. Upon an Hill a
little Distance from this Town, but within the Limits of it, is a Beacon,
called by the Name of Orton Beacon. Mr. Adamson of Rounthwait in this
county was a great Benefactor to the Church of Orton.

Ormside, or Ormshed, the Lordship and Estate of Roger Lord
Clifford 4th, of which he died possessed with other great Estates, 13 Rich.
II and left it, as is said of them above. It was antiently, viz. in the
Reign of King Edw. I. the Seat of the Hiltons, who were originally of the
County of Durham, and sat in Parliament among the Barons from the 23 Edw. I.
to 9 Edw. III. after which Time we have no Account of them.
Patterdale, the Lordship of Roger de Lancaster, 32 Hen. III. who
dying 19 Edw. I. left it with his other Estates to John de Lancaster, his
Son and Heir. This John was a warlike Man, and was with his King several
Times in his Wars with Scotland, in which he behaved himself with that
Fidelity and Courage, that the King employed him in guarding the Marches
against that Nation. He sat in Parliament among the Barons from 25 Edw. I.
to the 3 Edw. II. He left no Issue, and so his Estate passed to his Sister'
s Son Richard de Plaiz, then a Minor of twelve Years old, and from that
Family to the Howards, Ancestors to the Dukes of Norfolk, who are spread
into so many noble Families.

Pendragon-Castle, antiently the Possession and Seat of the Lords
Clifford; for Robert Lord Clifford died possessed of it 7 Edward II. and
leaving it to Roger his Son, then but fifteen Years old, the Custody of this
Castle, and some others, was committed by the King, Edw. II. to Guy de
Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, Henry Piercy and Barth. de Bedlesmere. Being of
Age, he was drawn into that conspiracy which Thomas, Earl of Lancaster,
formed against that King and his Favourites, and being taken Prisoner at
Burrowbrigg, was beheaded at York. His Brother Robert, notwithstanding,
inherited his Honour and Estate, and left this Castle to his Posterity; for
Roger Lord Clifford 4th died seised of it 13 Rich. II. and left it to his
son Thomas. It was, when in its Prime, a very strong Building, the Walls
being four Yards in Thickness, with Battlements upon them; but Time, and the
Neglect of the Owners had brought it to little better, than a great Heap of
Stones; but it continued still in the same Family of Cliffords; and about
the Year 1660, the most noble Lady Anne Clifford, Countess Dowager of
Pembroke, Dorset, and Montgomery, repaired this ancient Habitation of her
Ancestors, with three other Castles which she had in this County; and
removing frequently from one to the other, kept Hospitality, and so diffused
her Charity all over the Country. The river Eden runs close by his Castle
on the East-Side, and on the other Sides are great Trenches, which look as
if the Founder of it had intended to draw the Water into them, and so
encompass it with a Moat; but the Attempt proved ineffectual, which gave an
Occasion to an old rhyme used by the People near it.

Let Pendragon do what he can,
Eden will run, where Eden ran.


Querton, a Lordship of Roger Lord Clifford the 4th, left by him
13 Rich. II. as others before mentioned.


Rissendale, or as it properly ought to be called Ravingstandale,
is of no Note, but that the River Lone or Lune rises in the Mountains near
it.

Rounthwaite, famous only for the pious Inhabitant Mr. Adamson,
who founded a School at Tebay for the Inhabitants of the Place, that their
children might be taught free; which is all we have of Tebay, a little
Village situate upon the Lune, near Rounthwaite.


Temple Sowreby, the Lordship of Robert Lord Clifford, who being slain at the
fatal Battle of Bannock-moor, 7 Edw. II. his Widow, Maud, one of the Heirs of
Thomas de Clare, had a Moiety of this Lordship, and some other of his estates
in Dower, which returned at her Death to Roger her Son; but she was then the
Wife of Robert de Welle, a great Baron in Lincolnshire.

Troutbeck, with its Forest and Park, were the Possessions of the famous Warrior
and Politician, John, Duke of Bedford, Uncle to King Henry VI. He died possessed
of them 14 Hen. VI. leaving that King his Heir, having never been married.
They were kept but a small time in that King's Hands, for we find John Beaufort,
Duke of Dorset and Somerset, dying possessed of the Manor in the 22nd Year of the
said King, and leaving his only Daughter, Margaret, his Heir, then but three Years
old, but growing up, was married to Edmund of Hadham, Earl of Richmond, by whom she
had Henry, Earl of Richmond, who was her Heir, and afterwards King of England, by
the Title of Hen. VII.

Sandford, a Lordship of Roger Lord Clifford 4th, who died seised of it 13 Rich. II.
with divers other Manors before-mentioned, and left it to his Son and Heir Thomas, as above.

Sawerby, a Seat of the Dalstons of Akernbanke.

Shap, or Heppe. Vide Heppe above.

Smerdale, Souleby, two Manors of Roger Lord Clifford 4th, of which he died possessed 13
Rich. II. and left to his son Thomas, as he did several others above-mentioned.

Soureby, the Lordship of Robert Lord Clifford, who being slain in the Wars of Scotland at
Bannockmore; this Manor with some others, was assigned to Maud his Widow for her Dowry, and
after her Decease descended to his Heir Roger Lord Clifford.

Stonely, the Estate of William de Twenge, a Parliamentary Baron, who 2 Edw. III.
obtained a Grant for a Market at this Place every Week upon Friday, and a Fair yearly
on the Eve, Day, and Morrow of St. Luke the Evangelist, Octob. 18. He left no Issue,
and so this Lordship and his other Estates passed to his Brother Robert, a Clerk, as
it did after his Death, which happened the same Year, viz. 15 Edw. II. to his Brother
Thomas, who died possessed of it 48 Edw. II. and leaving no Issue, they all passed to
his Sister's Children; but to which of them this Manor fell in the Division, we have
nothing to inform us.

Strickland, the Lordship and Seat of a Family, that took their Name from it, of whom
many were in their Generations Men of great Honour and Reputation; but their Name in
our Records, is usually written Stirkland. Many of this Family were Knights of the
Shire for this County, viz. Robert de Stirkeland 15 Edw. II. Walter de Stirkeland 1
Edw. II. and both of them together 16 Edw. II. John de Stirkland 1 Edw. III. Walter
de Stirkland 6 Edw. III. and 17 Edw. III. Thomas de Stirkland 7 Hen. VI. Walter de
Stirkland 20 Hen. VI. and John de Stirkeland 12 Edw. IV. And as this Family produced
Men serviceable to the Civil State, so it wants not some of Eminency in the Church in
their Time, viz.

William Strickland, born here in 1396, descended of a good Family in this County, was
chosen, by joint Consent of the Chapter, Bishop of Carlisle; but by the Concurrence of
the Pope and King Richard II. One Robert Read was put into that See. Dr. Strickland
could not but resent the Disappointment, as both unjust and affronting, but bore it
with much Moderation. After some Time Read was translated to Chichester, and Thomas
Marks succeeded him, but was not long after removed by the Pope to a Grecian Bishoprick;
and Strickland being chosen again, was consecrated Bishop of Carlisle in the Year 1400.
He sat nineteen Years, and besides other benefactions to his See, he will be ever
memorable in the Town of Penrith in Cumberland for this extraordinary Work, viz. He
caused a Passage to be cut with great Art, Industry, and Expence, from that Town to the
River Petterel, for the Conveyance of Boats into the Irish Sea. He died in the Year of
our Lord 1419. and was succeeded by Roger Whelpdale.

John Strickland, educated in Queens College, Oxford, after he had taken his Degrees, and
entred into Holy Orders, became Chaplain to the Earl of Hertford, and being admitted
Bachelor of Divinity in 1632, was presented to the Rectory of Middleton, alias Pudimore
Milton, in Somersetshire, by Sir John Horner, Knt. He was always puritanically inclined,
and upon the Change of the Church-Government by the House of Commons took the Covenant,
and was one of the Assembly of Divines, being then esteemed a Person of Learning and
Judgment. He was afterwards Minister of St. Peter le Poor in London, and St. Edmund's in
Salisbury, at both which Places he shewed great Zeal for the present Establishment, being
in Judgment a Presbyterian. He was ejected in 1662, for Non-conformity, and dying in 1670,
was buried in the church of St. Edmund in Salisbury abovesaid, in which Parish he some
Years held a Meeting, and preached.


Syhkland, the Lordship of John, Duke of Somerset and Dorset, who died possessed of it 22
Hen. VI. and left it to his only Daughter and Heir Margaret, who by her Marriage with
Edmund of Hadham, Earl of Richmond, became Mother of Henry, Earl of Richmond, who was her
Heir, and at length became by the Victory of Bosworth field King, by the Title of Henry VII.

Warcop, Warthe-coop, or Warthecupp, a Village famous for giving a Name to an antient and
genteel Family of Warcops, who 'tis probable were Lords of it at that Time, but was alienated
in Aftertimes; for Roger Lord Clifford 4th died possessed of it 13 Rich. II. and left it with
his other great Estates to his Son and Heir Thomas; yet 'tis probable, that the Warcops still
continued Men of Estates and Note, because we observe, that Thomas de Warthe-cupp was Knight
of this Shire 8 Hen. V. The Maidenway lies near this village.

Wastelhead, of Note for being the Birth-place of Simon Wastell, who seems to have taken his
Name from it; for, Head is put to it only for Distinction, another Village near it being called
Wastell-foot. This Person, who took his Bachelor's Degree in Queens College, Oxford, was soon
after made Master of the Free-School at Northampton, where, by his great Diligence and Skill he
fitted many Youths for the University; for while he was in the University, he was accounted a
great Proficient in Classical Learning and Poetry. But his Converse with Heathen Authors, did
not make him forget the sacred Writers, for he abridged the Whole Old and New Testament, Chapter
by Chapter, and put them into Verse, that they might be better remembred, and read with Delight;
and therefore he entitled the first Edition, The true Christians daily Delight, printed in 1623;
but the next Edition, which had some Notes and Corrections, was entitled, Microbiblion, or an
Epitome of the Bible, Ec. and was printed in 1629. When he died we find not; he was alive at
Northampton, when the first Edition of this Book came out. In 1628, was there one Samuel Wastel
of New-Inn, Oxford, probably his Brother.

Wateby, a Moiety of which was the Possession of Roger Lord Clifford 4th, of which he died
possessed 13 Rich. II. and left it with many other Estates to Thomas his Heir.

Water-crooke, a Village a little below Kendall, so called from a remarkable Crooking of the
River Ken there. Near it on the same Side of the River, is an old square Fort, the Banks
and Ditches whereof are still visible. That is was Roman, the discovery of Coins, broken
Altars, and other Pieces of Antiquity found there, will not give us the least Leave to doubt;
and this seems to some to fix the Concangis here rather than in any other Place.

Wharton, whose Manor-house, called Wharton-Hall, hath for many Ages, even before any Records
yet discovered, been the Seat of the antient Family of Whartons, and is still their Property.
The Family was of great Reputation before it was ennobled; for Richard de Wharton was Knight
of the Shire for this County, 5 Hen. V. but otherwise it lay in Obscurity, till the Reign of
King Henry VIII. when Sir Thomas Wharton, Knt. being the Governor of the Town and Castle of
Carlisle, and Warden of the Marches, being assisted by Sir William Musgrave, put an Army of
Scots of Fifteen thousand to flight, only with Three hundred Men; who appearing on a Sudden
upon them, they supposed the Duke of Norfolk at hand with a great Army, and fled. This Victory
was gained at a Place near Carlisle, called Solem-mosse. King Henry was so much pleased with
his surprising Conduct, that he made him a Baron (says Cambden); but Dugdale tells us, that it
was King Edw. VI. advanced him to that Honour, and for that, and some other signal Services,
granted him an Augmentation to his paternal Coat of Arms, viz. a Border engrailed, Or, charged
with Legs of Lions in Saltire, Gules, armed, Azure. He was succeeded in his Honour by Thomas
his Son, who being forty-eight Years of Age at his Father's Death, did not survive him long,
but left a Son for his Successor, viz.

Philip, Lord Wharton, who by Frances, the Daughter of Henry, Earl of Cumberland, had two sons,
George and Thomas, but both of them dying in his Lifetime, George without Heirs, and Thomas
married to Philadelphia, the Daughter of Robert, Earl of Monmouth. He had by her two Sons,
Philip and Thomas, of whom Philip succeeded his Grandfather, Anno 1625, but was not of Age,
till Anno 1634. He had three Wives, but by the Second, Jane, Daughter of Arthur Gooding of
Upper Winchenden in Buckinghamshire had Issue, Thomas Lord Wharton, who being one of the first
of the Noblemen that went over to the Prince of Orange at the Revolution, was, as soon as the
Prince was settled on the Throne, made Comptroller or his Majesty's Houshold, and sworn of his
Privy Council, and after made Lord Lieutenant of this County. In the Reign of Queen ANNE,
Anno 5. He was created Viscount Winchendon, and Earl of Wharton; and in 1715, Marquis, by King
George I. In 1709, he was sent Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. He had by his second Wife, the
Daughter of Adam Loftus, named Lucy, then Baron Lisburn in Ireland, his Son and Successor in
Honour and Estate, Philip, whom his Majesty K. George I. created Duke of Wharton. He hath
married the Daughter of Lieutenant General Holmes, and is now living, but hath been for some
Time in foreign Parts, and is said to have changed his Religion.

Westmester, a village in the Barony of Kendal, where Dr. Barnaby Potter, Bishop of Carlisle
was born, which coming late to our Knowledge, we have placed him under the town of Kendal,
where his Description may be found; yet this may be added to it, That being an holy and good
Man, he was much admired for his Preaching by those that called themselves Puritans; but when
he was made a Bishop, he was flighted as Luke-warm, and forsaken as Popish. While he was in
Favour with the King (Charles I.) he interceded so long with him for Liberty of Conscience for
the Non-Conformists, that he saw, that neither the King, nor himself, were allowed to enjoy
their own Consciences, and therefore said, that he feared, That the Pretences of Religion would
overthrow the Reality of it, and that the divisions of his Age would breed Atheism in the next,
which some may think now fulfilled.

Whinfield is eminent for its Park only, of which having spoken in the Maidenway above, we shall
not repeat any Thing, and so have no more to add.

Whelp-Castle. See Kirkby-Thore.

Witherslack, the native Place of Dr. John Barwick, Fellow of St. John's College in Cambridge,
and Chaplain to Dr. Thomas Morton, Bishop of Durham, who made him a Prebendary of that Church.
In the late Times of Confusion he was turned out of all, and suffered Imprisonment, yet
retaining a courageous Loyalty, and having a strong Persuasion of the Restitution of Monarchy
and Episcopacy, he was not a little Instrumental in the new Settlement of them. After King
Charles II.'s Return, he was made his Chaplain, took his Doctor of Divinity's Degree, and was
preferred first to the Deanery of Durham, and then to that of St. Paul's, which having held
four Years, he died, and was buried in St. Paul's Cathedral, under a sumptuous Monument,
demolished in 1666, by the great Conflagration of London. He built upon this Manor, a fair
parochial Chapel, and endowed it. Dr. Wilkins, Bishop of Chester, dedicated it, and
consecrated it to St. Paul. This was a great Piece of Charity, because of the Remoteness
of this Village or Hamlet from Betham, the parochial Church.

Wynton, a Manor belonging to the Barony of Appleby, which was given by King John, Reg. 4.
to Robert de Vipont, at first during Pleasure only, but afterwards to him and his Heirs by
Idonea his Wife, Daughter and Heir of John de Buefli, Lord of Tickhill. In his Family it
continued, till his Descendant, Robert de Vipont, joining with Montfort, Earl of Leicester,
took up Arms against King Henry III. Reg. 49. and being slain in the Battle of Evesham,
forfeited his Lands and Estates to the Crown; whereupon that King gave them to Roger Clifford
and Roger de Leybourne, for their laudable Services at that Time performed, together with the
Custody of his two Daughters and Coheirs, Isabel and Idonea; who being after married to the
said Rogers, the King remitted to them their Father's Forfeiture, and so their Heirs inherited
them. This Lordship, upon the Division, came to Roger Lord Clifford, and his Son Robert dying
possessed of it 7 Edw. II. this Manor, with some other Estates, was assigned to Maud his Widow
for her Dowry, and after her Decease passed to her Son Roger, whose Descendants enjoyed it
divers Successions; for Roger Lord Clifford 4th died possessed of it 13 Rich. II. And left it
to his Son Thomas, Ec.

Yanewith, a Lordship of the aforesaid Lord Clifford, of which he died possessed, and left
as before. Near this Place the Loder joins the Eimot, where there is a large round
Entrenchment, with a plain Piece of Ground in the Middle, and a Passage into it on either
Side. It goes by the Name of King Arthur's Round Table; and it is possible enough that it
might have been a Justing Place. However, it is clear, it could never have been a Place of
Strength, because the Trenches are on the Inside. The Form of it is [DRAWING]
Near this is another great Fort of Stones, heaped up in the form of an Horse-shoe, and
opening towards it, called by some King Arthur's Castle, and by others Mayburgh or Maybrough,
of which Place see more above.
Magna Britannica et Hibernia. Volume 6 Contents

Transcription by Sarah Reveley,  Joan Fisher and Lisl Schoenwald. (Rootsweb Westmorland Listmembers)  (c)  2003

Last updated: January 2005 Dave Huddart

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