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Geographical and Historical information from the year 1835.

"HULL, (or Kingston upon Hull) a parish in the East Riding, a sea-port and borough and county (of itself), locally in the East riding of the county of York, comprising, within the borough, the parishes of St. Mary and the Holy Trinity, and in the county of the town, the parishes of Kirk-Ella, North Ferriby, Hessle, and the extra-parochial district of Garrison-Side, and containing 31,425 inhabitants, of which number, 28,591 are in the borough of Hull, 39 miles S.E. from York, and 170 N. from London, This town has arisen since the Norman Conquest; for, at the time of the general survey, the principal place in the neighbourhood was Myton, of which there are now no remains. Edward I., on his return from the battle of Dunbar, where he had defeated the Scottish king, John Balliol, and deprived him of his crown, visited Baynard castle, the seat of the lords of Wake, in this vicinity: while staying there, being engaged one day in the amusements of the chase, he was led to the iiamlet of Myton and Wyke, the present site of the town of Hull, and contemplating the advantages of its situation, determined on the foundation of a fortified town and commercial port. He consequently negociated an exchange with the abbot of Meaux in Holderness, to whom the property belonged, for lands productive of a higher revenue. He then issued a proclamation inviting settlers, to whom he offered advantages sufficient to induce several to accept his proposals. He next built a manor-house, and in a little time had the satisfaction of seeing the town erected, which he dignified with the ! appellation of Kings Town, now Kingston, distinguished, by its situation on the river Hull, from Kingston upon Thames, and other places of the same name. In the twentyseventh year of his reign the harbour was completed, and in the same year he granted a royal charter constituting the place a free borough. From this period its increase and prosperity have been remarkable. A ferry was soon after established over the Humber, and, in 1316, vessels began to sail at fixed periods between Hull and Barton, for the conveyance of passengers, cattle, and articles of traffic, which intercourse has continued to the present day. Ten years afterwards the town was fortified; and so rapid was its improvement, that in the reign of Edward III. it supplied sixteen sail of ships and four hundred and sixty-six men towards an armament for the invasion of France; when the city of London furnished only twenty-five ships and six hundred and sixty-two men. From the earliest period of its history, this town had suffered through the want of a proper supply of fresh water, which the inhabitants were compelled to bring from a considerable distance; and, in 1376, the people of Hessle, Anlaby, Cottingham, and other neighbouring places, conspired to withhold from them this necessary of life. After a long and violent contest, an appeal was made to the pope, who issued his mandate, July 20th, 1413, to prevent all further interruption of the supply of water. In the reign of Richard II., when the Scots were making incursions into England, and threatening the country between the Tweed and the Humber, the fortifications of Hull underwent considerable repairs, and a strong castle, for the security of the town and harbour, was erected on the eastern side of the river. During the contests between the houses of York and Lancaster, this town continued faithful to the latter, whose cause they resolutely maintained in the battles of Wakefield and Towton. Such indeed was their loyalty, that when the public treasury of the borough was exhausted by the expenses of the war, the corporation took down a stately market-cross, erected at a great expense about thirty years before, to raise money by the sale of the materials for the support of the royal cause. At different periods in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries this place suffered greatly, in common with many others, from pestilential diseases, which swept away vast numbers of the inhabitants, and materially checked the increase of population; yet it Sontinued to prosper and extend its commerce. On the suppression of the monasteries, a strong spirit of discontent manifested itself at Hull 5 and at the time of the insurrection called the Pilgrimage of Grace, in 1537, while one division took Pontefract, and another entered York, a third took Hull by surprise, and reinstated the monies and friars who had been ejected from their convents. The triumph of the insurgents, however, was but transient, for the main body of them, under Aske, having been dispersed in the neighbourhood of Doncaster, the magistrates of Hull seized Hallam, the ringleader of the insurrection there, and many of his associates, who, being soon after tried by a special commission, were convicted of rebellion and executed. Not long after this a fresh insurrection broke out in Hull, in consequence of the alterations made by Henry VIII. in the established religion. On this occasion the town was besieged by the insurgents, and taken, by stratagem, but the successful party, with Sir Robert Constable at their head, after keeping possession of the castle during thirty days, were compelled to surrender it into the hands of the mayor; when numbers of the rebels were tried for high treason under a special commission, and, being convicted, were hanged and quartered; among whom was their leader, Sir Robert Constable, whose body was exposed on Beverley gate. In the year 1541, Henry VIII. visited Hull, where he was most hospitably received by the body corporate, who presented him with a purse of £100; after taking an accurate survey of the town, the king gave directions for building a castle and two strong block-houses, with other fortifications, for the security of the place. He also gave orders for cutting a new ditch, from Newland to Hull, and that the manorhouse, formerly called Suffolk's palace, should be repaired and improved. In 1527, and again in 1549, the town suffered greatly from inundation: the Humber overflowed its banks, and overspread all the low lands, doing immense damage both to town and country. But the commerce of the place continued to flourish, and the merchants increased in wealth and importance. On the accession of Charles I., in 1625, Hull cheerfully contributed its quota for the prosecution of the war with France; and though the plague, by which it was again visited in this monarch's reign, swept away, in the space of three years, nearly three thousand persons, or one-half of its population, it rose superior to this check, and in a few years regained its former prosperity. Charles I., on his way towards the Scottish border, in 1639, visited Hull, which had been made a dep6t for arms and military stores; on the 29th of March he inspected the fortifications, and having received the homage of the inhabitants, proceeded to Beverley, and thence to York. At the commencement of the parliamentary war during this reign, each party became anxious to obtain possession of the town, it being at that time not only a place of considerable strength by nature, but surrounded with walls and strongly fortified by art, and its importance still further augmented by the immense magazine of arms, ammunition, and military stores which had been collected there. The king, who was then at York, relying upon the assurances of loyalty and attachment which he had received from the mayor, aldermen, and burgesses, on his visit to the town, sent-the Earl of Northumberland with a party of the royalists to take possession of it, but the mayor refused to receive the king's general, and, after a short consultation, admitted Sir John Hotham, who had been sent down to take upon himself the office of governor for the parliament. The ammunition and stores, which at that, time exceeded the quantity in the Tower of-London, became an object of great solicitude, and the two houses of parliament addressed a petition to the king at York, requesting that they might be removed to London, to which request his Majesty peremptorily refused to accede. On the 23rd of April, 1642, the king, with his son, Prince Charles, attended by many gentlemen of the county, advanced from York to Hull, and when within a few miles of the town despatched an officer to inform the governor, Sir John Hotham, that he would dine with him that day; to which the governor replied, that he could not, without betraying the trust reposed in him by the parliament, open the gates to the king's retinue, and requested to be excused from receiving the honour of his Majesty's visit. The king having arrived at Beverley gate, demanded admission for himself and twenty of his retinue, which the governor, with renewed protestations of loyalty, persisted in refusing. He then retired with his party to Beverley, where he passed the night, and on the following morning sent a herald to the governor to demand entrance into the town, threatening to proclaim him as a traitor in case of his refusal, and promising indemnity for the past in the event of his compliance; but the herald returned without success, and the king retired to York, whence he despatched a message to the two houses of parliament, complaining of the insult offered to his authority, and demanding punishment of the governor for his disobedience to the royal commands. The parliament, however, so far from attending to the message of the king, passed a vote of thanks to Sir John Hotham, for the resolution with which he had maintained the post committed to his charge. The king having assembled a force of three thoxisand infantry and eight hundred cavalry, and procured a supply of arms and ammunition from Holland by the sale of the crown jewels, and through the assiduity of the queen, resolved upon the reduction of the town by force, and advanced with this force to besiege it in form; but the governor, in order to prevent the near approach of the assailants, cut the banks of the Humber and Hull rivers, and raising the sluices, laid the country adjoining the town for a considerable distance under water. In order the more effectually to provide for the internal defence, he pulled down the Charter-house hos- pital, and several buildings in Myton-lane, and erected batteries with the materials, and planted cannon on the walls. But notwithstanding these precautions, the king's troops erected several batteries in the vicinity, and brought their cannon to bear upon the town, which for some time sustained a vigorous attack, and was as resolutely defended. The garrison, inflamed with desperation at a report industriously circulated by the parliamentarians, that the king would give no quarter, if he took the town, sallied out to the number of five hundred, with a determination to compel the royalists to raise the siege, and made a furious attack on the besiegers, headed by Sir John Meldrum, a Scotch officer, whom the parliament had sent down to the assistance of the governor, obliging them to retreat with considerable loss to Beverley, where, after holding a council of war, the siege was abandoned, and the royal forces retired to York. It appears that in this siege, the king relied for success less upon the efficiency of his own troops than upon the treachery of Sir John Hotham, with whom he had previously entered into a private treaty for surrendering the town; but the plot being prematurely discovered by the mayor, was frustrated before it could take effect, and the governor and his son, Captain Hotham, being arrested, were sent prisoners to London, where, after trial in the guildhall, they were convicted of treason, and executed upon Tower Hill. After the seizure of the governor, the custody of the town was entrusted to the mayor and eleven commissioners, appointed by the parliament, who retained it till the arrival of Lord Fairfax, who was afterwards appointed governor. The Marquis of Newcastle having subsequently made himself master of Gainsborough and Lincoln for the king, and driven Sir Thomas Fairfax from Beverley, with considerable loss, appeared before Hull with all his forces, and having cut off all supplies of provisions from the adjoining parts of Yorkshire, and diverted the supply of fresh water, succeeded, under a heavy fire from the walls, in erecting a battery called the King's fort, within half a mile of the town, mounted with heavy ordnance, and provided with a furnace for heating balls, which being fired red hot into the town, threw the inhabitants into the greatest consternation. The prudent precautions of the governor, however, counteracted their efficacy, and having again inundated the country surrounding the town, he compelled the assailants to abandon the greater part of their works, and the Marquis of Newcastle soon after raised the siege, and having destroyed the bridges and broken up the roads in the line of his retreat, to prevent pursuit, retired with his forces to York, and Lord Fairfax ordered the day on which he retreated to be observed as a day of public thanksgiving. From this time Hull remained in a state of tranquillity till 1645, when the Liturgy of the church of England being abolished, the soldiers quartered in the town entered the churches, collected the prayer-books, and committed them to a fire kindled for the purpose, amidst the acclamations of the spectators. After the decapitation of Charles I., the Protector visited Hull, and was received by the corporation with a congratulatory address. The town is situated at the confluence of the rivers Hull and Humber: the streets in the older part are narrow and incommodious; but in other parts of the town they are spacious and more regularly formed. The houses in general are built of brick: the streets are well paved with excellent durable stone, brought from Iceland as ballast in the ships employed in the whale fishery, and lighted with gas by two companies; one for oil-gas, established in 18215 the other for coal-gas, in 1826: the inhabitants are well supplied with water from copious springs which rise near Kirk-Ella, about four miles from the town, conveyed by a sluice called Spring Dyke, to the confines of the town, and supplied to the houses by means of pipes. The whole town consists of three unequal divisions: that which was first built is completely insulated by the docks, which have been constructed on the site of the ancient military works; on the north side of the old dock is the parish of Sculcoates, in which are several handsome streets that have risen up within the last forty years; and of still more recent date is that part which lies westward from the Humber dock, occupying the supposed site of the ancient hamlet of Myton, which name it still retains; the Garrison side is extraparochial, and is connected with the principal part of the town by a bridge of four arches, with a drawbridge in the centre over the river Hull. In 1443, the town was divided into six wards, which number was increased to eight, in 1824. The exchange is a neat building, with a portico in front; the area is divided by two Doric pillars, which help to support the ceiling; above is a news-room. A subscription library was established in 1775, and the present building in Parliament-street, having a spacious readingr. oom, was erected in 1800: it contains about twenty thousand volumes; and there are about five hundred subscribers, who pay £1.5. each annually. The Lyceum library was instituted in 1807; and the members, in 1830, completed the erection of a handsome hall in Charlotte-street: the number of subscribers, at 12s. 6d. each, is about two hundred. The Theological library contains many scarce volumes of great value; a build- ing on the south side of Trinity church, formerly used as a chapel, was appropriated to its use in 1669. The Literary and Philosophical Society, established in 1822, has a museum attached, comprising a good collection of specimens in natural history and the arts. The public rooms, of which the first stone was laid on the day on which his present Majesty King William IV. was proclaimed, form a handsome edifice of brick, ornamented with quoins and cornices of stone; the west, which is the principal front, has an elegant portico "of the Grecian Ionic order, and the south front, in all other respects, is of corresponding character. The basement story will contain a regular arrangement of baths, fitted up with every accommodation, and the various offices connected with the institution: the principal floor contains a spacious and splendid public room, ninety-one feet and a half in length, forty-one feet wide, and forty feet in height, to be elegantly fitted up for assemblies, concerts, and public meetings; the vestibule leading to this room is forty-one feet long and sixteen feet and a half wide, attached to which is a cloak-room, twenty-three feet long and eighteen feet wide. On the same floor are a handsome dining-room, forty-eight feet long and twenty-four feet wide; an elegant drawing-room, forty feet long and twenty-four feet wide; and a committee-room, sixteen feet long and ten feet wide, all of which have communication with the large room. The attic floor contains a lecture-room, forty-five feet long and forty-one feet in width, adjoining which are an apartment for the lecturer and a room for apparatus, and a museum, one hundred and twentyone feet long and twenty-four feet wide, which is lighted from the roof, and will contain valuable specimens of antiquity and natural history, of which the society,- since its formation, have accumulated a numerous and highly interesting collection. The geological department comprises an extensive assortment of the various specimens of rock and fossil remains of the Yorkshire coast, "the bones of various animals formerly common to this part of the country, but now peculiar to the tropical climates, lately discovered at Cliff, near Cave, by the honorary curator, Mr. Dikes, and a large collection of bones from the celebrated cavern at Kirkdale; th zoological department contains numerous fine specimens, of birds and fish, and various other curiosities which the confined state of the room in which they are for the present deposited excludes from public inspection. There is also a mechanics institute,formed June 1st, 1825, which possesses a good library. The botanical garden was opened in June IS 12; it is in the environs of the town, and comprises about five acres of land, suitably laid out in compartments for alpine, aquatic, and other plants; the proprietors, in number two hundred and seventy, are holders of four hundred and seventy-nine transferable shares, of the value of five guineas each, subject to an annual subscription of a guinea and a half. There are also a few subscribers who are not shareholders. The entrance lodges, of which one is appropriated to the use of a botanical library, and the other as a residence for the curator, were erected in 1813, when the centre and the east wing of the green-house were also built, and in 1825 completed by the addition of the west wing; the property of the institution is vested in sixteen trustees, and the garden, established principally through the exertions of J. C. Parker, Esq. has become a valuable and interesting object of attention. The Hull Medical and Chirurgical Society, to which a museum is attached in the infirmary, was instituted in 1821. Wallis's museum, in Myton-gate, contains many natural and artificial curiosities, collected by the proprietor during the last sixty years. There is also a Florists and Horticultural Society of recent establishment. The theatre royal, situated in Humber-street, is a neat and well-arranged building, erected in 1809. There is also an Olympic circus, in Huinber-street; and assembly-rooms have been fitted up and recently opened in North-street. The public baths are situated on. the bank of the Humber, the water of which, by an improved method of filtration, is raised without sediment,, and visitors enjoy the benefit arising from the use of it in every possible way. Hull has long been famed for its trade and shipping, for which its situation is peculiarly favourable; the port is situated on the northern shore of the sestuary of the Humber, and on the left bank of the river Hull: its jurisdiction extends from the mouth of the river to Bridlington harbour on the north, including all the intermediate coast. It carries on a considerable foreign trade with Norway, Sweden, Holland, Hamburgh, France, Spain, and America, to which it exports the manufactured goods and produce of the counties of York, Nottingham, Derby, Stafford, and Chester, with which it has great facility of intercourse, by means of the Aire, Calder, Ouse, Trent, and other large rivers which fall into the Humber, and the numerous canals communicating with them; in consequence of which it possesses greater advantages for inland traffic than any other port in the kingdom; the manufactured goods and produce brought into this port from the West riding of the county of York alone are estimated at five millions sterling per annum. It carries on also a very extensive coasting trade in corn, wool, manufactured goods, and other articles of merchandise. The whale fishery originated at this place in 1589, when the merchants fitted out two vessels for Greenland; this branch of commerce was attended with progressive increase, and soon formed a considerable part of the staple trade: at present no ships are sent from this port to Greenland, the whole being fitted out for Davies' straits; one thousand three hundred and eighteen ships have beenfitted out from Hull since the year 1800, averaging nearly forty-four annually; of this number forty-seven have been lost, nine of them during the past year (1830); the quantity of oil produced from the blubber exceeds that of all other ports in the kingdom, one hundred and thirty-three thousand one hundred and fifty-seven tons having been brought in during the above period, exclusively of the year 1S30. The harbour was constructed in the reign of Richard II., but the principal source of the commercial prosperity of the town arises from the capacious docks with which the port is now provided. In 1774, a subscription was opened for making a wet dock on the north side of the town, now called the Old dock, and an act of parliament was obtained for carrying the project into execution, by which act the shareholders were incorporated under the name of "The Dock Company of Kingston upon Hull," and received from the crown a grant of the military works of the town, and a vote from parliament of £15,000, towards defraying the expense of the undertaking. The first stone was laid October 19th, 1775, and the whole undertaking completed in four years. The length of this dock is six hundred yards, its width eighty-five yards, and depth twenty-three feet, and it occupies forty-eight thousand one hundred and fifteen square yards of ex-, cavated land. Originally the number of shares was one hundred and twenty, but the trade of the port re-, quiring further accommodation, two other acts of parliament were obtained, one in 1802, and the other in 1805, by which the company were empowered to increase the number to one hundred and eighty: the money arising from the sixty additional shares amounted to £82,300, which sum was appropriated towards making a new dock. The first stone of this dock was laid on the 13th of April, 1807, and having been completed at an expense of £220,000, it was opened on the 30th of June, 1809; it is called the Humber dock, and communicates with the river from which it takes its name, by a lock of excellent construction, large enough to admit a fifty-gun ship; it is three hundred, yards in Sent of the Dock Company. length, one hundred and fourteen yards wide, and thirty feet deep, and occupies thirty-five thousand four hundred and ninety-eight square yards. A dredging machine, worked by a steam-engine of six-horse power, is used to cleanse this dock from the mud which accumulates; this machine raises fifty tons of mud in an hour, which is transferred to barges, and conveyed to a situation in the Humber where it can be washed away by the current. The Old dock is cleansed by a similar machine worked by two horses. These two docks are capable of holding six hundred sail of vessels. A Junction dock, uniting the two former, has lately been completed, by which means vessels are enabled to pass round the town; it occupies thirty thousand three hundred and sixty-two square yards of land, and is capable of containing'sixty sail of ships, leaving sufficient room for others to pass. Besides these wet docks, there are two basins, the Old dock basin, and the Humber dock basin, the former occupying an area of one thousand eight hundred and seventy-six square yards, and the latter thirteen thousand three hundred and ninety-three, the total area of water of the several docks and basins is,twenty-six acres and three roods, for the convenience of repairing vessels. In the year ending October 30th, 1830, one thousand one hundred and eighty-six vessels entered inwards from foreign parts, and one thousand and thirty-seven cleared outwards. The tonnage upon which dock duties were paid for the same period was three hundred and thirteen thousand eight hundred and fifteen, including coasters. The number of ships employed in the coasting trade in 1829 was one thousandfour hundred and seventy-seven, entered inwards, and one thousand six hundred and seventy-nine, cleared outwards. The number of vessels belonging to the port in 1829 was five hundred and seventy-nine, averaging a burden of one hundred and twenty-seven tons; and eleven ships were built in the dock-yards at this port in the same year. The docks, to which are two entrances,- one from the river Humber on the south, and the other from the river Hull, or the harbour, on the east, are amply provided with extensive quays, and spacious and commodious warehouses, and, under the judicious regulations of the Dock Company, are carefully guarded from accident by fire; an engine, with lighters for floating it to any part of the docks, is constantly in readiness in case of need, and firemen, constables, and watchmen, are constantly on duty day and night. The greatest caution is also used to prevent any depredation from being committed on the very valuable cargoes which are transhipped at this port by the company, who keep a sufficient number of known and responsible labourers for loading and unloading the vessels. To facilitate the passing and repassing of vessels from the several docks, signals are used by the dock-master, under the authority of the Trinity House, by which body also, to obviate any irregularity, or partiality, in discharging the ships, the master and all his assistants are appointed. No fees or gratuities are allowed to the officers or servants employed in the docks, and heavy penalties are inflicted for partiality or neglect in. the discharge of their duties. Of the ancient fortifications there remain only two of the forts erected by Henry VIII, by which, and by several batteries on the east side of the river, the town and harbour are defended. The citadel commands the entrance of the Hull roads and the Humber. The ma- gazine is capable of containing twenty-thousand stand of arms, and ordnance stores for twelve or fifteen sail of the line, defended by a regular garrison under the command of a governor, who is generally a nobleman of high military rank. The custom-house is a large and handsome edifice, in Whitefriar-gate, originally built by the Corporation of the Trinity House,for the purposeof an inn, with a room for public entertainments, fifty-two feet long by twenty-four feet wide, and twenty-two high, which is now the long room for the transaction of the general official business. The pilot office, situated opposite the ferry-boat dock, consists of a modern lofty brick building; the pilots attended the observatory by turns, from six in the morning till nine in the evening, from the vernal to the autumnal equinox, and the remainder of the year from nine in the morning till six in the evening: it is under the direction of commissioners appointed by the Humber Pilot act. A life-boat was established at Spurn in 1810, and the crew resident there are maintained and regulated by the Wardens of the Trinity House. The excise office is situated in a street called The Land of Green Ginger. The principal articles of manufacture are turpentine and tar, white lead, soap, tobacco and snuff, sails, sail-cloth, ropes, and chain-cables; and there are several mills worked by steam and by wind, for the extraction of oil from linseed and rape seed, and the preparation of the residuum of the former for feeding cattle. There is an extensive sugar-refinery, which has been conducted by the Thornton family for one hundred and thirty years, and affords employment to about eighty persons. A large portion of the produce is exported to Germany, Prussia, and the Mediterranean. There are also some large breweries. The market days are Tuesday and Friday; the former for corn, which is sold in the corn exchange: there is also a customary market for provisions, on Saturday: in the marketplace, which has been recently improved, is a fine equestrian statue of William III. The town was incorporated by charter of Edward I. in which the inhabitants are styled " free burgesses," and the chief magistrate the warden. Richard II. confirmed and extended the charter of Edward I., and vested the government in a mayor and four bailiffs; and Henry VI., who erected the town andliberties into a county of itself, under the designation of "The Town and County of the Town of Kingston upon Hull," empowered the inhabitants to elect thirteen aldermen, one of whom was to be mayor. Under this charter, which has been confirmed and enlarged with additional privileges in succeeding reigns, the government is vested in a mayor, recorder, twelve aldermen, sheriff, chamberlain, &c. assisted by a town clerk, sword-bearer, two mace-bearers, and subordinate officers. The mayor is chosen annually on the 30th of September, by the burgesses generally, from two aldermen nominated to that office: the recorder is appointed by the king, on the nomination of the mayor and aldermen, and holds his office for life; the sheriff is chosen annually, by the burgesses at large, from two burgesses nominated by the mayor and aldermen; and the chamberlain and water-bailiff in the same manner, from burgesses nominated by the mayor: the town clerk is appointed by the king, on the nomination of the mayor and aldermen, and holds his office for life; there are other officers appointed by the mayor and aldermen, of which the principal is the " town's husband," who keeps the" accounts of the corporation, and receives their rents There is also an annual officer of the corporation, called the water-bailiff, who collects the port dues belonging to that body. The mayor, recorder, and aldermen are justices of the peace, and have exclusive jurisdiction within the town and county of the town The corporation possess admiralty jurisdiction within the limits of the port, and hold general quarter ses sions of the peace. They hold a court of record for civil actions to any amount, under the charter of the 18th of Henry VI., at which the mayor and sheriff preside, and of which the town clerk is prothonotary; and a court of requests is held every fortnight, by commissioners appointed under an act passed in the 48th of George III., for the recovery of debts not exceeding £5. The jurisdiction of both these courts extends over the whole of the town and county of the town. The" freedom of the borough is inherited by birth, acquired, by servitude, and obtained by purchase or gift of the corporation: every son of a burgess, born after the father has taken up his freedom, is entitled to be admitted at the age of twenty-one, whether he was born within the borough or not; and an apprentice, having served his time to a burgess, is entitled, though the master resides without the limits of the borough. O the gift of the freedom it is necessary there should be present, in order to constitute a court, the mayor and seven aldermen. The assizes for the town and county of the town were formerly held here by the judges when on their circuits, but an arrangement has long since been entered into, by which the business is transferred to the assizes at York. A new gaol and house of correction, situated on the Humber bank, has lately been erected, at an expense of £22,000, upon the plan recommended by Mr. Howard, which thus supersedes the old prison and former house of correction, both of which were exceedingly defective. In the parish of Sculcoates is a neat hall for the administration of justice, and for other public purposes where the petty sessions for the Hunsley-Beacon division and other parts of the East riding are held every Tuesday. This borough returned burgesses to parliament in the 33rd of Edward I., but from that time it omitted sending till the 12th of Edward II., since which it has regularly returned two members; the right of election is vested in the burgesses at large: the sheriff is the returning officer. Andrew Marvel, a man of stern uncompromising integrity, represented this borough in parliament from 1658 to 1678, in which year he died, and was interred in the church of St. Giles in the Fields, London, at the expense of the corporation, having been the last member of parliament who received pay from his constituents. Hull, about the year 1534, was made the see of a suffragan bishop, who had a stately palace in the High-street, but it did not long retain that distinction, as the office was abolished on the death of Edward VI. The borough comprises the parishes of St. Mary and the Holy Trinity, both in the archdeaconry of the East riding, and diocese of York. The living of St. Mary's is a perpetual curacy, endowed with £200 royal bounty, and in the patronage of S. Thornton, Esq.; the church, of which the greater part was demolished in the reign of Henry VIII., consists principally of the chancel of the original structure, which was enlarged in 1570, and to which a steeple was added in 1696; it contains some good windows in the later style of. English architecture. The living of the parish of the Holy Trinity is a vicarage not in charge, in the patronage of the Mayor and Corporation: the church is an ancient and spacious cruciform structure, with a lofty and every beautiful tower rising from the intersection, and supported on piers and arches of elegant proportion: the east end is in the decorated style of English architecture, the transepts being fine specimens of the earliest period of that style; and the window in the south transept is filled with tracery, and enriched with mouldings of curious character; the nave is separated from the aisles by slender piers and graceful arches, and, being only partly pewed, affords a fine open view of the chancel, in which are some beautiful niches and stalls, and a superb monument in the decorated style, with a rich canopy and buttresses. The church, dedicated to St. John, in this parish, was completed, in 1792, at the sole expense of the Rev. Thomas Dikes, L.L.B.: it is a neat edifice of brick; to which a tower has been subsequently added. The living is a perpetual curacy, the right of presentation to which, on the demise of the founder, will belong to the Vicar. The parliamentary commissioners for the erection of churches have also granted a sum for building a church, or chapel, in Myton, within this parish, which is now in progress. There are places of worship for General and Particular Baptists, the Society of Friends, those in the late Countess of Huntingdon's Connexion, Independents, Primitive, Wesleyan, and New Connexion of Methodists, Swedenborgians, Unitarians, a Roman Catholic chapel, and a synagogue: there is a mariners chapel, also a floating chapel in the junction dock, supported by the contributions of churchmen and dissenters. The grammar school was founded, in 1486, by Dr. Alcock, a native of Beverley, and successively Bishop of Rochester, Worcester, and Ely; and the present schoolhouse was rebuilt in 1583; the school is open to all the sons of burgesses, on the payment of 40s. annually, for classical instruction only: writing and arithmetic have beeii recently introduced, and are now taught at a charge of four guineas per annum for the sons of freemen, and eight guineas for the sons of non-freemen. An exhibition to Oxford or Cambridge was founded in its behalf, by Thomas Ferres, alderman, in 1630; and a scholarship in one of the colleges at Cambridge, by Thomas Bury, in 1627, which have been for a long time consolidated: the total yearly income of the property in trust for this purpose is £82. 2. 2. Among the distinguished masters of this school maybe enumerated John Clarke, M.A., author of the Essay on Study, and translator of some of the classics; and Joseph Milner, M.A., author of the History of the Christian Church. Of the eminent men educated here may be noticed, Andrew Marvel; Mason, the poet; Isaac Milner, D.D., late Dean of Carlisle; W. Wilberforce, Esq., the senator and philanthropist; and Archdeacon Wrangham. The Vicar's chool, in which upwards of fifty boys are educated, was founded about 1737; by the Rev. William Mason, vicar of this parish, and father of the poet: the sum of £400 was originally raised for its endowment, and several legacies have since been, added. The Marine school, near the Trinity House, was established in 1786, and is supported by the funds of that fraternity; thirty-six boys are completely clothed, and instructed in writing, arithmetic, and navigation. Cogan's charity school for girls was founded, in 1753, by an aldermen of that name, who endowed it with about £2000 three per cent, consols., for clothing and instructing twenty poor girls. A further sum of £500 in the same stock was added by the founder, in 1760; the property produces annually upwards of £400. In 1822 the number was increased to forty, and a marriage portion is given to those girls who remain in respectable service seven years. National schools, open to children of all denominations, were erected, in1 1806, at an expense of £3000, and afford instruction to three hundred boys, and one hundred and seventy girls, each of whom pays one shilling per quarter. The Church of England Sunday School Association, and the Sunday School Union, both founded in 1819, instruct not fewer than seven thousand children, who are superintended by one thousand six hundred and thirty teachers. The Dissenters also support a considerable number of schools, and their Sunday schools are upon an extensive scale. The "Guild of the Holy Trinity," established by the masters, pilots, and seamen of the Trinity House in Hull, in 1369, for the relief of decayed seamen and their widows, was incorporated by charter of the 20th of Henry VI., which has been renewed and confirmed by seven others. This corporate body consists of twelve elder brethren, six assistants, and an indefinite number of younger brethren, who are pilots of a superior class; from the former two wardens, and from the latter two stewards, are annually chosen. The annual expenditure exceeds £11,500; the revenue arises from property in land and the funds, from tolls, imposts, and duties on goods brought into or conveyed out of the port of Hull, and various other sources; of this amount, the primage of threepence per ton on goods yields about £3400 annually, on an average; the property given by Alderman Ferres, of which the brethren of the Trinity House are trustees, produces about £1660 annually; a levy of sixpence per month on the wages of all seamen employed in vessels belonging to the port, produces an additional £700 per annum, which last sum is appropriated to the relief of distressed members of the Merchant Seamen's hospital, and the remainder arises from the funded property and other sources. The Trinity House was originally founded in 1457, and was rebuilt in 1753; thebuilding forms a handsome quadrangle surrounding a spacious area: the north, south, and east sides consist of single apartments for thirty-four pensioners; the fron is ornamented with a freestone pediment of the Tuscan order, in the tympanum of which are the king's arms, with the figure of Neptune on one side, and that of Britannia on the other. On the side towards the west are the hall and housekeeper's rooms, with kitchens and other offices, over which are two elegant council-chambers, for transacting public business. The various apartments of this building contain several curiosities brought from foreign countries, and are decorated with a numher of paintings. Adjoining the front of the Trinity House is a handsome chapel, built in 1772, and fitted up. in an elegant manner for the purpose of divine worship. Robinson's hospital contains six rooms for younger brethren and their wives; it was granted to the corporation in 1682, by the founder, William Robinson, Esq., then sheriff of Hull, and in 1769 rebuilt and enlarged with six additional rooms, for the reception of as "many widows. The Marine hospital contains nine rooms, of which eight are occupied by seamen and their wives, the other by an unmarried seaman. Watson's hospital affords accommodation for six widows. Ferres's hospital, recently erected at an expense of £2000, has accommodation for twenty or thirty inmates. The Merchant Seamen's hospital supplies accommodation for twenty seamen and their wives: there are also several out-pensioners of various classes; and temporary relief is afforded to poor shipwrecked mariners and their families. A marine school is also supported by this society, in which thirty-six hoys are clothed and educated for the sea service. The charter-house was founded in the year 1384, by Michael de la Pole, first Earl of Suffolk of that name - having been destroyed in the time of Charles I., it was rebuilt at the end of the civil war; this building was. taken down in 1780, and the present spacious and handsome structure was erected in its stead: it was enlarged in 1803, and now furnishes accommodation for twentyeight men and twenty-nine women; the establishmentis under the direction of a master, who has a stipend of £200 per annum, with a house and garden. The revenue of this hospital, which in 1660 amounted to no more than £54, now amounts to more than £5000, arising from the rental of land, and a share in the Hull Dock Company's concerns. Gregg's hospital was founded in 1416, for twelve poor women. Harrison's hospital, founded in 1550, for ten poor women, was enlarged in 1795, by Mrs. Mary Fox, who increased the number to fourteen. Gee's hospital, built about the year 1600, affords an asylum to ten poor aged women. Sir John Lister, alderman, and M. P. for Hull, founded an hospital, in 1641, for the reception of twelve aged persons, with suitable apartments for a lecturer. In 1775, Mr. John Buttery assigned to the mayor and burgesses three mortgages, amounting in value to £410, in trust for the benefit of Weaver's hospital, which is occupied by six poor women. Crowle's hospital was established in 1661, for twelve poor women of the age of fifty and upwards. Dr. Thomas Watson, Bishop of St. David's, erected almshouses for fourteen aged persons, about 1687, which were endowed with £300 by his brother, William Watson, in 1721. The hospital in Salthouse-lane contains rooms for four poor persons; and the indigent receive extensive benefit from sums bequeathed for the purpose of employing them, for putting out apprentices, and for occasional distributions in money and bread. The charity hall, or workhouse, established by an act passed in the 9th and 10th of William III., is under the direction of the mayor and aldermen, with twenty-four other persons chosen from the six wards of the town, who are incorporated by the name of "The Governor, Deputy Governor, Guardians, and- Assistants of the Poor -" the provisions of the original act were confirmed and extended by the 8th of Queen Anne, and again by the 15th and 28th of George II. The general infirmary, a short distance from the town, on the Beverley road, was erected in 1782, at an expense of £4126; it has accommodations for seventy in-patients; the average expenditure is £1400, annually raised by subscription: three physicians and three surgeons attend gratuitously. The dispensary for Hull and Sculcoates was instituted, Sept. 1st, 1814, at an annual expense of £350; and there are, an asylum for the insane, established in the same year, and capable of con-- taining from eighty to ninety patients; a lying-in charity, instituted in 1802} a dispensary for curing diseases of the eye and ear, in 1822; the Poor and Strangers Friend Society, established in 1795; an Educational Clothing Society, in 1820; a Humane Society, in 1800; and other associations of a similar kind, which confer important benefits. There is an Annuitant Society; and a savings bank was established in 1818. A few religious houses existed here previously to the general suppression; but their remains have all been swept away by the tide of modern improvement. In 1331, Gilfred de Hotham, a devout knight, founded a priory for Black monks, in the street called Blackfriargate. Of this religious house, a square tower, and.a pile of buildings used as an inn, remained about half a century ago, behind the old guildhall, at the top of the market-place: these were removed when the house of correction was built; and when, subsequently, the hall itself was pulled down, and the present range of buildings erected for shambles, in 1806, some groined arches of brick were discovered under the hall. Hull is the birthplace of several persons of distinction, among whom are Dr. Thomas Johnson, an eminent physician and botanist; Sir John Lawson, a distinguished naval pmcer in the reign of Charles II.; the Rev. W. Mason, the poet, and the friend and biographer of Gray; William Wilberforce, Esq.; Mr. Porden, the architect; Charles Frost, Esq., F.S.A., author of some tracts on legal subjects; John Crosse, Esq., F.S.A., and John Broadley, Esq., F. S.A., the patrons of literature and science; A.H. Haworth, Esq., F.R.S., author of "Lepidoptera Britannica, &c.;" William Spence, Esq., F.L.S., author of tracts on Political Economy, and an Introduction to Entomology; Thomas Thompson, Esq., author of tracts on the Poor Laws, &c.; and P. W. Watson, Esq., the author of "Dendrologia Britannica:" all these were natives of the town or neighbourhood, and residents in Hull. Andrew Marvel, M.P. for this borough in the reign of Charles II., is also commonly supposed to have, been born here, but the place of his nativity was Winestead, near Partington, in the East riding, of which place his father was rector. The titles of Duke of Kingston, and Earl of Kingston upon Hull, formerly belonged to the Pierrepoint family, but. in 1773 they became extinct."

[Transcribed by Mel Lockie © from
Lewis's Topographical Dictionary of England 1835]

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