"HULL, (or Kingston upon Hull), a parish, and a municipal and parliamentary borough and seaport and a county in itself; comprising the parishes of Holy Trinity and St. Mary, in the East Riding of Yorkshire, in 53° 44' N. lat., and 0° 10' W. long. Its population in 1861 was 98,994, having increased since 1851, when it was 84,690, by 12,971. The number of inhabited houses in the former year was 19,516, and of uninhabited 867. From a very early period of our history Hull has always been a place of considerable commercial importance; for a century previous to the reign of Edward I., Myton Wyk (the ancient name of Hull) carried on a thriving trade in the export of wools, leather, &c., and in the import of wines. But it was by the above-mentioned king that the foundation of the present prosperity of the town was laid. Edward had purchased Hull from the monastery of Melsa, and perceiving its natural advantages for the purposes of a harbour, caused one to be formed, at the same time granting the town a charter, and changing its name to Kyngestown-super-Hull. In 1316 a ferry was established across the Humber, between Hull and Barton. In 1322 the town was strongly walled in by Edward II. In 1359 it sent sixteen ships to the siege of Calais. In 1378 the walls were repaired with brick, the use of which is supposed to have been revived here, for the first time since the departure of the Romans, by Sir Michael de la Pole. In 1472 and 1476 it was visited by the plague. In 1537 it was taken by the insurgents in the "Pilgrimage of Grace." In 1635 it was again visited by the plague, which continued its ravages during more than three years. In the civil war between Charles I. and the parliament, Hull was the first place which resisted the authority of the king. The parliament had appointed Sir John Hotham to be governor of the town, in order to obtain possession of the large quantities of warlike stores which were deposited there. When the Earl of Newcastle, who had been sent by the king to take possession of the town in his name, appeared before the walls, Hotham refused to admit him; and the king, who arrived in April, 1642, with 200 followers, was treated in a similar manner. Upon this declaration of defiance Charles laid siege to the town, but was repulsed after several assaults. Hull was again besieged by the royalists under the Marquis of Newcastle in 1643, but was successfully defended by Lord Fairfax. During the disturbances which occurred on the abdication of James II., Hull was for a short time in the hands of the Roman Catholic party; but measures were so well concerted by the adherents of the Prince of Orange that the town was taken before their antagonists had even heard of such a design. The anniversary of this event is still observed by the inhabitants as a holiday. Hull is situated in a low level plain at the confluence of the Hull and Humber, about 20 miles from the mouth of the latter. The town is protected from the overflow of the Humber by embankments. The streets in the old part of the town, consisting of Hull within the Docks, are narrow and dirty; but those in the parish of Sculcoates, where most of the wealthy inhabitants reside, have a more modern and handsome appearance. The most modern part of the town is Myton, which lies westward from the Humber dock; another portion of the town, consisting for the most part of warehouses, is situated on the left bank of the Hull. The houses are principally built of brick; the streets are well paved and lighted with gas; the town is plentifully supplied with water, which is conducted from springs about 4 miles distant. The environs of Hull are uninteresting, the country being flat and almost destitute of trees. The principal public buildings in Hull are-the custom-house, in Whitefriargate, a brick building with stone dressings; the exchange, a new building in course of re-erection; the Trinity House, in Trinity House-lane, founded in 1369, belonging to a society established for relieving poor mariners, licensing pilots, and regulating the navigation of the Humber; the dock-office, excise-office, Chamber of Commerce, stamp-office, corn exchange, and several good banks; the public rooms in Jarratt-street, consisting of a large assembly-room, a lecture-room, a museum, baths, &c.; the Protestant Hall, also in Jarratt-street; the Royal Institution, in Albion-street, containing the subscription library; the mechanics' institute, in George-street; the mansion house, situated in Lowgate; the railway station, at the terminus of the Hull and Selby railway; the Hull and East Riding School of Medicine; the borough gaol, in Kingston-street, erected in 1827; a new gaol in course of erection; the post-office, in Whitefriargate, a convenient building in a central situation; the Queen's Theatre, near the railway station; the Royal Theatre, in course of erection after being burnt down in Humber-street; and the Victoria Concert Rooms, at the junction of Humber-street and Queen-street. The botanical gardens (10 acres), about 1 mile from the town, and the zoological gardens (6 acres), are favourite places of resort. The park, consisting of about 27 acres, situated in the Beverley-road, was presented to the town by Mr. Pearson in 1860. A gilt equestrian statue of William III. stands in the market-place, and a Doric column, 80 feet high, erected to the memory of Wilberforce, who was a native of this town, stands at the end of Prince's Dock. The churches in Hull are-the Holy Trinity, a cruciform structure with a tower, situated in the market-place; Drypool Church, erected in 1824; St. Mark's, Jenning's-street, Groves, with a lofty spire; Sculcoates, St. Mary, Air-street; St. Mary's, Lowgate, lately restored at a cost of £10,000; St. John's Church, St. John's-street; St. Stephen's, St. Stephen's-street, in the early English style, with a spire 200 feet high; St. James's, St. James's-street; St. Paul's, Cannon-street; Christ Church, John-street; Mariners' Church; and St. Luke's. The Methodists have 12 chapels, the Independents 8, the Roman Catholics 2, the Baptists 4, the Calvinists 1, the German Lutheran 1, the Society of Friends 1, the Jews 1, and the Unitarians 1. The schools in Hull are-the grammar school, founded by Bishop Alcock in 1486, the schoolroom of which was rebuilt in 1587, and is one of the best in England; the Vicar's School, founded by the Rev. W. Mason in 1737; Trinity House School, for 36 boys; Cogan's School, for 40 girls; and the Roman Catholic free school. Besides the above there are National schools, British and foreign schools, and Wesleyan schools. The principal charitable institutions are-the Trinity House, for the relief of decayed seamen; the Charter House, founded in 1384 by Michael de la Pole; Lister's Hospital, founded in 1642 by Sir John Lister, for 12 poor persons; Gregg's Hospital, founded by John Gregg in 1416, for 12 women; Crowle's Hospital, founded in 1682, for 12 women; Salthouse Lane Hospital, founded in 1683; the Infirmary, in Prospect-street, erected in 1782; the lunatic asylum, in the Anlaby-road, and two dispensaries. Hull is well situated for commercial purposes, being connected by the rivers which discharge themselves into the Humber with most of the manufacturing districts in England. The docks, which occupy the site of the old fortifications, with the harbour, cover an area of 60 acres; the Old Dock, commenced in 1775, and completed in 1778, is 1,703 feet long, 254 feet broad, and covers an area of about 10 acres; the Humber Dock, opening into the Humber, commenced in 1807, and completed in 1809, is 914 feet long, 342 feet broad, and covers an area of about 7 acres; the Junction Dock, connecting the Humber Dock with the Old Dock, commenced in 1827, and opened in 1829, is 645 feet long, 407 broad, and covers an area of about 6 acres; the Railway Dock, near the terminus of the Hull and Selby railway, was opened in 184¾; the Victoria Dock, on the E. side of the Hull, affords accommodation for vessels of great tonnage, and covers, with the timber docks adjoining it, 43 acres. The West Dock, now in course of construction, covers 7 acres. Hull has a larger coasting trade than any other port in the kingdom; it also carries on an extensive trade with the N. of Germany, Holland, Belgium, Denmark, and the Baltic. The chief articles of export are woollen and cotton goods and hardware; and of import, timber, grain, seeds, wool, flax, iron, tar, pitch, resin, bones, and tallow. Hull was the first port in England which engaged in the Greenland fishery, and the revival of that branch of trade, in 1766, was due to its enterprise; during the last forty years, the number of vessels leaving Hull for the northern seas has gradually diminished, and but few ships belonging to this port are now engaged in the whale fishery. The principal manufactures of the town are those of ropes, canvas, chains, and chain-cables; iron ship-building and seed crushing are largely carried on; there are corn, bone, colour, oil, and cotton mills. Hull is governed by a corporation consisting of a mayor, 14 aldermen, 42 common councilmen, a recorder, and a sheriff. The town is divided into 7 wards-viz: Lowgate ward, Market-place ward, Holderness ward, North Myton ward, South Myton ward, East Sculcoates ward, and West Sculcoates ward. It returns 2 members to parliament. Quarter sessions are held here in the guildhall; the other law-courts are, the court of venire, presided over by the recorder, which has a jurisdiction in civil causes over the town and county of Hull; the county court, and the court of bankruptcy. The assizes for the county of Hull were formerly held here, but the trials for capital offences committed within the county now take place at York. The police system is the same as that of London, and most efficient. Hull is a station on the Hull and Selby railway, the Manchester, Sheffield, and Lincolnshire railway, and the North-Eastern railway, and is connected with the Great Northern railway by the ferry. The most remarkable men who were natives of the town are Andrew Marvell and Wilberforce. The market days are Tuesday and Friday; a market is also held on Saturday for the sale of meat and vegetables. Fairs are held on the second Tuesday in April, and on the 11th October for horses, cattle, &c., and on the following day for toys, pedlery, &c."
"HUMBER, a ward in the parishes of Hull Holy Trinity and Hull St. Mary, in the borough of Hull, East Riding county York, See Hull."
"NORTH MYTON, (and South Myton) wards in the parish of Hull, East Riding county York, near Hull, of which it may be considered a suburb."
The National Gazetteer of Great Britain and Ireland
by Colin Hinson ©2013