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A History of Kingston on Hull
from Bulmer's Gazetteer (1892)


Part 9

CHURCHES AND CHAPELS.

Within the boundaries of the borough of Hull there are 22 churches belonging to the Church of England (one of which - Mariners' - has no district assigned to it). Of these, 10 have been built within the last 30 years, and at the present time efforts are being made in the parishes of Newland, St. Paul's, Sculcoates, Drypool, Newington, and Holy Trinity to effect a sub-division of their districts and erect additional churches.

All Saints', Christ Church, Drypool Church.

All Saints' Church, Margaret Street, Beverley Road, is the parish church of the great northern division of the town generally known as Sculcoates. As the mother church of the parish, St. Mary's, Bankside, was small and inconveniently situated; this church was built and opened in 1869, when it took over the rights and revenues of the parish. It is built of red brick, with white stone facing, and is Gothic in its design. The architect was the late G. E. Street, R.A. It is about 150 feet long by 60 feet wide. The roof is high pitched, its apex being 60 feet from the ground. At the south-west corner is the tower (through which is the entrance), built in 1883, at a cost of 1,200, as a memorial to the late Canon Walsham, the first vicar. The interior is most pleasing. The pillars of the arches dividing the nave from the aisles are of stone, but the main portion is finished in red bricks, excellent in workmanship. The chancel arch, with its open stonework, is very effective. A stone screen separates the chancel from the nave. The chancel is apsidal, with an organ chamber to the north and approach to the vestries on the south, a number of small columns dividing. The communion table is approached by seven steps from the nave floor. The reredos is filled with full-length figures in fine mosaic work, representing Our Saviour, and SS. Peter, John, Stephen, and Paul. There are five stained-glass windows over the communion table, and the windows of the aisles are stained. There is a very handsome carved lectern, of brass. The baptistery is at the west end, the three arches which divide it from the nave having a most striking effect when viewed from the east. The church will seat 1,000 persons. Behind is the Vicarage and a Mission Hall, built in 1879, at a cost of 1,000.

Christ Church is situated at the corner of John and Worship Streets. After obtaining an Act of Parliament, in 1814, this church was erected, and consecrated in 1822, at a cost of 8,000, raised by public subscription. It is of white brick, with stone dressings and arches, in the Perpendicular style of Gothic architecture, with a lofty tower at the west end, containing a clock of four dials. The whole building is embattled, and the buttresses are surmounted by crocketed pinnacles. Since its erection it has been enlarged, and otherwise greatly improved in appearance. The interior is open, with galleries on three sides, and accommodates 1,654 persons. The chancel arch is richly moulded. The reredos is of Cn stone, exquisitely designed and executed. It occupies the entire space across the east wall of the chancel, and is divided into 13 compartments, with richly carved and crocketed canopies, supported on red marble columns. Some neat marble tablets are to be found on the walls, and at the north-east corner of the chancel there is a monument, consisting of an elaborately-carved Gothic niche of rich tabernacle work, within which is placed a well executed bust, in pure Carrara marble, of the Rev. John King, the first incumbent, to whose memory a powerful organ, which cost 400 guineas, has been erected in the west gallery. There are several stained glass windows, and a fine brass lectern. The schools are in John Street and King Street, both near the church. Formerly the church had no legal district, but by an Order in Council, made in 1866, it was constituted a parish church.

Drypool Church.---Domesday Book contains a mention of the manor of Drypool, which was amongst the villages destroyed by the Danish incursions. Formerly attached to Sutton, the parish was made an independent one during the Commonwealth. It is conjectured that the original church was built about the time of Edward I. The present building, dedicated to St. Peter, is however, comparatively modern, having been erected in 1822. It is very plain in appearance and consists of a long nave, with an apse at the east end, and a tower at the west end, with clock and bells. There are galleries round three sides of the interior, the organ partly occupying that at the west end. The pulpit is in the middle, in front of the communion table. The east window is stained. There are 1,000 sittings, half of which are free. This church was formerly the garrison church of the town, as it adjoined the citadel estate. The parish register is very ancient, the earliest date decipherable being 1574, but the book is much older. The entries up to 1605 are in Latin.

The new church of St. Andrew, on the Holderness Road, has, in recent years, been made the parish church of Drypool.

The schools in Prospect Place are amongst the largest voluntary schools in the town. There is a comfortable mission room attached to the vicarage, in Williamson Street. The living is a vicarage, in the gift of the Simeon Trustees, and is of the yearly value of 200.

Holy Trinity, Mariners', Newland.

Holy Trinity Church. - Of all the parochial churches in England this is one of the grandest. Indeed, it may be said to take the first rank. The architects and builders of the days when this church was built had a noble idea of the relative importance of the habitations of man and the temples devoted to the worship of God. This church records their efforts in every column, and line, and arch, and in its silent eloquence we learn that the men of the old time built in the belief that against their church the gates of hell should not prevail, and erected, for all time, a place where men should worship in the "beauty of holiness." The church is a fine specimen of the Decorated and Perpendicular styles of architecture, and one of the three largest parish churches in England. The two others being those of St. Nicholas, Yarmouth, and St. Michael's, Coventry, but Holy Trinity Church, Hull, has a larger superficial area. The length of the church is, from east to west, 272 feet; width of nave, 72 feet: and the area, 25,640 square feet. The plan is cruciform, and consists of nave, with aisles, and chantry chapels, and the tower stands over the intersections of the transepts.

With regard to the history of this church there is very little known as to how it has grown to its present imposing and noble appearance, but there is no doubt that the wealthy merchants of the town contributed, very liberally and nobly towards its building and restoration, from time to time. Though the church may be older, the earliest mention of it is of the one which had been destroyed prior to the year 1204, the despoilers of which were compelled to "rebuild, and make restitution to the parson of Hessle." In the MS. in the Warburton Collection, British Museum, the "High Church, dedicated to the Holy Trinitie, was at first founded as a chappell, by one James Helwood," in 1258, and it remained a chapel-of-ease to Hessle until "June 28, 1661," when the following "Licence, or petition of the inhabitants of Kingston-upon-Hull, for separation, by Act of Parliament, of Trinity Church, Hull, from the vicarage of Hessle, of which the king is undoubted patron, reserving to the Crown the approval of the vicar to be appointed thereto,"* was passed.

* Cals. of State Papers, ii., v., p. 19.

By some historians it has been asserted that the present church was not commenced until 1312, but in a pastoral letter of Archbishop Corbridge, addressed to the prior and convent of Gisburne (patrons of the mother church of Hessle), in 1301, we find that he intimates his intention of consecrating "at the chapel erected in the town of Kingston, and within the limits, as it is said, of the aforesaid parish, a cemetery, in which there may be, for the future, a common right of sepulture, saving always the rights, from which it is not our intention in this to derogate, of the mother church." From this it appears there was a chapel, but not a burial ground for their dead, and the want of which was a source of great inconvenience, amid even danger, to the inhabitants residing in the town. Formerly they had to carry their dead, by the banks of the Humber, to Hessle for interment, a distance of about four miles. The site of the original building has also been a matter of contention, but it is generally understood to have been on that of the present church.

In 1522 the chapel was placed under an interdict, when the doors and windows were closed with thorns and briars, the pavement torn up, and the bells deprived of their tongues. No reason is assigned for these proceedings, but the offence must have been a very serious one to call for such severe punishment. In the year 1537, the building was in a ruinous state, when the Corporation sold their plate and applied part of the proceeds for its reparation. About this time the Act for the suppression of chantries - of which Hull possessed about 20, dating from 1328 to 1533 - colleges, free chapels, and guilds was passed, and, among others, the chapel of Holy Trinity fell into the hands of the king. The inhabitants complained bitterly, and said "that the church was ruinated, the clergy begged, all learning despised, and the people began to grow barbarous, atheistical, and rude," whereupon the king re-founded the chapel and four suppressed hospitals, and it is said that Edward VI., in 1552, made some attempt at restitution, which was ineffective.

Before the Reformation this church had no fewer than 12 private chapels for priests to sing masses in for the souls of the departed. Besides these there were not less than eight altars, and the whole number of chantries in this church st that period were at least twenty.

About "1649 the Rev. John Canne was appointed by Col. Robert Overton, the Governor of Hull, as chaplain and preacher to the soldiers, the services being held in this church, the chancel of which was walled off for that purpose, and the

Rev. John Shaw, vicar of St. Mary's, Towgate, and Lecturer of Holy Trinity, used the nave"* Canne held the appointment until 1656, when the council which sat at Whitehall, "July 25th, 1656," issued the following order for removal : - "President Lawrence to the Governor of Kingston-upon-Hull, and the Mayor, His Highness and Council, on information received, fear that the peace and safety of the garrison and town of Hull may be endangered by Mr. Canne's residence, and, therefore, desire you to order him to remove forthwith out of the town, or you will cause him to be removed. Approved in person." Canne's wife and daughter, who died during his residence in Hull, lie buried in Holy Trinity Church.

* Page's "History of Fish Congregational Church, 1889," p. 4.

In 1661 Holy Trinity was made a separate parish church by Act of Parliament, passed June 28th, and the king became the patron, and the Crown reserved to itself the right of approval of the vicar. The Rev. Nicholas Anderson being appointed the first vicar of the newly formed living. In 1836 the Municipal Reform Bill took the patronage away from the Corporation, and ordered the living to be sold. It was purchased for 3,685 and vested in the hands of trustees, who were constituted the patrons.

Since that time nearly 50,000 has been expended on the removal of the galleries, formerly disfiguring the nave, and in general restoration of the building, chiefly under the direction of the eminent architect Sir Gilbert Scott, R.A. The following is a list of the vicars since the church was divided from the mother church of Hessle, in 1661 : -

     Rev. Nicholas Anderson             Rev.  Thomas Clarke, M.A.
       "  John Wilkinson                  "   Joseph Milner, M.A.
       "  Charles Mace                    "   John Healey Bromby, M.A.                                      
       "  William Mason, M.A.             "   Richard England Brooke, M.A.                                        
       "  Arthur Robinson                 "   Joseph McCormick, D.D. is the
 									 present vicar.
The east end and transepts of this venerable fabric are beautiful specimens of decorated architecture, but the great east window, a very noble one of seven lights, has traces of Perpendicular work in its composition. Nearly the whole of the east end and north side of the choir are (externally), built of brick, and is said to be the most ancient specimen of brick building, non-Roman, in England. The west front is magnificent, and is in the Perpendicular style of the 15th century. The west doorway is most elaborate, and similar in character to the west doorway of Beverley Minster. The great central window has nine large lights, and five tiers of small lights. Over the centre is a large niche containing a full-sized statue of the Saviour, erected in 1863. The noble tower is of two stages, and rises to a height of 150 feet. A broad causeway now surrounds the church, and its fine proportions are seen in relief and to advantage. For lightness and delicacy of work this church is hardly to be surpassed, the columns being exceedingly slender and graceful, the windows (mostly stained), large and numerous, and the whole structure grand and symmetrical in its proportions, and cathedral-like in appearance. Entering by the north transept, we observe several beautifully sculptured monuments to the memory of the Gray and Appleyard families, by Earle, and a graceful monument to Dr. Alderson, by Behnes. Here is preserved a stone coffin, discovered in 1835. The roof under the tower is splendidly groined and decorated. The organ, erected in 1875, is situated here, and contains three manuals and 2,576 pipes. In the south transept there is a beautiful stained window. Below this is a fine marble group, by Earle, erected by the Trinity House, in memory of their great benefactor Alderman Ferres. Of the mural monuments, that to the memory of J. J. Matthewson is most interesting. It bears a small but striking group in excellent relief, representing Moses striking the rock. Near this is the Broadley chapel, an ancient chantry, supposed to have been founded by the De la Poles. It was restored by Miss Broadley, in 1863, and contains a magnificent shrine in the north wall, for the reception of which, the wall between the choir and the chantry has been pierced. Beneath the beautiful canopy, somewhat in the style of the Percy shrine at Beverley, is the effigy of an unknown lady. A little to the east of this tomb is another monument containing two recumbent figures in alabaster (supposed to be those of Sir William De la Pole and his wife), under a groined and carved canopy. Adjoining this tomb on the right, is a beautifully sculptured marble monument to the memory of Thomas Earle, the sculptor. Entering the chancel, the eye is attracted by the great east window (4Oft. by 2Oft.), of seven lights, filled in 1834 with stained glass, from the designs of Sir Joshua Reynolds. Directly underneath, have been placed the old communion table and reredos. The communion plate is antique, large, and valuable, and the church possesses several mammoth cups, salvers, and tankards, presented by merchant-men of old, some bearing the stamp of the reign of Henry VIII. The central aisle has been slightly raised, and the stalls have been carved to correspond with the ancient woodwork, some of which has been tastefully incorporated. The communion table, erected in April, 1889, is a magnificent specimen of modern oak carving, as are the altar rails, the side screens, and the small pulpit. The reredos and screen, executed in stone, is a magnificent and elaborate piece of work, erected in 1886, as a memorial of the late Colonel Pease, for 23 years chairman of the Restoration Committee. The floor is almost entirely covered with incised slabs, and richly carved monumental stones, with inscriptions and armorial bearings, some of which are extremely interesting, though they are slowly becoming obliterated. Most of the brasses, however, were stolen by the soldiers in Cromwell's time. One of the most ancient still remaining, is that to the memory of Alderman Richard Bylt, who died in 1451. Near the vestry door is a quaint monument to the Rev. Thomas Whincop, a former master of the Hull Charter house. It consists of an alabaster bust, within a niche (after the style of Shakespear's monument at Stratford-on-Avon), and was restored and re-decorated in 1890. The latest mural monument erected in this chancel, is to the memory of the late Dr. Thomson, Archbishop of York. It consists of a tablet with black border, executed in alabaster, richly diapered, and a medallion in "Petronite," said to be an excellent likeness of the deceased prelate. This is the first monumental sculpture executed in the new metal "petronite," which is said to be inure durable than marble, and to be unaffected by damp, smoke, or atmospheric influences. This monument was unveiled by the Bishop of Beverley, on 14th January, 1892.

The nave is as fine a specimen of the Perpendicular style as the choir is of the Decorated. The noble west window is a magnificent example of modern stained glass. The aisles are divided on each side by eight pointed arches, resting on lofty clustered columns, formed by a union of four cylinders similar to those of the choir; the mouldings of the arches resting on figures of angels, playing various. musical instruments, many of which have been destroyed, and some of the angels mutilated. In the south aisle there is a remarkable depressed-ribbed arch, with kneeling figures at the side and at the top - a medival representation of the Trinity. Beneath the kneeling figures, and at the opposite end of the arch, are rude carvings of ships. This has been supposed to be the tomb of John Rotenheryng, the stepfather of Sir William de la Pole, the first mayor of Hull. He founded a chantry in this church, which is supposed to have adjoined this arch. He died in 1328. Opposite the west door is a beautiful font, cut from a huge block of stalagmite, and adorned with elegant sculptured shields, roses, quatrefoils, &c. A singular figure of a huntsman, whose dress is of the time of Edward II., attracts attention, as he presents his spear at a boar's head with an acorn in its mouth. The pulpit is of Cn stone, tastefully carved, and the lectern (one of the finest in England) is a massive brass eagle, weighing seven cwts. The nave will accommodate 2,000 persons, and the chancel is stalled to seat 200. The tower contains a peal of eight bells, the weight of the tenor being 21 cwts., and a clock with four dials, which bears date 1772. Attached to the latter are a set of chimes, which ring at 6 and 12 o'clock. The register dates from 1558. The living is a vicarage, of the gross yearly value of 650, with residence. The Vicarage is in Prospect Street, and the Parish Day Schools in Humber Street. The Choir School and Mission Hall is on the south side of the church - the old Grammar School.

Mariners' Church, Prince's Dock Street, which has a neat brick front, in the Early English style, was opened in 1834. It consists of a nave, with galleries all round, and contains 1,100 sittings, of which 600 are free, and set apart for sailors and fishermen. There are no windows at the sides, the building being partly lighted from the roof. This church is said to have been the first mariners' church established in England. The living is a perpetual curacy, of the yearly value of 200, and is in the gift of trustees.

Newland Church, dedicated to St. John the Evangelist, is on the northern outskirts of the town, and is outside its boundary. It is a somewhat plain building, consecrated in 1833. In shape it is a parallelogram, having at the corners angular buttresses with conical tops. There are five lancet windows on each side. The interior is simple, with a few monumental tablets on the walls. Some 30 years after it was built, it was constituted a parish church, a district being assigned to it from the parish of Cottingham. The Vicarage is at the east end, standing in its own grounds a little way from the road.

St. Andrew's, St. Augustine's, St. Barnabas'.

St. Andrew's Church, on the Holderness Road, was consecrated by the Archbishop of York in July, 1878. The population of the parish of Drypool having greatly increased - nearly four-fold in 40 years, - the church of St. Peter was utterly inadequate to supply the spiritual wants of the district. St. Andrew's was accordingly built, and by the deed of Ecclesiastical Commissioners it took the place of the old church of St. Peter as the parish church of Drypool. It is built in the Geometrical style, with red brick and stone dressings, and consists of chancel, nave, aisles, vestry, and organ chamber. The nave is separated from the aisles on each side by an arcade of six bays. The total cost, including the organ, was 6,000. There are seats for 700 persons, half of which are free. There is a mission room in Beeton Street, nearly opposite the church. The living is a vicarage, of the yearly value of 220, in the gift of the Simeon Trustees.

St. Augustine's, Queen's Road. Newland, 50 years ago, was a small hamlet in the parish of Cottingham. To supply the spiritual wants of this small hamlet a church was built, and it was thought that ample provision had been made for the future by providing 500 sittings, but of late years the town of Hull has reached out to Newland, and has taken a good part of it under its municipal care. The population of the part within the municipal boundary having reached to over 3,000, besides an ever increasing population in the rural part of the parish, it has become necessary to provide a new church. To that end the first steps were taken in 1883, when land was acquired in a favourable position on Queen's Road. A watercourse unfortunately cuts the parish in two, and the site chosen is just against the bridge which unites the Avenues with St. John Wood. The cost of the site was 1,350. On February 6th, 1884, was opened a temporary church of wood, seating 420 people. Service has been carried on in this building ever since, and on October 3rd, 1890 (during the sitting of the Church Congress at Hull), the foundation stone of the new permanent church was laid, by Mrs. C. H. Wilson, the wife of the popular member of parliament for the West Division. The architect is Mr. Gilbert G. Scott, F.S.A., the son of the late Sir Gilbert Scott, the well-known church restorer. The church will consist of one wide nave, presenting to the Queen's Road a fine faade of seven lofty windows. The style is late Decorated, and the architect has been successful in giving a fine effect with a splendid east window. The tower is a massive structure, having the heating apparatus in the basement, a gallery over the west door, and ringers chambers and a bell-chamber above. When completed, the church will compare favourably with any of the existing modern churches in Hull. The total cost, with land, will be about 8,000. It is, however, proposed to build at present only a portion of the designed structure, owing to the lack of the necessary funds. The vicar designate is the Rev. W. H. Abrahams, M.A. (Lend.), formerly curate of All Saints', to whose exertions during the past eight years the building of the church is mainly due. The accommodation will be for about 850.

St. Barnabas' Church is on the Hessle Road, at the corner of the Boulevard, and was erected in 1873. It is built, in the Early English style, of red bricks, with white stone facings, on a site given by Mr. H. S. Constable, of Wassand. It consists of a chancel, nave, aisles, baptistery, large vestry, and an organ chamber, containing a fine organ built by Messrs. Forster & Andrews, at a cost of 650. The chancel forms a semicircle. There was originally only one aisle, but in 1876 a second one was added, at a cost of over 1,100, and stalls were provided instead of chairs at a cost of 350. The interior is 140 feet in length, 80 feet wide, and the apex of the roof is 70 feet from the ground. There is at present only a bell-turret at the west end, containing one bell, but sufficient space is reserved upon which to erect a tower and spire. The total cost of the church was about 8,000. In 1882 a large vicarage house was built, at a cost of 2,500, and in 1887 a spacious mission hail was erected, at a cost of 2,000, and by the special permission of her majesty it is called the Victoria Jubilee Hall. The church will seat about 800, and the mission hall about 1,000 persons. There are no schools attached to the parish. The living is a vicarage, valued at 200 per annum.

St. James', St. John the Baptist, St. John the Evangelist.

St. James' Church, which is in St. James' Street, near the Hessle Road, was consecrated in 1831. It is of white brick, in the Early English style of architecture, with a tower, 110 feet high, at the west end, containing a peal of eight bells and a clock of four dials. Each side of the church contains five two-light windows. The chancel is small and there are galleries round three sides of the interior. In 1871 the old high pews were removed and replaced by open benches, of pitch pine. Since that date other improvements have also been made. The east window, of three lights, is filled with stained glass, representing the Crucifixion, and surrounded by medallions illustrative of the Te Deum. The mural monuments are numerous, the most handsome being that in the chancel placed to the memory of the Rev. W. Knight, for 32 years incumbent of this parish. The church will seat about 1,100 persons. The schools are in Porter Street. The living is a perpetual curacy, of the yearly value of 200, in the gift of the vicar of Holy Trinity.

St. John the Baptist's Church, St. George's Road, is the parish church of Newington, the great western portion of the town. The population of this district having rapidly increased, the erection of this church, in 1878, supplied a pressing need. Services had previously been held in a small temporary building, which was inconveniently crowded. The church, which is in the Early English style of the Transition period of architecture, is built of red bricks with stone dressings externally, and of white brick internally. It consists of a chancel, nave, north and south aisles, and vestries. The windows of the aisles are small lancet lights arranged in couplets; the west window is a triplet, within a large moulded arch; the east window is of four lights, with geometrical tracery. Four bays of arches and piers on each side separate the nave from the aisles. The chancel arch is particularly lofty. The seats are of red pine, stained, and will accommodate 730 persons. The parochial buildings form a compact block. Facing the road, by the side of the church, is the Vicarage, built in 1884, and behind are the spacious Sunday Schools and Parish Rooms, built in 1883, and since then greatly enlarged. A Mission Room was erected in 1887, in Plane Street, and, at the other end of the parish, service is conducted on Sunday afternoons in the St. Andrew's Hall, belonging to the Hull Trawl Fishermen's Society. In connection with the church there is an Institute, with reading-rooms and library, but there are no day schools. The living is a vicarage, in the gift of the Archbishop of York, and is of the yearly value of 330.

St. John the Evangelist's Church is near the north-west corner of the Prince's Dock, and close to the Wilberforce Monument. This was the first church erected in Hull after the extension of the town beyond its old walled limits. It is a very plain, red brick building, with stone dressings, in a kind of Palladian style of architecture. At the west end is a tower, with a plain parapet and pyramidal pinnacles at the angles. In each side of the side walls of the body of the building are two tiers of seven windows, the lower tier being small and square, the upper ones larger with semi-circular heads. The interior is more pleasing than the bare exterior. The chancel walls are lined with polished alabaster, with a Greek cross, in coloured cement, directly over the Communion table. The pulpit, which is in the centre, is of open carved oak-work, on a pedestal of polished alabaster, and is of novel design. The stained-glass windows are of the richest description. The east window represents the Crucifixion, flanked by the Agony in the Garden and the Descent from the Cross. The colouring and drawing are excellent, and the grouping most effective. There is a number of other specimens of English art in stained glass, and the study of their various details will amply repay the visitor. There are numerous monumental tablets to the memory of Hull's former citizens, a large number of whom were interred in the vaults beneath this church for a period of about 40 years. There is a handsome monument, by Keyworth, to the memory of the Rev. Thomas Dykes, the first incumbent, who built this church at his sole expense, in 1791, at a cost of 4,600. Since then various alterations and additions have been made, and, quite recently, two ornamental porches have been erected, one by public subscription, the other as a memorial of the late B. B. Mason, Esq., J.P. The schools belonging to this church are in Waltham Street and Osborne Street. The living is a vicarage, of the gross yearly value of 345, and is in the gift of the Vicar of Holy Trinity.

St. Jude's, St. Luke's, St. Mark's.

St. Jude's Church, on the Spring Bank, is of red brick in the Early English style of architecture. The tower is not yet built. The western gable end shows a considerable amount of ornamentation, with a large rose window in the centre. The interior is very neat, and consists of a chancel, nave, aisles, and vestry. The nave is divided from the aisles by stone pillars and moulded brick arches, which support a lofty clerestory. At the east end is a stained-glass window, which was unveiled by the first Anglican Bishop of Beverley, in October, 1889, his first episcopal act after his consecration as Suffragan of York. The window sets forth some of the scenes in the life of Christ, and is executed in the style of the 15th century, being exceedingly rich in the general tone of the colouring. A new organ was placed in the north side of the chancel in 1887, at a cost of 600. There is accommodation for 900 persons. The entire cost of the church, including the site, was 5,000. The living is a vicarage of the annual value of 200, in the gift of the Archbishop of York. There are no schools attached to this parish.

St. Luke's Church, in the street of the same name, is in the Early Decorated style of Gothic architecture, and is built of red brick with white stone facings and black bands, the roof being covered with green and blue slates. There is a tower and clerestory, the former was added in 1878. The church consists of a chancel, nave, aisles, and vestry. Arcades of five bays each separate the nave from the aisles. The furnishings of the chancel are neat and appropriate. The reredos is a Cn stone arcade of ten arches. The east and west windows are filled with stained glass. There are about 800 sittings and a good organ. The entire cost, including the site, was 5,000. Before this church was built, services were held in a dissenting chapel in Nile Street, which had fallen into disuse, and had been purchased, with the sanction of the Archbishop of York, in 1856. Thence the congregation removed to Porter Street, and services were conducted in the building now used as the Alhambra Music Hall. Some time later, the Hull Church Building Society was established, and its first work was the erection of the present church, the foundation stone of which was laid in 1861. In the following year it was completed and consecrated, and two years later it was constituted a parish church. The church was built through the exertions of the present aged incumbent, the Rev. Thomas Lester, who was the founder and first secretary of the Hull Church Building Society. The living is a vicarage of the yearly value of 320, and is in the gift of the vicar of Holy Trinity. The schools are at the west end of the church.

St. Mark's Church is in the manufacturing district known as the "Groves", formerly part of the parish of Sutton. The church, which was erected in 1843, is in the Early English style, and is built of red brick with stone dressings. It is cruciform in shape, and has a graceful lantern tower and spire, light and delicate in construction. The interior is neat and elegant; the nave is separated by five pointed arches springing from clustered pillars. Galleries extend round three sides of the building, an organ occupying that on the north. The communion table is of Cn stone, the front being on panels bearing the symbols of the Evangelists. There is accommodation for 1,100 persons. The Vicarage is at the east end, and the schools directly behind. The living is a vicarage of the annual value of 340, in the gift of the Crown and the Archbishop of York alternately.

St. Mary's (Lowgate), St. Mary's (Sculcoates), St. Matthew's Church.

St. Mary's Church, Lowgate, was licensed for the celebration of divine service by Archbishop Melton in 1333, and is referred to in such license as then newly erected (de novo constructa). This license was granted to "the Religious the Prior and Brethren of North Ferriby of the Order of the Temple of our Lord of Jerusalem." From this document it appears that, as Holy Trinity church was originally a chapel-of-ease to Hessle, so this church was one to North Ferriby. Frost says "It is not known when or by what means the separation of the chapel of St. Mary, and the district now called St. Mary's, from the parish of North Ferriby was effected." No part of the original structure exists at the present day.

About 1447 the church was greatly enlarged, and various chantries and obits were founded in connection with it in pre-Reformation times, as we learn from various ancient wills, preserved in the York registry. In 1518 the west end of the church "fell entirely down." Twenty-three years later, Henry VIII. came to Hull, and took up his residence at the Manor House, opposite. The earlier historians of the town all agree in stating that during this visit, Henry "pulled down the body of the building and steeple to the ground, as it intercepted his view from the palace, and converted the stone and materials to the enlargement and walling thereof, and to the use of the Blockhouse, so that there was nothing left standing but the chancel, which was saved by great entreaty of the town." Mr. Sheahan, Hull's latest historian, does not believe this story, and significantly asks, "What view?" adding "anyone who knows the locality would be puzzled to answer that question." No doubt a great part of the church remained in ruins till Henry found a use for the material, and this may have led to the tradition accepted by the earlier historians. At the Reformation this church shared Holy Trinity's fate, and lost its revenues. In 1588 the ruined building was considerably enlarged, and in 1696 the present tower was constructed. When the foundations of the latter were laid, "the foundations of the old church were found to run quite across the street, under the manor walls," thus showing that this church originally extended a considerable distance to the westward of its present tower, through the lower portion of which an arch has been pierced for the convenience of pedestrians. There is no doubt that the church, as it new stands, was merely the chancel of the original building.

In 1727 a peal of five bells was hung in the tower, through the exertions of William Wilberforce, the grandfather of the philanthropist. In 1843 a sixth bell was added. From 1860 to 1863 the church underwent a thorough restoration, both internally and externally, under the direction of Sir Gilbert Scott, at a cost of nearly 10,000. Since that time, however, large sums of money have been expended on the building, which is now one of the ornaments of the town, and further restorations of the tower are shortly to be commenced, under the direction of J. 0. Scott, Esq., the son of Sir Gilbert Scott, at the expense of an anonymous donor.

The fabric is of stone, varied in character, but principally in the Perpendicular style. The interior of the church is divided into four aisles by three arcades of six moulded arches, springing from finely clustered pillars. No two of the aisles are of the same breadth. Two bays at the east end are appropriated as the chancel. The reredos, of Cn stone, is in seven panels, the carving and workmanship of the whole being worthy of notice. The pulpit is of oak, and from the design of Sir Gilbert Scott. In the recess at the south-east angle stands the organ, a powerful instrument, built by Snetzler, in 1715, and restored some years ago by Messrs. Forster & Andrews. The stone font is octagon in shape, the sides being charged with quartrefoils, containing the ark, dove, sacred monogram and cross, alternated with foliage - a mass of elaborate decoration. The grandest feature of this church is the stained glass windows, which are 15 in number, and of the aggregate value of over 1,000. For uniformity of tone and delicacy of colour, they are almost unrivalled. There are few monuments in the church worthy of notice, though many of Hull's great and good men are interred either within or without its walls. The most remarkable is one of alabaster, over the north door, to the memory of Alderman William Dobson, who was sheriff in 1615, and mayor in 1647 and 1658. It consists of an effigy of Dobson within a niche, and bears a long Latin inscription. Over the south door is a memorial to the Rev. John Scott, who for upwards of 30 years was vicar of North Ferriby, and for 18 years minister of this church. It is of white marble, with an effigy of the deceased in clerical robes. Suspended on the east wall is an ancient sepulchral brass to the memory of Alderman John Haryson, who was mayor of Hull in 1537, and died in 1545. This brass, which is in excellent preservation, contains the effigies of a man with two wives and three children. The living of this church was held by three vicars of the same name - John Scott. The first was the eldest son of Thomas Scott, the commentator; the second was the restorer of the fabric; and the third the well-known Canon Scott, of Leeds. As a fitting acknowledgment of the labours, entailed by the restoration, the patron of the perpetual curacy, Mr. Abel Smith, M.P., transferred the advowson to the second named John Scott, soon after the renovation, so that the living is now in the hands of this family. The register dates from 1564. The church seats about 1,000 persons. The vicarage and parish room are directly behind the church, and the schools are in Salthouse Lane, close by. The living is a vicarage, of the yearly value of 469, with residence.

St. Mary's Church (Sculcoates), stands on Bank Side, at the corner of Air Street, and near the extremity of Wincolmlee, in the old village of Sculcoates, about two miles from the market-place of Hull, and was formerly the parish church of Sculcoates. In 1381, the advowson was given to the "prior and brethren of the Carthusian Monastery, juxta Kingston-super-Hull, and at the same time Alexander, Archbishop of York, ordained in the church a perpetual vicar, presentable by the prior and brethren." The old church had become so much decayed that, about 1760, it was taken down and replaced by the present one in a debased Gothic style. It consists of a nave, chancel, side aisles, and tower of four stages, and is entirely cased in compo. In 1875 it was thoroughly restored, at a cost of 1,000. An arcade of four bays separates the nave from the aisles. The east window is filled ,with stained glass, representing the Crucifixion. In the chancel is a fine old brass chandelier of 16 lights, of the Queen Anne period. The mural monuments are worthy of notice, some of them being the work of the sculptor Earle. One, especially, deserves attention, from its quaint appearance and unique character. It is a slab in the wall of the north aisle, containing an inscription in shorthand, which, when translated, reads thus : - " In a vault beneath this stone lies the body of Mrs. Jane Delamoth, who departed this life 10th January, 1761. She was a poor sinner, but not wicked without holiness, departing from good works, and departed in the faith of the Catholic Church, in the full assurance of eternal happiness, 'by the agony and bloody sweat, by the cross and passion, by the precious death and burial, by the glorious resurrection and ascension' of our Lord and Saviour, Jesus Christ. Amen." In the churchyard there is a curious old pillar, consisting of portions of ancient monumental slabs, said to have been obtained from the walls of the citadel, and, in all probability, originally taken from the White Friars' or Black Friars' monasteries at Hull at the Reformation. The parish register dates from 1571. A district is now assigned to this church, which has good voluntary schools on the bank of the river Hull. The living is a vicarage, in the gift of the vicar of Sculcoates, of the value of 200 per annum.

St. Matthew's Church occupies a commanding position on the Anlaby Road, at the corner of the Boulevard, and is surmounted by a tower and hexagonal spire, rising to the height of 156 feet. This church was built in 1870, at a cost of over 7,000. It is designed in the Early English style of architecture, and is built of white brick, with red brick and stone dressings. Internally, there are a chancel, nave, and aisles, the latter being separated from the nave by an arcade of six bays on each side. In the chancel is a good organ. The seats are of pitchpine, and will accommodate 800 persons. For some time past, a mission-room in Bean Street, has been connected with the church, which had a district for ecclesiastical purposes assigned to it in 1872. The vicarage is on the Boulevard, nearly opposite the church. There are no schools. The living is a vicarage of the annual value of 250, together with the offertory, in the gift of the vicar of Holy Trinity.

St. Paul's, St. Philip's, St. Silas'.

St. Paul's Church stands at the corner of the street of the same name and Cannon Street, and near to the station and terminus of the Hull and Barnsley railway. It was one of the earliest churches erected under Sir Robert Peel's Act (6 and 7 Vic., c. 37), and stands in a populous industrial district. In area it is next to Holy Trinity Church. It was built in 1847, at a cost of 8,000, and is in the Early English style of architecture, comprising a nave, with aisles and clerestory, a chancel, and square tower with octagonal belfry, topped by a conical roof. The church is solidly built, and of late years has been greatly improved. The interior is neat, and seats about 1,200 persons. An arcade of six arches on each side separates the nave from the aisles, the pillars being alternately circular and octagonal. The chancel is deep, and the east window, consisting of three lancet lights, is stained, as are the windows on the south side of the nave. Adjoining the church, and fronting St. Paul's Street, are the large schools, mission-rooms, and vicarage. These parochial buildings form a most compact block. Farther up St. Paul Street, and near to the Fountain Road end is the temporary Church of St. Clement's (a wooden building erected in Oct., 1879) which accommodates 400 worshippers, and is served by the clergy of St. Paul's. The living of St. Paul's is a vicarage, in the gift of the Crown and the Archbishop of York alternately, and is of the value of 300 per annum.

St. Philip's Church (or Trippett Church as it is often called) is in Charlotte Street, and was erected in 1881-2, though not consecrated until 1885. In consequence of the irregularity of the site, the church stands north and south, and consists of nave, aisle, and chancel, with semi-circular apse. It is of red brick, in the Early English style. The principal entrance is by the north porch, in Mason Street. The pulpit is of white and red stone, with carved diaper work and open arcade. There is a quaint open reredos, and pitchpine stalls and pews, affording accommodation for 590 persons. The total cost (excluding site, which was the gift of Mr. R. Jackson) was 4,900. A vicarage was erected in 1888, at the corner of Bourne Street, a few yards distant from the church, at a cost of 1,650, exclusive of site. The schools are in Mason Street. Efforts are being put forth to build a mission-room and Sunday school in New George Street, a favourable site having been secured, and a considerable amount collected for the erection of suitable buildings. The living is a vicarage, in the gift of trustees, of the yearly value of 233.

St. Silas' Church is in Barmston Street, Sculcoates, in the midst of a poor and thickly populated neighbourhood. It is designed in the Gothic style of the 12th century, and is built of red stock bricks, with blue Staffordshire brick bands and tracery. It consists of an apsidal chancel, nave with clerestory, aisles, vestry, and organ chamber. The columns of the arcades, separating the nave from the aisle, are of Bath stone, and there is a large rose window over the west entrance. The interior has a light and elegant appearance, and is seated for about 600 persons. The church was built in 1870, and with the vicarage adjoining it, cost 5,860. The living is a vicarage, of the annual value of 235, and house, in the gift of the Archbishop of York.

St. Stephen's, St. Thomas'.

St. Stephen's Church, situated in the square of the same name, off Park Street, was erected in 1844. The building, which is entirely of cut stone, is in the Early English style of architecture, and consists of a nave, aisles, transepts, and an apse, or small chancel, with an elegant tower and spire at the west end which rises to a height of 200 feet. There are finely-arched doorways in the tower, divided into two compartments by cylinders, and surmounted by a series of small arches. Above these are lofty three-light louvre windows, which occupy the main portion; at the angles are graceful flying buttresses. The side walls are divided by buttresses, with pinnacles, and single-light windows, into four bays, and the gable ends of the transepts are surmounted by octagonal turrets. The interior is very neat. The aisles are separated from the nave by four arches on each side, supported by clustered, columns of stone, with moulded bases and capitals. There are spacious galleries at the west end of the church and in the transepts. Around the apse is an arcade of fifteen arches, occupied by the Decalogue, the Lord's Prayer, and Apostles' Creed, in illuminated characters. There is a fine organ in the west gallery, and in the tower a peal of eight bells, and an excellent clock with four dials and quarter chimes. The church seats 1,200 persons. The vicarage is in Park Street, adjoining the Hull and East Riding College. The schools are in Collier Street and Spring Street. The living is a vicarage, yearly value 300, in the gift of the vicar of Holy Trinity.

St. Thomas' Church, situate in Campbell Street, off Anlaby Road, was consecrated in 1882. Before it was built an iron church was used, which at present serves as a mission room for the parish. The church, which is of brick, consists of a nave and aisles, double transepts in the north and south aisles, an apsidal-ended chancel, with vestry and organ chamber on the south side, and a porch and lofty octagonal bell turret on the north. A noticeable feature of the church is that the aisles are comparatively narrow, and the walls unpierced by any windows, the church being lighted chiefly by the clerestory windows. There is an excellent organ, the gift of the late Colonel Saner, J.P. There are seats for 750 persons. The vicarage, purchased in 1886, is on the Anlaby Road. There are no schools attached to this parish. The living is a vicarage of the yearly value of 400, in the gift of the vicar of Holy Trinity.

The Seamen's Mission Hall

The Seamen's Mission Hall, in Posterngate, was built in 1886, at the expense of Mr. C. H. Wilson, M.P. for West Hull. It is a neat building, and is situated directly opposite the Board of Trade Offices, "where" sailors "most do congregate," for the purpose of being "paid off" and "signing on," on their leaving and joining their ships. This hall will accommodate 300 persons. It contains a number of small ante-rooms, and a residence for the caretaker. During the week it is used as 'a reading-room and institute, and on Sundays for divine service. In connection with the missions to seamen is the Jubilee Institute at the Alexandra Dock.

St. Mathias' Mission Room.

St. Mathias' Mission Room, in Castle Street, is a temporary structure, and intended to lead to the erection of a church of that name, as a church-of-ease to Holy Trinity.

The Roman Catholic Churches: St Charles, St Mary, St Patrick.

THE ROMAN CATHOLICS have three churches in Hull, and a fourth will shortly be added, the site having been secured - on the Boulevard, between the Anlaby and Hessle Roads - the plans prepared, and the money in hand. Efforts are also being put forth for the erection of a grand central church, worthy of a Faith that counts some 15,000 followers in the town. The earliest known chapel connected with this church in Hull, since the Reformation, was one mentioned by Tickell in his "History of Hull," published in 1796. This chapel, which stood in Posterngate, on the site of the present Local Marine Board offices, was destroyed by a fanatical mob at the time of the Gordon "No Popery" riots in 1780. Hadley (who wrote in 1778) informs us that the Catholics afterwards worshipped "in a room on the north side of Holy Trinity church, and that they subsequently met in Church Lane." In 1796, Catholicity found a home in the fourth story of the first house on the left side of Leadenhall Square, entering from Lowgate. The congregation of those days did not number more that 15 persons. They possessed no resident priest, but were visited by the priest at Burton Constable at intervals of a month or six weeks. Like many other places, Hull is indebted to the French Revolution for the permanent re-establishment of Catholicity. In 1790, the Abbe Foucher, a French refugee, came to Hull to minister to the Catholics, and on the 20th of March, laid the foundation stones of a small chapel and house in North Street, and the same year the Archbishop of Aix celebrated High Mass in the new place of worship. Father Foucher lived five years at his own expense, and with what he gave to the building of the church and house, spent altogether a sum of 2,000. In 1820 he returned to France, and in his own words, "left behind him to his successor a numerous congregation and a fine establishment." It is an interesting fact that the picture of the Nativity over the pulpit in St. Charles' church was brought by Father Foucher from France, and still bears the marks of the bayonets of the French revolutionists. Increasing prosperity attended the Catholics, and in 1826 they purchased a piece of ground in Jarratt Street, upon which they erected the present church of St. Charles. This edifice was opened with solemn High Mass on the 29th of July, 1829, upon which occasion there were twelve priests present. In 1835, the church having received considerable additions, both internally and externally, was re-opened with splendid ceremonials; High Mass was celebrated by the Bishop of Europum, and there were sixteen priests in the sanctuary. The next step in the march of progress was the erection of St. Mary's school-chapel, in Wilton Street, for the Catholics east of the river Hull. This building, which cost 3,500, was opened on October 8th, 1856, and continued to be used as a church until 1891. The next great work in connection with Catholicity here was the introduction of the Sisters of Mercy in 1857, who were first located in a private mansion on the Anlaby Road. This was followed by the erection of a Boys' school in Pryme Street, in 1863; of St. Patrick's chapel and schools in Mill Street, in 1870; and of St. Mary's church, Wilton Street, in 1890.

St. Charles' Church is in Jarratt Street. The front is in the Florentine style, and is cemented to imitate stone. Within the tympanum is a shield bearing, in bold relief, the arms of St. Charles Borromeo, the whole being surmounted by a large stone cross. The interior is finished in the Grecian style of architecture. The walls are wainscotted to a considerable height, and the windows are placed very high, below them being a coloured cornice supported by pilasters in couples. At the north end is a gallery, in which is a fine organ, and the south end is occupied by the sanctuary, which is richly decorated. The high altar, of Cn stone and marble, is very handsome, and is a memorial to the late Rev. Dean Trappes, who was rector of this church from 1848 to 1873. The side altars are also of Cn stone and marble, that of Our Lady being particularly ornate. The entablature which rises above the high altar is supported by four fluted columns, and the whole is surmounted by a representation of the Holy Trinity. Between the pillars are statues of St. Charles and St. Joseph, erected in 1884, to commemorate the ter-centenary of St. Charles. The only Catholic ordination service ever held in Hull took place in this church on 30th November, 1890. The schools are in Pryme Street and Scott Street.

St. Mary's Church, in Wilton Street, is designed in the Early English style of architecture, and consists of a nave 65 feet by 22 feet wide, with north and south aisles, 10 feet wide, which terminate at the east end in side chapels. The sanctuary has a circular apse, and is divided from the nave by a lofty arch, resting on a cluster of polished marble shafts, with richly carved capitals, of Early English pattern, and moulded bands and bases. The nave is divided on either side from the aisles by an arcade of four bays of moulded arches and labels on stone columns. In the spandrils of the arches are circular panels with angels in attitudes of devotion, and above the arcade is a clerestory lighted by lancet-shaped windows. The nave is laid with wood blocks, in a herringbone pattern, whilst the sanctuary is laid with encaustic tiles, and the steps to the pridella are of polished Sicilian marble. The altar rails are of white Ancaster stone, with polished alabaster rails. There are a large sacristy and two confessionals. The six windows of the sanctuary are filled with stained glass. The high altar consists of arcaded niches, containing six large statues of saints. The pulpit, which is a very fine one, and the font are of Ancaster stone, beautifully carved and enriched with green marble columns. The west elevation is the principal feature. The two stone doorways are under one deeply recessed moulded brick arch, in the centre of which is a representation of Our Lord, crowned with thorns, and on either side spandrils of richly carved foliage. Over this arch is a crocketed gable, in the apex of which is a carved niche, containing a statue of the Madonna and Child. Rising above this there is a deeply recessed triplet window, with stone columns and carved capitals. The church will accommodate 500 persons, and cost 2,000. It was built in 1890-1, from designs of Messrs. Smith & Brodrick, and Mr. Arthur Lowther, the joint architects. A new organ was added in February, 1892. Adjoining the church are the schools which, until the erection of the present church, were used for the dual purposes of a school and chapel. It is a neat red brick structure, in the Early English style.

St. Patrick's Church, in Mill Street, is a chapel-of-ease to St. Charles. It is built of red brick, in the Early English style of architecture, and has a bell turret at the north-west corner. It is of two stories, the lower one being used as schools conducted by the Sisters of Mercy. The chapel is on the first floor, and has an open timbered roof. The altar is of pitchpine, panelled, and above it hangs a large and valuable oil painting, representing the Adoration of the Magi. The organ, formerly in St. Charles's, has been cased in pitchpine to correspond with the other furnishings which, throughout, are of the same wood.

The Convent.

The Convent of Our Lady of Mercy is on the Anlaby Road, and is a substantial Gothic building of red brick, with stone dressings, three stories in height. The front elevation presents, in the centre, a large but plain block of buildings, with three tiers of six windows each; at the east angle is a tower, and at the west a gable, beneath which is a stone niche. There is a chapel at the northwest angle, with a richly adorned sanctuary. In the rear are the schools, which accommodate 600 girls and infants in the elementary classes, and 40 select pupils are taught in another portion of the building. The present convent was erected in 1874. All the pupil teachers employed both here and in the schools at Mill Street, Wilton Street, and in the infants' school at Pryme Street, reside here. The number of children under the care of the sisters is over 1,500. There are branch houses subject to this convent at Beverley, Whitby, and North Ormsby, near Middlesbrough.

Congregationalists.

CONGREGATIONALISTS have seven churches in Hull. Nonconformity appears to have flourished in Hull for upwards of two centuries and a half, the first congregation of Protestant Dissenters being constituted on the 22nd May, 1643, Philip Nye, one of "the five pillars of the Independent party," being the pastor. A pamphlet, entitled "Hull's Pillar of Providence," published in 1644, shows that it was a place of refuge to many persecuted families.

About 1650, John Canne, a writer and preacher of the more advanced type, came to Hull, and he succeeded, literally, in "dividing" the church, for it was to accommodate the Parliamentary garrison (with whom he was a favourite preacher) that the arches between the body of Holy Trinity Church and the chancel were walled up, one part being allotted to the Independents and the other to the Presbyterians, and the church continued thus divided until the Restoration. The Independents met until 1698, for worship, in Prince Street. In this year, a church was built in Dagger Lane, on ground presented to the congregation by one John Watson. This chapel throve till 1767, when ten influential members (including three deacons) left the church, and built a chapel off Blanket Row, which was opened in 1769. In 1773 the chapel had to be enlarged, and in 1782 the congregation had so increased that a new site was bought in Fish Street, upon which the still existing chapel was erected. This chapel was enlarged in 1802, and in 1862 it was renovated and the front stuccoed. After Fish Street comes Hope Street Chapel, built in 1797, as a branch of the new Dagger Lane Church, in Lady Huntingdon's Connexion. The interior is neat and comfortable. There are galleries round three sides, and an organ loft on the fourth. It will accommodate 1,500 worshippers. Salem Chapel, Cogan Street, was formed in 1832 by 10 members from Fish Street, and in the following year the chapel was built. The story of this church is largely the biography of the late Rev. James Sibree, who was its minister for 50 years, and died in 1892. The interior has a gallery all round, and there are seats for 900 persons. In 1841, some members of the Fish Street congregation formed Albion Church. While the chapel was in progress of construction, a student from Highbury College preached one Sunday, and he became its first minister. This was the now celebrated preacher Newman Hall. The front is a massive cut stone Doric portico, of six fluted columns, raised on a basement 10 feet high, and approached by a broad flight of steps. The rest of the building is of white brick, with stone window frames. The interior is fitted up on a style corresponding to its exterior. The galleries are supported by Grecian columns, and the organ is enclosed in a case, the design of which accords with the architecture of the church. Wycliffe Church, on the Anlaby Road, is a handsome edifice, in the Early Decorated style of architecture, opened in 1868. It consists of nave and transepts, with a tower and spire of Geometrical design. In the front is a large five-light traceried window, with a single light on each side, and underneath are two doorways, with moulded arches springing from foliated shafts. The interior is filled with stalls, and the transepts have galleries as well as the north front. The church cost 9,000, and has accommodation for 1,150 persons. Latimer Church, in Williamson Street, is a neat Gothic structure, built in 1875, of red brick with black bands. There is a small spire at the north-east angle. It affords accommodation for 500 worshippers. The Hessle Road Church is a neat red brick structure, erected in 1817, at the corner of Strickland Street. The building is designed in the Geometrical style of Gothic architecture, with nave and transepts, and will seat 850 persons. The school immediately adjoins the chapel, and opens from it, and contiguous thereto is ample class and vestry accommodation. The site and building cost 6,500. A new organ, by Forster & Andrews, was erected in 1888, by subscription. The internal woodwork is of fir, lightly stained and varnished.

The Methodists: Wesleyan, The New Connexion, Primitive.

THE WESLEYAN METHODISTS. - "The people called Methodists" first met for worship in a portion of the tower of the Suffolk Palace, in Manor Alley. When this tower was removed, a building was erected close to it, which bore the following inscription "This Preaching House was built by the people called Methodists, 1771, Pro bone publico." This "preaching house" was opened by John Wesley himself, in 1772. The Hull Circuit was separated from Scarborough in 1775. The original chapel is still in existence, and is used as a warehouse. The congregation increasing in a few years, this place was found too small, and in 1786 George Yard chapel was erected, and was opened two years later by the founder of the sect, who states in his journal that he "preached to as many as could get in." Since that time the Hull Methodists have spent upwards of 70,000 in erecting chapels and schools in the town. In 1839 the "Hull Circuit" was divided into "east" and "west," the river Hull forming the boundary. In 1872 the "west" Circuit was divided into the Great Thornton Street and Waltham Street Circuits, and in 1885 the latter was again divided - Queen's Road being made the head of a fourth town circuit. George Yard Chapel lies between High Street and Lowgate, nearly opposite the Town Hall. It is a spacious brick edifice, with stone dressings, lying lengthwise towards the street, and having a line of seven windows in the upper story. The first Hull theatre stood on the site of this chapel. The congregation, once large and wealthy, is now considerably reduced, owing to very many of its members having gone to reside in the newer suburbs. Scott Street Chapel was erected in 1793, and enlarged in 1860. A few years ago a new organ was added, and the chapel re-decorated. There is accommodation for 500 persons. Waltham Street Chapel, a brick building of no great pretensions, was opened in 1815. One event in the history of this place will long be remembered. In this pulpit, on Sunday, 21st January, 1855, Dr. Beaumont, after giving out the first verse of hymn 316, fell back and expired. The interior was re-decorated in 1889. Humber Street chapel was built in 1832, but towards the end of 1886, the congregation had so dwindled down, owing to the tendency of "respectability" towards the suburbs, that it was seriously proposed to sell the chapel. A special meeting was called, which resulted in the interior being re-modelled for mission purposes, and the name changed to the Wesley Hall. Much good, especially in the cause of Temperance, has resulted from these changes. Kingston Chapel is in Witham, and is the largest Methodist chapel in the town. Built in 1841, it cost some 8,000, and will seat 1,600 persons. The front is of cut stone, and exhibits a bold pediment, resting on four massive pillars of the Doric order. There is a large gallery round the chapel, in which is placed an organ of large dimensions. There are extensive schools in the rear, and at the west side of the chapel. Great Thornton Street Chapel has a faade of a completeness and beauty unparalled in Methodism. It was erected in 1842, at a cost of 7,000. This splendid structure, which is in the Corinthian style of architecture, is approached by a broad flight of steps. The main front, which is of Hare Hill stone, is composed of a magnificent portico, the pediment being supported by a line of eight finely fluted pillars, with enriched capitals, and the loggia, in which are the entrances, is supported in the centre by two circular pillars. Two wings, at some distance from the centre, are connected by open arcades or galleries, the roofs of which are supported by two lines of handsome pillars of the Ionic order. The entire frontage is 160 feet in length; the portico is 66 feet wide, and the apex of the pediment rises to a height of 56 feet. The columns are 30 feet high and three feet in diameter. Internally, it is elegantly and chastely fitted up, in harmony with the external appearance. It has recently been renovated, at a cost of 2,000. This chapel is known as the Conference chapel, owing to the sittings of the Conference, when in Hull, being held here. Beverley Road Chapel is a handsome building in the Decorated Gothic style of architecture. It was built in 1862, at a cost of about 7,500. The front elevation is divided by buttresses into three spaces, having an arched doorway in each. Above the central doorway is a five-mullioned window, with rich tracery, and the gable is surmounted by an octagonal turret and a small spire. The front is 112 feet wide, and stands 45 feet from the road. It is built of white brick, and the ornamental masonry and dressings are of stone. The interior is fitted with pitchpine, and has a pleasing appearance, the chief feature being the fine organ, which was exhibited in the Exhibition of 1862, by Messrs. Forster & Andrews. It has 2,000 pipes. Several convenient class-rooms have recently been added, at a cost of 1,000. Coltman Street Chapel was built in 1872, at a cost of 8,000. It is the only example in Hull of a purely Gothic Wesleyan chapel, consisting of nave, and north and south transepts. It has a handsome organ, in an oak case, by Forster & Andrews, which cost 800. The pulpit, also of oak, beautifully carved, was the gift of the Holmes family, in memory of their father, the late Thomas Holmes. There is an entrance from Bean Street. Queen's Road Chapel is on the Beverley Road, at its juncture with Queen's Road, and was built in 1878, at a cost of 9,000. The chapel stands in an excellent position, and the interior is tastefully fitted. It is built of white brick, with stone dressings, in the Italian style. It has a neat front, consisting of three arches, formed by two circular and two square pillars, with floriated capitals, surmounted by a pediment. Brunswick Chapel, in the Holderness Road, is built after the same style, and internally presents a bright, cheerful appearance, the seats being very conveniently arranged. The Sunday school premises at the rear are the most perfectly adapted to their purposes of any in the town. There are 25 class-rooms, each opening from the floor or the gallery of the large assembly hall, which is beautifully lighted and ventilated. The superintendent's desk is connected with a system of electric bells running through the class-rooms, so that the classes can be summoned to the hall without delay. Besides these class-rooms and a comfortable infant school, there is a cosy ladies' parlour, elegantly furnished, and used for the young women's Bible class, and other church purposes. St. George's Road Chapel stands at the junction of that wide and pleasant thoroughfare with the Hessle Road. It was built in 1883, at a cost of 4,000, and seats 750 persons. It is built of red brick, with red stone dressings, in the Classic style. There are smaller chapels or mission halls in Oxford Street, Groves, Lower Union Street, Dairycoates, West Parade, Hamilton Place, Dansom Lane, Stoneferry, Marfleet, Newtown, Raikes Street, and Newland. Land has been secured fronting the Anlaby Road, in the Newington district, for the erection of a chapel in the near future.

THE METHODIST NEW CONNEXION. - This body of Methodists was the first secession from the Wesleyans, the division occuring in 1797, and within two years, we find them erecting a chapel in Hull. This was Bethel Chapel, in Charlotte Street. It was opened in 1799, and renovated in 1865. It has a neat front, with pilasters, pediment, and a porticoed entrance. Neatness and comfort are the characteristics of the interior. There is accommodation for 1,400 persons. Stepney Chapel, on the Beverley road, is a neat Gothic building of white brick, with dressings of red brick and stone. It will seat 600 worshippers. There is also a small chapel in Osborne Street, with sittings for 800 people. This chapel was erected by the Baptists, in 1823.

PRIMITIVE METHODISTS - The Rev. William Clowes, one of the founders of this body, came to Hull on the 15th January, 1819, to establish a missionary centre, and he tells us that he preached the same evening in the old factory in North Street, where lay preachers had been holding services for some time previously. The first "quarterly board" of the society in Hull, was held on the 13th September, 1819. All the country, nearly as far as York, has been "missioned" from Hull. West Street Chapel was the first erected, and was opened in April, 1819. The exterior is plain, but the interior is comfortably fitted up. Great Thornton Street Chapel was erected in 1849, and was again rebuilt about 1858, owing to the first structure having been destroyed by fire. It has a good front with recessed portico, supported by two fine Doric columns, and finishing with a pediment. It is of brick, with stone dressings. The interior is neat, and will seat 900 persons. Clowes' Chapel, Jarratt Street, was opened in 1851, and is built of brick in the modified Italian style, with pilasters, having stone cornices, architraves, and pediment. The interior is galleried, and will seat 1,400 people. Holderness Road Chapel was built in 1863, at a cost of 4,300, in Italian style, of red and white brick, with stone finishings. The front exhibits two side tower-like wings, and a deeply recessed centre, containing the entrances, which is approached by a bold flight of steps. There is accommodation for 1,100 people. Jubilee Chapel, Spring Bank, is practically a copy of the last-mentioned chapel, and was built in the same year, at a cost of 4,500. Lincoln Street Chapel is built in the Gothic style, with transepts, and affords accommodation for about 700 hearers. Bourne Chapel, Anlaby Road, was built in 1869, at a cost of 7,500. It is a neat building of white brick, with stone dressings in the Gothic style. Internally it is a most comfortable place of worship, and will accommodate 1,350 worshippers. The Henry Hedge Memorial Chapel, Williamson Street, was erected in 1872. It is built of white brick, and has two good entrance doors, and semicircular-headed windows. The interior is well arranged, and there is accommodation for 1,300 people. Hessle Road Chapel was erected in 1881, at a cost of 4,136. It is in the Romanesque style, and is built of white brick, with stone dressings. Fountain Road Chapel, which was built in 1878, at a cost of 4,000, affords accommodation for 800 persons. Ebenezer Chapel, on the Spring Bank, is a fine white brick building with stone dressings, having a Greco-Italian front capped with pyramids. St. George's Road Chapel is a neat red brick structure erected in 1889. The town is divided into four circuits.

The Presbyterian Church of England.

THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OF ENGLAND has churches in Prospect Street, Spring Bank, and the Holderness Road. The first-named was built in 1866, for the Rev. A. Jukes, who seceded from the Church of England, and it was subsequently purchased by the Presbyterians. It is a beautiful Gothic structure of the Geometrical style, and comprises, nave, with side aisles, an apsidal chancel, transepts, and a tower on the south side. The exterior is of Bradford stone, rock faced. The principal entrance is in the west front, which is gabled, and contains a beautiful circular or rose window, rich in tracery. In the interior the aisles are divided from the nave by an arcade of six pointed arches on each side. This church cost 10,000, and will accommodate 1,000 persons. The other two churches are of red brick, in the Gothic style of architecture. Land has been purchased for the erection of another church in the Newington District, the building operations in connection with which will shortly commence.

The Lutheran Churches.

The German Lutheran Church, Nile Street, a brick building, erected in 1827, was purchased in 1859 for its present use, having been previously used, at different times, by several denominations. The purchase was made by foreign residents in Hull, for the use of sailors who throng the port. The interior is neatly pewed, and has galleries on three sides.

The Danish Lutheran Church of St. Nicoli is in Osborne Street, and was consecrated' in 1871. It is built of red brick, in the Gothic style, and consists of a nave, with apsidal chancel. The entrance is through the tower, which is surmounted by a belfry and spirelet. The chancel contains an arcaded reredos in nine compartments, and is lighted by three stained windows. This church, which seats 300 persons, was erected for the benefit of the Danish and other Scandinavian residents in Hull, and of the many foreign seamen who come to the port.

The Baptists.

THE BAPTISTS. - In 1736, a few families in Hull, numbering 18 persons, adopted the tenets of the sect called Baptists, and held their meetings for public worship in Manor Alley, in the old tower of the Suffolk Palace. George Street Chapel was erected in 1794. The front is stuccoed, and contains two doors and four windows in the lower story, and six in the upper one. The interior is galleried all round. South Street Chapel was erected in 1840. It is a brick edifice with cemented front, and is approached by a flight of steps, to a porticoed entrance. The interior is neat and convenient. The vestries and schools are in the basement. Baptist Tabernacle, Trafalgar Street. - This church was formed in July, 1885, in what was formerly the Temperance Hall, St. Luke Street. This hall becoming inadequate to the requirements of the congregation, they removed, in 1888, to the Central Hall, Pryme Street, where they used the large hall for worship on Sundays and a smaller room twice a week - but here they were disturbed on the week-day nights, in the winter months, by the sounds of music and dancing in the large hall. They therefore determined on the erection of a tabernacle for themselves, and ultimately secured, in 1890, a splendid site on the Beverley Road, at the corner of Trafalgar Street. It consists of 1,675 square yards, and the price paid was 1,600. Designs were at once prepared for a new church and school, to be erected at a cost of 6,000, but as the whole scheme was too large to be taken up at once, it was decided to erect the lecture hall and class-rooms facing Trafalgar Street. This portion of the scheme is being carried out, the foundation stone having been laid on the 19th October, 1891, by Mr. C. H. Wilson, M.P. It is expected that the building - which is a neat red brick edifice - will be completed and opened in March of the present year (1892). The carrying out of the entire design, by the erection of the church itself, to face the Beverley Road, is deferred until sufficient funds are in hand to warrant the undertaking. In the meantime, the pastor and members are very thankful to have a home of their own, though it only embraces a portion of their scheme. The cost of the portion new being built is about 1,800.

Others: Quakers, Unitarian, New Jeruselem, Calvanists etc.

The Friends' Meeting House, in Mason Street, is a commodious building erected in 1880. Connected with this place of worship is a large adult school.

The Unitarian Church, in Park Street, was erected in 1882, at a cost of 4,000. It is of white brick, with stone dressings, and has a spire at the northeast angle. The fine east window is filled with stained glass. The members of this church formerly worshipped in Bowlalley Lane, in the chapel since converted into Lincoln's Inn Buildings. That chapel was the oldest dissenting place of worship in Hull, having been a Presbyterian chapel as far back as 1662. This church has a valuable library, bequeathed by Mr. Leonard Chamberlain, in 1716. It contains some rare and valuable editions of the classics. There is also a volume of sermons of the Rev. S. Charliss, preached in the Bowlalley Lane Chapel, from 1689 to 1695. There are several endowments connected with this church.

The New Jerusalem Church is on the Spring Bank, and is a neat red brick edifice, with a spirelet, in the Gothic style of architecture. The Calvinists have a small chapel in Walker Street; and the Plymouth Brethren, the Catholic Apostolics, the Christian Pioneers, the Peculiar Baptists, and the United Christian Bands worship in various temporary premises in the town.

The Methodist Free Church.

METHODIST FREE CHURCH, or Wesleyan Reformers, have two chapels here. Campbell Street Chapel was erected in 1866, at a cost of 2,566. It is built of white brick, relieved by red bands and arches, and is in the Gothic style. There is another chapel in Wilde Street, which seats 200 people.

The Salvation Army.

The SALVATION ARMY has seven places of worship here. The East Riding Divisional Head Quarters are in Queen Street, and was formerly the Victoria Rooms (opened on the day of the queen's coronation, in 1837, as a public assembly hall). These rooms afford accommodation for 500 persons. The Barracks, in Cambridge Street will seat 2,000. This building, which was formerly an ice-house, has recently been sold by the Army, and will shortly be converted into a people's palace and art gallery. The Citadel, in Westmoreland Street, seats 2,500, and is built of red brick, in the form of a military erection. The Barracks, in Madeley, erected in 1888, is a neat structure of red brick, with black bands, and will seat 800. The Red Fort, in Cogan, seats 250. The Barracks, in Naylor's Row, affords sittings for 700 persons, and the Marlborough Terrace Battery accommodates 250.

The Jews.

The JEWS. - The Hebrew congregation had their first synagogue in Hull in Posterngate. The building had been previously a Catholic chapel, which was completely wrecked during the "Gordon Riots," in 1780. The Jews, having procured a lease of the ruined chapel, restored and fitted it up as a place of worship for themselves. The building was situated nearly opposite Dagger Lane. Another synagogue was subsequently opened on the site of the present Prince's Dock, and for several years there were two Jewish congregations, but afterwards uniting in one body, the Jews purchased a site in Robinson Row, on which they erected a synagogue in 1826, which was rebuilt in 1852. The general style of the interior is noted for its plainness. The body of the building is fitted with plain old-fashioned pews, and round the sides are small galleries for female worshippers. At the east end, beneath a handsome portico, is the Holy Ark. Above this is a semicircular stained-glass window, and before it depends the perpetual lamp and sick veil, or curtain. The synagogue is lighted from the roof. In 1887 another synagogue was opened, in School Street, Waltham Street, and is chiefly used by foreign Jews. The Hebrew congregation possesses a burial ground at Marfleet, which was opened in 1858.

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