"NORTHALLERTON, a parish, post and market town, municipal and parliamentary borough, in the wapentake of Allertonshire, North Riding county York, 3; miles from Old Herington, 8 from Bedale, and 221 from London. It is a station on the North-Eastern railway. It is situated in a valley to the E. of the old Roman road, Ermine Street, and is crossed from E. to W. by the small stream Sun Beek, a feeder of the river Wiske, which bounds the parish on the W. It includes the townships of Brompton, Deighton, High-Worsall, Romanby, and Northallerton, besides the extra-parochial liberty of Lazenby. This place was a Roman station and subsequently a Saxon borough, and is mentioned as Alreton and Alvertune in Domesday Book, the prefix having been added to distinguish it from Allerton Mauleverer. It was given by William Rufus to the bishops of Durham, whose castle, in 1318, was burnt by Robert Bruce. The celebrated battle of the Standard was fought at Cowton Moor, in this parish, in 1138, between the English and the Scotch, under their king, David, commanded by Ralph, Bishop of the Orkney Islands, Walter l'Espec, and W. d'Albemarle, in which the latter suffered a total defeat, with the loss of 11,000 men. The spot on which the Standard was erected is Still called Standard Hill, and the holes into which the dead were thrown, Scots' Pits. In 1318 the town was surprised and burnt by the Scots. In 1745 the English army, under the command of the Duke of Cumberland, encamped on the Castle hills previously to their marching against the Pretender. The town, which is a borough by prescription, is governed by the bishop's bailiff, who is returning officer. It returned two members to parliament, once in the reign of Edward I., but not again till 1640, and since the passing of the Reform Bill it has returned but one. The new borough includes the townships of Northallerton and Romanby, and the chapelry of Brompton. The town principally consists of one long and wide street, which is well paved and lighted with gas. It includes the butchers' shambles, a market-cross, toll-booth, and several good shops. The petty sessions are held every Wednesday at the sessions house, in which the general quarter sessions for the North Riding and the county court are also held. To the W. of the sessions house is the registrar's office for the North Riding, where the Bishop of Durham, as high bailiff of the whole liberty and lord of the manor of Northallerton, was wont to hold his courts. There are three commercial banks, a savings-bank, and a mechanics' institution. The chief trade of the town is in agricultural produce, but brick-making, malting, and tanning are also carried on to a large extent. In the vicinity of the town are vestiges of the fortified palace of the bishops of Durham; also ruins of Bishop Hatfield's priory for White Canons or Carmelites, founded in 1354, and dedicated to St. Mary; traces of an Austin friary, founded about 1341, by William de Alverton or Allerton, and the site of St. James's Hospital, about a mile from the town, the revenue of which at the Dissolution was returned at £58 10s. 10d. It has long given name to a district called Allertonshire, now constituting the wapentake and liberty, and is the head of aPoor-law Union comprising 44 parishes and places. The population district contained 12,174 inhabitants in 1861, but the parish only 4,980. It is the seat of superintendent registry and new County Court districts, which nearly coincide with the Poor-law Union. It is also a polling place for the election of knights of the shire for the North Riding. It gave title of viscount to George I. before his accession to the English throne. The tithes were commuted for land under an Enclosure Act in 1772, except for the manors of Allerton and Flaxby, Clareton, and Coneystrop. The glebe attached to the living comprises about 200 acres. The living is a vicarage* with the curacy of Deighton annexed, in the diocese of York, value £697, in the patronage of the Dean and Chapter of Durham. The church, dedicated to All Saints, is an ancient cruciform stone structure in the Norman and later English styles of architecture, with a square tower rising from the centre, crowned with pinnacles at the angles, and containing a clock and six bells. In addition to the parish church there are two district churches at Brompton and High Worsall, the livings of which are perpetual curacies, value £120 and £80 respectively, and a chapel-of-ease at Deighton. The parochial charities produce about £165 per annum, including the bequest of the Rev. John Kettlewell, which now realises £60, appropriated to the support of the National schools, and to various other purposes. There is also a hospital, or Maison de Dieu, for 13 poor persons of either sex, founded by Richard de Moore in 1476. The free grammar school is of royal foundation, and has a small endowment. At this school, Mr. Rymer, editor of the "Foedera," Rev. J. Kettlewell, a divine, Archbishop Palliser, Dr. George Hickes, Dean of Worcester, and author of the "Thesaurus Septentrionalium Linguaram," Dr. Thomas Burnet, master of the Charter House, London, and Dr. Radcliffe, were pupils. There are besides National and Sunday schools. The Wesleyans, Independents, and Baptists have each a place of worship. The tolls of this parish belong to the Bishop of Ripon. Vestiges of a military road leading from Derventio, now Alby, through this town, to Catterick, may still be traced. Races take place annually. Market day is Wednesday. Fairs are held on the 7th and 14th February, 5th and 6th May, and 3rd and 4th October, for the sale of horses, cattle, and Sheep, and for cheese on the second Wednesday in October."
"BROMPTON, a chapelry in the parish of Northallerton, and wapentake of Allertonshire, in the North Riding of the county of York, 2 miles to the N. of Northallerton. It is a station on the North-Eastern railway. Westward of the village is, Standard Hill, where the famous battle of the Standard was fought between the Snots and English in 1138, and in which the former, under their king, David I., were defeated. The inhabitants of the village are chiefly employed in the linen manufacture. The living is a perpetual curacy in the diocese of York, worth £120, in the gift of the Dean and Chapter of Durham. The Wesleyans and Primitive Methodists have chapels here. There are some charities of trifling value."
"DEIGHTON, a chapelry in the parish of Northallerton, wapentake of Allertonshire, in the North Riding of the county of York, 4½ miles N.W. of Northallerton, and 1 mile W. of Welbury station. The living is a curacy in the diocese of York, annexed to the vicarage of Northallerton. There is a chapel of ease and a National School."
"HIGH WORSALL, a chapelry in the parish of Northallerton, wapentake of Allertonshire, North Riding county York, 4 miles S.W. of Yarm, and 10 N.E. of Northallerton."
"ROMANBY, a township and village in the parish of Northallerton, wapentake of Allertonshire, North Riding county York, half a mile S.W. of Northallerton, its nearest railway station and post town. The village, which is of small extent, is situated on the Great North of England railway. It derived its name from the Roman way to Stamford Bridge."
The National Gazetteer of Great Britain and Ireland
by Colin Hinson ©2013