"PICKERING, a parish, post and market town in the wapentake of Pickering Lythe, North Riding county York, 10¾ miles from Malton, and 26 to the N.E. of York. It is a station on the Rillington and Whitby branch of the North-Eastern railway. It is situated in a vale near the moors, on a stream called Pickering Beck, which flows to the river Derwent. The parish, which extends 20 miles in length by 3 in breadth, includes the following townships -Goathland, Pickering Marishes, Newton, and Kingthorpe. The town, which is long and straggling, is situated on a declivity, and is of great antiquity, having been founded, according to tradition, by Peridurus, a British king, 270 years before the commencement of the Christian era. It returned members to parliament in Edward I.'s time, and had a castle of great strength, in which Richard II. was imprisoned after his deposition. It is a petty sessions town, the magistrates meeting once a month at the Black and White Swan Inns alternately. It is also the head of an honour in the Duchy of Lancaster, having jurisdiction throughout the Lythe and wapentake, which are coextensive, including 2 market towns and 46 townships. The board of guardians meet every alternate Monday at the workhouse, and manor courts are held twice annually. There are two banks, a savings-bank, mechanics' institute, &c. The staple trade of the town is in agricultural produce. There are also two foundries, and an agricultural implement manufactory, which together employ many hands. On the moor at Rawcliffe Hill are extensive Roman encampments, where urns have been discovered, and in the vicinity are numerous ancient barrows. The Kildhead Spring is about half a mile distant from the town, and forms the source of the river Castar, upon the banks of which, and upon the Old Beck stream, are several flour mills. From Castle Hill a view is obtained of the fertile vale of Pickering, bounded on one side by the barren mountainous district called Black or Blake Moore, which furnishes materials for making brooms. The impropriations belong to the Dean of York. The living is a vicarage* with the perpetual curacy of Newton annexed, in the diocese of York, value £230, in the patronage of the archbishop. The church, dedicated to St. Peter, is an ancient edifice with a tower surmounted by a lofty spire. The church contains effigies and monuments of great antiquity. There is also a district church at Goatland, the living of which is a perpetual curacy, value £58, and a chapel-of-ease at Newton, in this parish. The parochial charities produce about £110 per annum. There is a grammar school, also an endowed school. The Independents, Wesleyans, Society of Friends, Primitive Methodists, and New Connexion Methodists have each a place of worship. There is a school belonging to the Wesleyans, of recent erection. Meetings are held once in every three years by the Pickering Lythe and Ryedale Agricultural Society. On a hill at the N. of the town are the ruins of the castle mentioned above, which belonged to the Saxon earl, Morcar, and after the Conquest to the Dacres, John of Gaunt, and other persons of distinction. It was restored in the 14th century, and was visited by Richard III. During the great civil war of Charles I. it was besieged by the parliamentary forces, and was eventually dismantled by the Roundheads. Market day is Monday. Fairs for sheep, &c., are held on the second Monday in every month, and on the Monday prior to the 14th February, 13th May, 25th September, and the 23rd November."
"EAST MARRISHES, (and West Marrishes) townships in the parish of Pickering, Lythe of Pickering, North Riding county York, 3 miles S.E. of Pickering."
"GOADLAND, (or Goathland), a township and chapelry in the parish of Pickering, North Riding county York, 13 miles N.E. of Pickering, and 8 S.W. of Whitby, its post town, The Whitby and Pickering branch line of the North-Eastern railway passes through this township. The living is a perpetual curacy in the diocese of York, value £60, in the patronage of the Archbishop of York. The church is a neat modern edifice, dedicated to St. Mary; and there is a parochial school for boys and girls. In the dale of Goadland, which is situated in the ancient honour of Pickering Forest, is a large species of hawk, which builds in the cliff called "Killing Nab Scar." The manor belongs to the Duchy of Lancaster."
"KINGTHORPE, a township in the parish of Pickering, wapentake of Pickering Lythe, North Riding county York, 3 miles N.E. of Pickering, and 12 N. of Malton. The land is chiefly arable, and the soil sand and loam. Colonel Fothergill is lord of the manor and chief landowner. Kingthorpe Hall is the principal residence."
"MARISHES, a township in the parish of Pickering, wapentake of Pickering Lythe, North Riding county York, 4 miles S. of Pickering. It is situated on the river Derwent, near the Whitby branch line of the North-Eastern railway, which has a station at Marishes Road."
"NEWTON, a township and chapelry in the parish of Pickering, wapentake of Pickering Lythe, North Riding county York, 4½ miles N. by E. of Pickering, and a quarter of a mile W. of Levisham. It is situated on the Whitby railway, near Newton Dale. The inhabitants are principally employed in agriculture. The soil is of a sandy nature, with limestone intermixed. The subsoil is of limestone rock and greystone. The charities consist of an annuity of £3 for the support of aged widows. There is a chapel-of-ease, also a parochial school for both sexes, with a small endowment bequeathed by Richard Poad in 1726. The Sunday-schools are held at the chapel-of-ease. The Wesleyans and Primitive Methodists have each a place of worship. The Rev. R. Hill is lord of the manor."
The National Gazetteer of Great Britain and Ireland
by Colin Hinson ©2013