"SCARBOROUGH, a parish, garrison, market, and seaport town, and a municipal and parliamentary borough in the wapentake of Pickering Lythe, North Riding county York, 217 miles N. of London by road, or 233¼ by rail, and 42¾ N.E. of York. The name of the town is probably derived from the Saxon words mar, "a rock," and burgh, "a town." The earliest notice in history is in the charter of incorporation granted by Henry II. in 1181. The castle was, however, built earlier than this, being erected by William le Gros, Earl of Albemarle, in the reign of Stephen. A pier was added, in pursuance of a charter from Henry III. Piers Gaveston, the favourite of Edward II., was besieged here for some time in 1212, and at length surrendered to the Earl of Pembroke. The "Pilgrimage of Grace," in 1536, assaulted the castle, but without success, and in 1554 Lord Thomas Stafford, and other of Sir Thomas Wyatt's party, seized the castle, but it was retaken by the Earl of Westmoreland, and Stafford and -four others were executed. During the parliamentary war it was held for the king by Sir Hugh Cholmeley. The town was taken by Sir John Meldrum, who was killed in the assault, and the castle was also taken in July, 1645, by his successor Sir Matthew Brynton. Three years afterwards both town and castle revolted and declared for the king, but were reduced in a few months. The castle was repaired in 1745, and there is now a small battery and military depot there. The town stands on both sides of the slope of the projecting cliff on which the castle is situated. The old town is close underneath the castle. Along the cliffs, on the N. and S. sides, are large modern houses and terraces, such as are seen at most watering-places. The portion of the cliff on which the spa or mineral spring for which Scarborough is celebrated is found is separated from the town by a narrow valley. This is bridged over by an iron bridge, which forms a promenade, and which leads to the buildings, consisting of a saloon, reading-room, &c., which surround the spa. The Literary and Philosophical Society's building is on the N. side of the bridge. The beach on both sides of the town is open and sandy. The harbour is protected by two piers and a lighthouse, and is considered very safe. The depth of water at the entrance is about 20 feet at high tide, but not more than 4 at low tide. The public buildings, besides churches, &c., are the townhall, post-office, and market. A large proportion of the inhabitants are engaged in fishing and in the manufacture of ropes, sails, and other naval necessaries. Ships are occasionally entirely built in the town. The chief imports are from America and the Baltic, and during the herring fishery many foreign vessels resort to this port. The importance of the town is, however, principally owing to the sea-bathing, which attracts a large number of visitors in the summer from the neighbouring counties. Scarborough is divided under the new Act into two wards. The local government is carried on by a mayor, with 5 aldermen and 18 councillors, with the style of "bailiffs and burgesses of the town of Scarborough." The parliamentary borough includes the parish and Falsgrave, and two members have been returned for it to the House of Commons since the reign of Edward I. Quarter and petty sessions are held in the townhall, being presided over by 8 magistrates. The Poor-law Union includes the parishes of East and West Ayton, Brompton, Broxa, Burniston, Cayton, Cloughton, Falsgrave, Filey, Folkton, Ganton, Gristhorpe, Hackness, Harwood Dale, Hutton Bushell, Irton, Libberston, Muston, Newby, Osgodby, Sawdon, Scalby, Scarborough, Seamer, Sherburn, Silpho, Snainton, Stainton Dale, Suffield, Throxenby, Troutsdale, Willerby, and Wykeham. The new County Court district and the superior registry are the same, with the exclusion of Snainton. The population was, in 1851, 12,915, living in 2,838 houses, and in 1861, 18,377, living in 3,940 houses, showing an increase of 5,462 in the ten years. The living is a vicarage with the curacy of Christ Church, in the diocese of York, value £300. The church originally formed part of a Cistercian priory, of which remains appear in the churchyard. Two of the three towers were destroyed in the siege of 1644, and much additional injury has been suffered by the building; but recently it has been restored and repaired. Christ Church, to which the curacy abovementioned belongs, stands outside the town. It was built in 1828, at a cost of £8,000, partly contributed by the Commission for Building Churches, and partly by private subscription. The style is modern Gothic, with a pinnacled tower. St. Thomas's, in East Sandgate, is a perpetual curacy, value £150, in the patronage of the vicar. It was erected in 1846, and the greater number of the sittings are free. The Roman Catholics have a chapel built within the last few years, and there are also places of worship for the Independents, Baptists, Wesleyans, Primitive and Association Methodists, and Society of Friends. There are several schools, including a free grammar school, National schools for boys and girls, an industrial school, the Amicable Society's school, for 70 to 80 of both sexes, Denison's charity schools, and infant and Sunday schools belonging to the Roman Catholics and other sects. There are three charitable institutions for sailors, the Merchant Seamen's and the Trinity House hospitals, and Wilson's Marine Asylum, and another general hospital, called the sea-bathing infirmary. The Merchant Seamen's hospital was founded in 1752, and is supported partly by subscription of 6d. a month from sailors belonging to the port. Other charities are Taylor's, Farrar's, Worth's, St. Thomas's, Stubb's, Sedman's, and the Burgh almshouses. There is also a poorhouse. The institutions for amusement or instruction are-the mechanics' institute, the theatre, the assembly rooms, two public libraries, the horticultural, the archæological, and the philosophical societies, of which the latter possesses a collection of objects illustrating the zoology and geology of the neighbourhood. The two best known natives oft the town have been Dr. Wittie, a physician in the 17th century, and Travis, a surgeon, in the following century. The history of Scarborough has been written by Hinderwell, himself a native of the town. Scarborough gives the title of earl to the Lumleys, of Sandbeck. The Great Northern and the York and North Midland railways both have branches to Scarborough. The newspapers published in the town are the Scarborough Gazette and the Scarborough Record. The market days are Thursday and Saturday. Fairs are held on Holy Thursday and 22nd November, the latter for cattle. Races take place in September, and a regatta in August."
"FALSGRAVE, a township in the borough and parish of Scarborough, North Riding county York, 1 mile S.W. of Scarborough. The Wesleyans have a chapel, and there is a day school for both sexes."