"CAWTHORNE, a parish in the wapentake of STAINCROSS, West riding of the county of York, 4 miles W.N.W. from Barnesley, containing 1518 inhabitants. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the archdeaconry and diocese of York, endowed with £200 private benefaction, £200 royal bounty, and £200 parliamentary grant, and in the patronage of J. S. Stanhope, Esq., and certain other landowners. The church, dedicated to All Saints, is principally in the later style of English architecture. Two hundred and fifty sittings, two hundred and eight of which are free, have recently been added, the Incorporated Society for the enlargement of churches and chapels having granted £250 towards defraying the expense. There is a place of worship for Wesleyan Methodists. A free school was founded in 1639, with a small endowment, for which six boys are taught. The Barnesley canal terminates in this parish: at its head, at Barnby bridge, is a large basin, with, wharfs, warehouses, and a wet dock, besides conveniences for boat-building. A rail-road extends from this basin to the extensive collieries here, and in the adjoining parish of Silkstone. A great quantity of limestone is burnt; and there are some veins of iron-stone. There is a mineral spring, the water of which is slightly impregnated with sulphuretted hydrogen."