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Help and advice for HALIFAX: Geographical and Historical information from the year 1835.

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HALIFAX: Geographical and Historical information from the year 1835.

"HALIFAX, a parish in the wapentake of MORLEY, West riding of the county of YORK, comprising the market-town of Halifax, the chapelries of Elland with Greetland, Heptonstall, Rastrick, and Sowerby, and the townships of Barkisland, Erringden, Fixby, Hipperholme with Brighouse, Langfield, Seal and Arms. Midgley, Norland, Ovenden, North Ouram, South Ouram, Rishworth, Shelf, Skircoat, Soyland, S.tainland, Stansfield, Wadsworth, andWarley, and containing 93,850 inhabitants, of which number, 12,628 are in the town of Halifax, 42 miles S.W. from York, and 197 N.N.W. from London, on the road between those two cities. This town, though now of great magnitude and importance, is not of great antiquity; its name is not found in Domesday-book, nor is it mentioned in any ancient record before the early part of the twelfth century, when its church was granted by William, Earl of Warren, then lord of the manor, to the priory of Lewes, in Sussex. The name is supposed to have been derived from Halifax, according to some signifying the holy face, in allusion to a relic called the, face of St. John, preserved in a hermitage, which anciently occupied the site of the present church; or, as others think, implying the holy ways, in reference to the roads leading to the hermitage; for fax, -in Nor- man French, is an old plural noun denoting highways- The woollen manufacture, for which the town andneighbourhood have been distinguished for ages, prevailed so early as the year 1414, though on a very limited scale, and continued to increase from that period to 1540, during which the number of houses was gradually augmented from fifteen to five hundred and twenty. The manufacturers in the Spanish Netherlands seeking refuge from the persecutions with which they were assailed under the government of the Duke of Alva, repaired in great numbers to England, and many of them are supposed to have settled at Halifax; a conjecture which derives strength from the similarity of dialect existing between1 the labouring classes here and in the Low Countries, particularly Friesland. In 1642, during the great civil war, the town was garrisoned by the forces of the parliament, and the inhabitants seem to have been strongly attached to their cause. At that period an obstinate engagemen took place on Halifax bank, adjoining the road to Wakefield, from which the place still retains the name of Blood Field: there are also, in different parts of the parish, ves tiges of intrenchments; and tradition states it to have been the scene of various skirmishes. For many ages a mode of trial and execution, styled the Gibbet Law, existed in the Forest of Hardwick, which was co-extensive with the parish of Halifax, The inhabitants within this forest had a custom, observed from; time immemorial, that if a felon were taken within their liberty, with goods stolen either out of or within the liberty of the said forest, of the value of thirteen-pence half- penny, he should, after three markets, or meeting-days, within the town of Halifax, next after such apprehension, be tried, and if condemned, be taken to the gibbet arid have his head.cut off. The following is the process of the gibbet-Jaw: when the felon was apprehended he was immediately brought before the lord's bailiff, at Halifax who kept the common gaol in the town, had the custody of the axe, and was the legal executioner. The bailiff then issued his summons to the constables of four several townships within the liberty, to require four frith-burgesses within each to appear before him on a certain day, to examine into the truth of the charge. At the trial the accuser and the accused were confronted before this unsworn jury, and the goods stolen were produced. If- the accused party was acquitted, he was instantly liberated; if condemned, he was either executed immediately, if that was the principal market day, or placed in the stocks on the less meeting-days, with the stolen goods on his back, if portable, otherwise they were placed before him. The last executions took place in 1650, forty-nine delinquents having suffered during the preceding century; and after that period the custom was disused. The gibbet, of which some remains may still be seen at the gaol, appears to have been an enginevery similar to the guillotine used in France after the Revolution. The town is nearly three quarters of a mile in length, from east to west, but narrow and very irregular; in general it is well built, partly of brick, but principally of stone, which is very abundant in the neighbourhood. It is situated on the south-eastern declivity of. a gentle eminence, but being enclosed by a chain of hills, which stretches from east to south, it seems, on being approached in that direction, to lie in a deep valley. From the boundary of Lancashire to the valley which separates the townships of Halifax and Ovenden from North Ouram, the whole substratum of the parish is grit-stone. Immediately to the east of this valley, argillaceous strata, with their general concomitants, stone and iron, appear; and to this cause, added to the abundant supply of fuel, and the rapid descent of its numerous brooks, so important in manufactures before the. introduction of the steam-engine, the vicinity of Halifax is greatly indebted for its wealth and population. The parish is the largest in England, including an area of one hundred and twenty-four square miles, or seventynine thousand two hundred acres. The town is abundantly supplied with pure water, lighted with gas, and paved throughout. The theatre, built by subscription, is neat and commodious; and the dramatic performances take place in the months of January, February, and March. The new assembly-rooms, recently erected by subscription, are handsome, and the interior is finished with considerable taste, and with due regard to comfort; subscription assemblies are held at stated periods during the winter season; attached to the rooms are a public library, news-room, &c. There are also public baths, in a delightful valley a short distance from the road to Huddersfield, affording every accommodation for warm and cold bathing, and for swimming. The principal articles of manufacture in the town and neighbourhood are shalloons, tammies, duroys, calimancoes, everlastings, moreens, shags, kerseys, baizes, woollen cloth (narrow and broad), coatings, and carpets. Several mills have also been erected in connexion with the cotton manufacture, which is rapidly increasing; and wool cards of superior quality are made in the neighbourhood, which abounds with coal mines and freestone quarries, the produce of the latter being shipped in considerable quantities to the metropolis. The Rochdale canal affords a medium of communication with Liverpool, Manchester, and the western district; and the Calder navigation with Hull and the eastern district. The market, which is one of the best in the north of England, is on Saturday; and there are two annual fairs for live stock, viz., on the 24th of June, and the first Saturday in November. The piece-hall, erected a few years ago by the manufacturers, is a large quadrangular building of freestone, occupying an area of ten thousand square yards, with a rustic basement story, and two upper stories, fronted with two interior colonnades, which are spacious walks leading to arched rooms, where goods in an unfinished state are deposited, and exhibited for sale to the merchants every Saturday, from ten to twelve oclock; this structure, which was completed at an expense of £ 12,000, and opened on the 1st of January, 1779, unites elegance, convenience, and security; it contains three hundred and fifteen separate rooms, and is proof against fire. This town was represented in two parliaments during the Commonwealth, but the privilege was withdrawn at the Restoration; it is governed by two constables, nominated by the inhabitants, and sworn in at the court leet of the lord of the manor of Wakefield, within which fee the town is situated. A court of requests is held under an act passed in the 33d of George III., for the recovery of debts under 40s., by the title of the " Court of Requests for the parishes of Halifax, Bradford, Keighley, Bingley, Guiseley, Calverley, Batley, Birstall, Mirfield, Hartishead cum Clifton, Almondbury, Kirkheaton Kirkburton, and Huddersfield, and the lordship or liberty of Tong, in the West riding of the county of York," with a reservation of the rights of the courts baron. The petty sessions for the wapentake of Morley are held here; and the magistrates attend at their office at Ward's End every Saturday, for the transaction of business relating to the district. The living is a vicarage, in the archdeaconry and diocese of York, rated in the king's books at £84. 13. 6., and in the patronage of the Crown. The present parish church, with the exception of part of the north wall, which appears to have been built in the time of Edwardl., was erected between the years 1450 and 1470; it is fine building in the later English style, having a nave, chancel, aisles, and two chapels, one founded by Archbishop Rokeby, who was sometime vicar of the parish,, and the other by another vicar named Holdsworth: it has an embattled tower surmounted by eight pinnacles, and underneath the church, towards the east, is a crypt: the ceiling is adorned with the armorial bearings of all the incumbents, from the ordination of the vicarage, in 1274, to the present time, with those of the early benefactors to the church: several large handsome modern monuments adorn the interior. There are twelve chapels of ease in the parish, to which the vicar appoints the curates. A handsome new church of Grecian architecture was erected in 1798, by Dr, Coulthurst, then vicar, and dedicated to the Holy Trinity; the living is a perpetual curacy. Here are places of worship for Baptists, the Society of Friends, Independents, Wesleyan Methodists, and Unitarians. The free grammar school, situated in Skircoat, was founded by letters patent of Queen Elizabeth, in 1585, under the superintendence of twelve governors selected from among the most respectable of the parishioners: they have the appointment of the head master ahd.usher, the former of whom must have been a student for a period of five years at one of the Universities. The present school-house, with six acres of land contiguous to it, was given by Gilbert, Earl of Shrewsbury, Edward Savile, Esq., and Sir George Savile, Knt., in 1598; and several benefactions have since been added to the original endowment, among which is one by the Rev. Thomas Milner, who, by will in 1722, assigned to the Master and Fellows of St. Mary Magdalene's College, Cambridge, a reversionary grant of £1000, for founding three scholarships, for the benefit of the schools at Haversham, Leeds, and Halifax; and, in 1736, his sister added £200 for the same purpose. The master receives £80 per annum, out of which he pays an usher of his own appointment. A Blue-coat hospital was founded pursuant to the will of Nathaniel Waterhouse, in 1642, for twenty poor children, who are maintained, educated, and trained up to some useful employment, by an overseer, or master: the same benefactor founded an almshouse for twelve poor and infirm widows, to be chosen out of the town and parish of Halifax. The property left for the support of this charity produces £1181. 3.4. per annum, out of which the schoolmaster receives about £80, the ahnswomen £2 each, and about £50 is,expended annually in clothing the women and children; £40 per annum is applied to the augmentation of the stipends of the ministers of the. chapels within the parish, and the surplus, after some deductions for other specific purposes, is paid to the master and governors of the workhouse, for the benefit of the poor. A schpol- house was erected in 1726, by John Smyth, Esq., of Heath, who settled an annual stipend on the schoolmaster for teaching six poor children; and subsequent benefactions having raised the income to £18. 16. per annum, the number of scholars has been augmented. There are also schools on the National and Lancasterian plans. Almshouses were founded in 1610, by Ellen Hopkinson and Jane Crowther (sisters), for eighteen poor widows of the town of Halifax, and one master to teach a certain number of poor children: these have been rebuilt, with the addition of six more rooms. Jane Crowther also, by will dated January 18th, 1613, gave a rent-charge of £8, for teaching poor children, but this design has been frustrated. There are also several institutions for the relief of the sick land destitute, among which are the dispensary, affording medical and surgical aid; and the Benevolent Society, for the distribution of food and clothing to the poor. The workhouse was originally established by Nathaniel Waterhouse, in 1635, and thirteen of the most respectable inhabitants of the town were incorpo- rated by charter of Charles I., to superintend its concerns: this, house being found inconvenient for the purpose of putting children to spin worsted, and make bone-lace, A new one was purchased in the year 1700, and from 1707 to 1720 the old house was used as a sessions-house by.the magistrates for the West riding; after which it was thoroughly repaired and restored to its original purpose. Several remains of British and Danish antiquities have, at different times, been discovered in the parish. About half a century ago, a countryman digging peat on Mixenden-moor, near Halifax, struck his spade through a black polished stone, near which lay a most beautiful brass celt, in excellent preservation, four arrow-heads of black flint, a light battle-axe of a- beautiful green pebble, and a hollow gouge, or scoop, of hard grey stone, evidently intended for the excavation of wooden vessels: the last is unique, and the whole seems to have formed part of the armour of a British soldier, who perished, perhaps two thousand years ago, among these wastes, where all remains of the body, together with the handles of the weapons, had long been entirely destroyed. Among the renowned characters who were born in this parish may be enumerated Henry Briggs, an emi- nent mathematician, who made discoveries relative to logarithms, born at Warley about 1556; Archbishop Tillotson, born in 1630, at Haughend, in the township of Sowerby,, where his father was a considerable clothier Sir Henry Savile, one of the most accomplished scholars of the seventeenth century, born at Bradley, in the township of Stainland; and Dr. David Hartley, a celebrated metaphysical writer, born in 1705, at Illing- worth, in the township of Ovenden. Daniel Defoe> the author of Robinson Crusoe; and Sir William Hersehel, the celebrated astronomer, were, residents at Halifax, the latter having been organist -in the church."


"BARKISLAND, a township in the parish of HALIFAX, wapentake of MORLEY, West riding of the county of YORK, 5 miles S.S.W. from Halifax, containing 2224 inhabitants. The manufacture of worsted and woollen goods is carried on in the township. Sarah Gledhill, in 1657, endowed a school for twelve children, with property now producing about £40 per annum, at Ripponden in this township, Here is an aimshouse for two widows."


"BRIGHOUSE, a township, joint with Hipperholme, in the parish of HALIFAX, wapentake of MORLEY, West riding of the county of YORK, 4 miles N.E. from Huddersfield. The population is returned with Hipperholme. This village, which of late years has risen into a considerable state of prosperity, and is now rapidly thriving, is situated on the banks of the Calder. The manufacture of woollen goods, and the spinning of cotton and worsted, together with various other trades for the supply of the inhabitants, are extensively carried on; and considerable facility for the transmission of goods is afforded by the Calder and Hebble navigation, which pass through it. At a place called Cromwell Bottom, within a short distance, are some quarries of stone, the produce of which is sent to various parts of the surrounding country. There is -a place of worship for Wesleyan Methodists.;A fair is held at Brighouse on the day after Martinmas-day."


"COLEY, a chapelry in the parish of HALIFAX, wapentake of MORLEY, West riding of the county of YORK, 3 miles E.N.E. from Halifax, with which the population is returned. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the archdeaconry and diocese of York, endowed with £200 private benefaction, £200 royal bounty, and £1400 parliamentary grant, and in the patronage of the Vicar of Halifax."


"CROSSTONE, a chapelry in the parish of HALIFAX, wapentake of MORLEY, West riding of the county of YORK, ll miles W. from Halifax, with which the population is returned. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the archdeaconry and diocese of York, endowed with £600 private benefaction, and £3300 parliamentary grant, and in the patronage of the Vicar of Halifax. This place derives its name from an ancient cross, which has fallen to decay."


"ELLAND, a chapelry in the parish of HALIFAX, wapentake of MORLEY, West riding of the county of YORK, 3 miles S.S.E. from Halifax, containing, with Greetland, 5088 inhabitants. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the archdeaconry and diocese of York, endowed with £200 private benefaction, £200 royal bounty, and £400 parliamentary grant, and in the patronage of the Vicar of Halifax. The chapel is dedicated to St. Mary. There are four places of worship for dissenters. Elland is a very ancient village, situated on the river Calder. Woollen cloths are manufactured, and there are mines of coal and stone quarries in the neighbourhood. It had formerly a market, by charter of Edward II., which has been long disused. Grace Ramsden, in 1734, bequeathed an estate at Bingley, now producing about £63. 10. a year, for erecting a school-house, and for the free education of poor boys of this chapelry. There is a dwelling-house for the master, whose salary is £20 per annum; also a recently erected school-room, in which thirty boys receive instruction in reading, writing, and arithmetic. A part of the fimds of this charity was applied to the purchase of a cottage, in which ten girls are taught to read, knit, and sew, the mistress receiving £22 a year, and the minister £8 for catechising them, from a bequest by Frances Thornhill, in 1718. There is also a school for the children of dissenters, about forty being taught on the Lancasterian plan, by the minister of the Unitarian congregation, who receives £90 per annum arising from bequests in 1712 and 1756, by James Brooksbank, and his grandson of the same name, and from Lady Hewley's charity, the greater part of which was given as an endowment upon the chapel."


"ERRINGDEN, a chapelry in the parish of HALIFAX, wapentake of MORLEY, West riding of the county of YORK, 7 miles W. from Halifax, containing 1471 inhabitants. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the archdeaconry and diocese of York, endowed with £1600 parliamentary grant, and in the patronage of the Vicar of Halifax. The chapel is dedicated to St. John."


"FIXBY, a township in the parish of HALIFAX, wapentake of MORLEY, West riding of the county of YORK, 3 miles N.N.W. from Huddersfield, containing 345 inhabitants."


"GREETLAND, a chapelry, joint with Elland, in the parish of HALIFAX, wapentake of MOHLEY, West riding of the county of YORK, 3 miles S. from Halifax, containing 5088 inhabitants, many of whom are employed in the manufacture of coarse cloth and fancy goods. There is a place of worship for Wesleyan Methodists. An altar was found on the summit of a hill some years ago, inscribed, as dedicated by Titus Aurelius Aurelianus, to the god of the city of the Brigantes, and to the deities of the emperors."


"HEPTONSTALL, a chapelry in the parish of HALIFAX wapentake of MORLEY, West riding of the county of YORK, 8 miles N.W. from Halifax, containing 4543 inhabitants. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the archdeaconry and diocese of York, endowed with £800 private benefaction, £600 royal bounty, and £ 1700 parliamentary grant, and in the patronage of the Vicar of Halifax. The chapel, dedicated to St. Thomas a Becket, has recently been erected, and contains one thousand and thirty- one sittings, of which seven hundred and thirty-three are free, and towards defraying the expense of which the Incorporated Society for enlarging churches contributed £1000. A grammar school was founded and endowed in 1642, by the Rev. Charles Greenwood, the income of which is about £77 per annum; from sixty to seventy children are instructed on moderate terms, seventeen of whom are taught the classics gratuitously; the usher receives £5. 11. 4. per annum, bequeathed by Abraham Wall in 1638, for teaching poor children to read and write. Here are extensive cotton manufactories."


"HIPPERHOLME, a township, joint with Brighouse, in the parish of HALIFAX, wapentake of MORLEY, West riding of the county of YORK, 2 miles E.N.E. from Halifax, containing 3936 inhabitants. There is a place of worship for Independents. A court baron, is held once a year, at which a constable is chosen. Coal mines and quarries of stone abound in the neighbourhood. A free grammar school was founded, in 1647, by Matthew Broadley, and endowed by him with £5 per an. and part of the annual proceeds of £,500; and, for its further maintenance, Samuel Sunderland, in 1671, enfeoffed certain houses and lands for the use of the schoolmaster, subject to the payment of £6 per ann. to an usher; the income is about £90 per annum, for which sum twenty boys are taught the classics."


"ILLINGWORTH, a chapelry in the parish of HALIFAX, wapentake of MORLEY, West riding of the county of YORK, 2 miles N.N.W. from Halifax, with which the population is returned. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the archdeaconry and diocese of York, endowed with £450 private benefaction, £600 royal bounty, and £200 parliamentary grant, and in the patronage of the Vicar of Halifax. The chapel is dedicated to St. Mary. Here is a place of worship for Wesleyan Methodists."


"LANGFIELD, a township in the parish of HALIFAX, wapentake of MORLEY, West riding of the county of YORK, 11 miles S.W. from Halifax, containing 2069 inhabitants. On Stoodley Pike, a lofty eminence in this township, a column has been raised, commemorative of the great military achievements of the Duke of Wellington."


"LIGHTCLIFFE, a chapelry in the parish of HALIFAX, wapentake of MORLEY, West riding of the county of YORK, 83: miles E. from Halifax, with which the population is returned. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the archdeaconry and diocese of York, en - dowed with £ 600 private benefaction, and £ 800 royal bounty, and in the patronage of the Vicar of Halifax. There is a place of worship for Independents."


"LUDDENDEN, a chapelry in the parish of HALIFAX, wapentake of MORLEY, West riding of the county of YORK, 3 miles N.W. from Halifax, with which the population is returned. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the archdeaconry and diocese of York, endowed with £400 private benefaction, £ 600 royal bounty, and £1800 parliamentary grant, and in the patronage of the Vicar of Halifax. There is a place of worship for Wesleyan Methodists."


"MIDGLEY, a township in the parish of HALIFAX, wapentake of MORLEY, West riding of the county of YORK, 4 miles N.W. from Halifax, containing 2207 inhabitants."


"NORLAND, a township in the parish of HALIFAX, wapentake of MORLEY, West riding of the county of YORK, 2 miles S.W. from Halifax, containing 1665 inhabitants. On Norland moor is an immense rock, called the Lad Stone, a name supposed to be derived from the British word Llad, to slay, and to have been in some way connected with the sacrifices of the Druids."


"NORTHOWRAM, a township in the parish of HALIFAX, wapentake of MORLEY, West riding of the county of YORK, 2 miles N.E. from Halifax, containing 6841 inhabitants. A free school was erected here, about L711, by Joseph Crowther, who endowed it with a dwelling-house and croft for the master, and certain lands let for £21 per annum, for which twelve poor children are instructed. Jeremiah Hall, in 1687, bequeathed land, directing the income to be applied towards the maintenance of two men and two women, each of them receiving an annuity of £5, and £5 per annum is paid for teaching five boys and five girls."


"OVENDEN, a township in the parish of HALIFAX, wapentake of MORLEY, West riding of the county of YORK, 1 mile N.W. from Halifax, containing 6360 inhabitants. There is a place of worship for Wesleyan Methodists."


"RASTRICK, a chapelry in the parish of HALIFAX, wapentake of MORLEY, West riding of the county of YORK, 4 miles N. from Huddersfield, containing 2796 inhabitants. The living is a perpetual curacy,, iu the archdeaconry and diocese of York, endowed with £800 private benefaction, £800 royal bounty, and £200 parliamentary grant, and in the patronage of the Vicar of Halifax. The ancient chapel was taken down about forty years ago, and the present one, a handsome structure, erected upon its site. There is a place of worship for Independents. The manufacture of woollen cord and fancy goods is extensive. A free school, founded in 1741, by Mary Bedford, has been endowed by her and subsequent donors, with about £50 per annum."


"RIPPONDEN, a chapelry in the parish of HALIFAX, wapentake of MOBLEY, West riding of the county of YORK, 5 miles S.W. from Halifax, with which the population is returned. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the archdeaconry and diocese of York, endowed with £200 private benefaction, and £200 royal bounty, and in the patronage of the "Vicar of Halifax. The chapel, dedicated to St. Bartholomew, was rebuilt in the Tuscan order soon after the great flood that happened here in 1722, which not only did considerable injury to the ancient structure, but laid open many graves, and carried away bridges, mills, houses, and every other impediment to its progress. The cemetery is surrounded with ancient yew-trees cut in the form of Saxon arches. There is a place of worship for Wesleyan Methodists."


"RISHWORTH, a township in the parish of HALIFAX, wapentake of MORLEY, West riding of the county of YORK, 4 miles S.W. from Halifax, containing 1588 inhabitants. The Baptists have a place of worship here. A free grammar school, founded by John Wheelwright in 1724, for the poorest of his tenants' childi-en, is liberally endowed."


"SHELF, a township in the parish of HALIFAX, wapentake of MORLEY, West riding of the county of YORK, 3 miles N.N.E. from Halifax, containing 1998 inhabitants. There is a place of worship for Primitive Methodists. A Lancasterian school has been established for children of all persuasions."


"SKIRCOAT, a township in the parish of HALIFAX, wapentake of MORLEY, West riding of the county of YORK, 1 mile S.S.W. from Halifax, containing 3323 inhabitants. The manufacture of cotton and woollen goods is carried on here to a considerable extent."


"SOUTHOWRAM, a township in the parish of HALIFAX, wapentake of MORLEY, West riding of the county of YORK, 1 mile S.E. from Halifax, containing 4256 inhabitants."


"SOWERBY, a chapelry in the parish of HALIFAX, wapentake of MORLEY, West riding of the county of YORK, 4 miles W.S.W. from Halifax, containing, with Ramble, 6890 inhabitants. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the archdeaconry and diocese of York, endowed with £200 private benefacti6n, £200 royal bounty, and £800 parliamentary grant, and in the patronage of the Vicar of Halifax. The chapel, dedicated to St. Peter, contains a fine statue, erected about half a century ago, to- the memory of John Tillotson, D.D., Archbishop of Canterbury, who was born at Haugh- End, his father having been a manufacturer, in 1630; he died in 1694. There are places of worship for Independents and Wesleyan Methodists. The manufacture of woollen and cotton goods is extensively carried on here. Paul Bairslow, in 171 lj bequeathed £16 per annum for the support of a school. In 1678, a considerable number of Roman coins was ploughed up in the neighbourhood."


"SOWERBY BRIDGE, a chapelry in the parish of HALIFAX, wapentake of MORLEY, West riding of the county of YORK, 2 miles W.S.W. from Halifax, with which the population is returned. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the archdeaconry and diocese of York, endowed with £200 private benefaction, and £400 royal bounty, and in the patronage of the Vicar of Halifax. The old chapel being insufficient to accommodate the increased population of the place, a more commodious structure has been built, containing nearly one thousand sittings, of which three hundred and seven are free, the Incorporated Society for the enlargement of churches and chapels having granted £ 800 towards defraying the expense. There is a place of worship for Wesleyan Methodists. Woollen and cotton goods are manufactured here to a considerable extent. There are also three large iron-foundries, and a great number of corn-mills on the Calder, which river and the Rochdale canal pass through this district. Great quantities of stone are obtained here."


"SOYLAND, a township in the parish of HALIFAX, wapentake of MORLEY, West riding of the county of YORK, 5 miles W.S.W. from Halifax, containing 3242 inhabitants, many of whom are employed in the manufacture of cotton and woollen goods."


"ST ANNE, (or BRIERS), a chapelry in the parish of HALIFAX, wapentake of MORLEY, West riding of the county of YORK, 3 miles E.S.E. from Halifax, with which the population is returned. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the archdeaconry and diocese of York, endowed with £400 private benefaction, £600 royal bounty, and £2100 parliamentary grant, and in the patronage of the Vicar of Halifax."


"STAINLAND, a township in the parish of HALIFAX, wapentake of MORLEY, West riding of the county of YORK, 4 miles S.W. from Halifax, containing 2814 inhabitants, who are extensively employed in the manufacture of worsted, woollen cloth, cotton, and paper. There is a place of worship for Independents. Various Roman coins have been found in the neighbourhood."


"STANSFIELD, a township in the parish of HALIFAX, wapentake of MORLEY, West riding of the county of YORK, 4 miles S.W. from Halifax, containing 7275 inhabitants. It is bounded on the south by the river Calder. Here is the site of a manor-house, formerly belonging to the Warrens; and the rocky height above was once crowned with a castle."


"WADSWORTH, a township in the parish of HALIFAX, wapentake of MORLEY, West riding of the county of YORK, 7 miles W.N.W. from Halifax, containing 4509 inhabitants, who are extensively employed in the manufacture of cotton and worsted goods. Abraham Wall, in 1638, bequeathed a rent-charge of £8, to be applied for teaching poor children; for which purpose also, in 1642, the Rev. Charles Greenwood left houses and lands, now producing a considerable rental."


"WARLEY, a township in the parish of HALIFAX, wapentake of MORLEY, West riding of the county of YORK, 2 miles W. from Halifax, containing 4982 inhabitants, of whom many are employed in the manufacture of cotton, worsted, and stuffs. The chapelry of Sowerby-Bridge is in this township. There is a place of worship for Independents. In the neighbourhood is one of those remarkable rocking-stones, supposed to be of Druidical origin."

[Transcribed by Mel Lockie © from
Lewis's Topographical Dictionary of England 1835]