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LEEDS:
Geographical and Historical information from the year 1837.

"LEEDS, is a parish-town, and the most populous market town in Yorkshire and the principal seat and emporium of the woollen manufacture in England, is the capital of an extensive parish and borough, which was enfranchised by a charter of the lord of the manor, in the reign of King John, and incorporated by Charles 1 but was not endowed with the privilege of sending representatives to parliament until the enactment of the Reform Bill in 1832; though, during the Commonwealth it was allowed by Cromwell to send one member to the House of Commons. It has long held a distinguished place among the opulent commercial towns of the kingdom, and is pleasantly seated on the river Aire, in the liberty of the Honor of Pontefract, and in the Wapentakes of Skyrack and Morley; chiefly in the former, - the greater part of the town, being upon the gently rising acclivities on the north side of the river, and the rest, with the populous suburbs in Holbeck and Hunslet, occupying a low Champaign tract on the south side of the river. It is situated at the north eastern extremity of the great clothing district, of which it is the principal mart, and is distant 24 miles S W by W of York; 13 miles N W by W of Pontefract; 9 miles S W by W of Wakefield; 10 miles E by N of Bradford; 18 miles E N E of Halifax; 16 miles N E of Huddersfield; 33 miles N of Sheffield; 40 miles N E of Manchester; and 186 miles N N W of London. The population of the township of Leeds increased from 30,669 in the year 1801 to 71,602 in 1832; and in the same period the number of inhabitants in Hunslet and Holbeck increased from 9,995 to 23,284, swelling the population of the town and suburbs, in the latter year, to 94,886, who have since augmented to nearly 110000 souls, of whom, however, more than 10,000 are somewhat detached from the great body of the town being in the villages of Hunslet, Holbeck, Woodhouse, Woodhouse-Car, and Buslingthorp, distant more than a mile from the centre of the town, but connected with it by long ranges of factories, houses, and handsome villas, extended on the different roads and round the margins of the moors or commons at Woodhouse, Holbeck, and Hunslet. The compact or solid portion of the town extends about two miles along the river from east to west, but it is little more than a mile in breadth, though Briggate, its principal street, is above 600 yards in length from north to south, forming one of the broadest, handsomest, and busiest thoroughfares in the north of England, and rising from the bridge in a straight line and with a gradual ascent to the vicinity of St John's Church; whence the suburbs rise in beautiful undulations northward to Woodhouse and Buslingthorp, and the town descends westward along a broad and gentle slope on which are many handsome streets, squares, and public buildings; and eastward to the Sheepscar-beck, which receives the Gipton-beck near New Town, and flows southward through a populous part of the town which rises in bold swells at Quarry-hill, Burmantofts, and Richmond-hill, on the east side of the beck, the water of which, after being contaminated by many dye-houses, falls into the Aire below the parish church. The old bridge at the foot of Briggate, was, till a few years ago, the only communication between the northern and southern parts of the town, except a few ferries, but since 1827 two fine Suspension Bridges have been thrown across the Aire, one forming a direct communication from Hunslet to the York-road and the eastern side of the town; and the other communicating with Holbeck and the western part of the town. Above the latter is Wellington bridge, of one handsome arch, built in 1818, and communicating with the populous villages of Wortley and Armley. A foot bridge, erected in 1828, forms the long wanted communication between School close and Water-lane; and in May 1837, the first stone was laid of a spacious bridge across a broad angle of the river Aire, from Sandford-street to the Leeds and Liverpool canal dock and basin. The union of this Canal with the Aire, gives to Leeds the important advantages of a fine inland navigation which extends without interruption from the Eastern to the Western seas; in addition to which the town has now the facility of a Railway to Selby and other tram-roads are projected to pass from it to Manchester, Derby, &c., and to form connecting links in the great chain of Railways by which the kingdom will in a few years be traversed in every direction, in carriages propelled by the power of the steam engine. During the last ten years the central parts of the town have been greatly improved, by the formation of several commodious market places, by the removal of the Middle Row which contracted a portion of Briggate into two narrow lanes, and by the widening of many other old thoroughfares, and the opening of several new ones. The Aire furnishes the inhabitants with a scanty supply of water, but they are about to erect new water-works on an ample scale, and they have the benefit of many copious springs, some of which are slightly sulphurious, and highly esteemed both as a beverage and for culinary purposes. The neighbouring mines and quarries afford an abundant supply of coal and building stone, and the clay found here produces excellent bricks. To these and other local advantages, the increasing wealth, population, and prosperity of Leeds, are chiefly to be ascribed.

The Parish of Leeds is co-extensive with the Borough, and comprises an area of 21,766 acres of land; being more than seven miles in length and breadth, and extending westward from Halton-Dial to Stanningley, and southward from Cookridge-Wood, Meanwood, and Street-Lane, to Farnley-Wood, Mill-Shaw, Stank-Hall, Beeston-Park, and Woodhouse-Hill. It is divided into eleven townships, exclusive of the small hamlets of Coldcotes, Osmondthorpe, Thornes, and Skelton, which lie on its eastern side, and maintain their poor jointly with the township of Temple Newsam, in the Parish of Whitkirk. The soil is generally a strong coarse clay, under which is a finer stratum, of which an inferior kind of earthenware is made. Below the later is a thin bed of coal, and under it is a vein of clay, of which fire bricks, equal to any in England, are manufactured. A white clay abounds about Wortley, which is much used in the manufacture of tobacco pipes. There are three distinct beds of coal. Worked in various parts of the parish, but the most extensive collieries of the neighbourhood are in the adjoining parish of Rothwell. The heights in the vicinity of the town furnish excellent flags and freestone, of which latter, immense quantities are sent from the quarries at and near Bramley-fall, to all parts of the kingdom, for the construction of docks, bridges, &c. On the north-east border of the parish, near Gipton and Potternewton, is a bed of imperfect granite. Here are also strata of cilicious grit, abounding in organic remains, some of which are very curious. The northern boundary is sandy and sterile, but the land near the town is generally fertile. The Aire flows through the parish in a south easterly direction from Kirkstall Forge to Skelton-Grange, receiving in its course many small rivulets or "becks", all of which are subservient to the purposes of manufacture. The parish, includes the populous clothing villages of Hunslet, Holbeck, Beeston, Wortley, Armley, Farnley, Bramley, Stanningley, and Kirkstall; and also those of Burley, Headingley, Woodhouse, Chapel-Allerton, and Potternewton, in which are many handsome villas. It increased its population from 53,162 in the year 1801; to 123,393 in 1831, and it is now augmented to about 150,000 souls; its increase in buildings, &c. having been as great during the last six years as in any similar period before the last census. The air, though in many places infected with smoke from the engine chimneys of numerous mills and factories, is generally salubrious, as is evident from the remarkable instances of longevity which have occurred in the parish. In 1829, there were in Leeds Poorhouse 25 paupers whose ages averaged nearly 77 years each. To the following list of departed parishioners who lived a century or more, perhaps some others might be added, and the parish register furnishes a long catalogue of persons who survived their 80th year.

INSTANCES OF LONGEVITY

Names and Residences                    years
                                        aged    died
Jno. Kitchingman esq. Chapel-Allerton   115     1510
A poor Woman at Farnley                 102     1699
Jane Horner, Leeds                      109     1700
Mrs Simpson, Leeds                      103     1698
Thomas Barnard, Leeds                   103     1698
James Sagar, Leeds                      112     1701
Grace Shaw, Leeds                       104     1705
Widow Norris, Leeds                     106     1712
Rt.  Kitchingham Esq. Chapel-Allerton   100     1716
Neriah Storey, Leeds                    100     1764
Robert Oglesby, Leeds                   114     1768
Catherine Sommergill, Chapel-Allerton   100     1794
Ann Keighley, Hunslet                   100     1796
Grace Barnard, Leeds                    101     1804
Mrs Arton, Potternewton                 105     1805
Martha Morris, Leeds                    104     1812
Ann Cocker, Meanwood                    110     1820
Mrs. Eve Randall, Leeds                 100     1830
The town is visited by epidemic diseases as seldom as most other places, though it suffered severely from the Plagues which occasionally ravaged England in the 16th and 17th centuries, especially in 1596-7 and 1644-5. In the latter year, 1,325 inhabitants, amounting to nearly one-firth of the whole population, fell victims to this direful malady. The Sweating Sickness, which either "mended or ended" its victims in 24 hours, was very fatal here in 1551; and in 1675, an epidemic distemper, profanely called the "Jolly Rant," prevailed in this and many other towns in Yorkshire. Leeds had its full share of suffering from that awful disease, Asiatic Cholera, which ravaged the whole kingdom in 1832. The first case that occurred here was on May 26th, and the malady did not disappear till Nov. 12th, when it was found that there had been 1,817 persons afflicted with it in the town, and that 702, had died. It prevailed with its greatest virulence in the months of July and August, and its most fatal ravages were in those parts of the town where the sewers, watercourses, and drains had been neglected. Leeds did not escape the general sickness occasioned by the prevalence of Influenza, in the early part of 1837, where there was much mortality, but the number of deaths were not recorded.

The following enumeration of the eleven townships in the parish shews their territorial extent, with the number of houses in 1821 and 1831, and the population of each at the four decennial periods of the parliamentary census.

                                                  Population
Leeds Parish & Borough    No of                    in A.D.
                          Acres   Houses  Houses   1801    1811    1821    1831   Males Females
                                   1821    1831                                    1831  1831
Leeds Township
(Divisions of)            3050
East                       *       2027    3030    5124    5580    7701   12413    6207    6206
Middle & Kirkgate          *       1048    1095    3805    4212    4769    4927    2434    2493
Mill Hill                  *        576     615    2676    2630    3031    3031    1240    1799
North East (lower)         *       2328    3595   {8547    6354    9194   14402    7131    7271
North East (upper)         *       1513    2312   {        4425    6518    9619    4570    5049
North West (low)           *        812    2134   {4059   {5710    3804    9797    4772    5052
North West (upper)         *       1114    1740   {       {        4877    7602    3502    4100
South                      *       1145    1478    2907    3791    5501    6549    3274    3275
Upper                      *        671     694    3551    3243    3208    3262    1512    1702
Leeds Total               3050    11264   16698   30669   35951   48603   71602   34672   36938

+Out Townships
Armley                    1040     927    1112    2695    2941    4273    5159    2611    2548
Beeston                   1770     382     440    1127    1538    1670    2128    1142     986
Bramley                   2490    1020    1378    2562    3484    4921    7039    3516    3523
Chapel Allerton           3040     349     428    1054    1362    1678    1934     952     982
Farnley                   2070     270     310     943    1164    1332    1591     793     798
Headingley with Burley    3020     410     684    1313    1670    2154    3849    1880    1969
Holbeck                    760    1536    2597    4196    5124    7151   11210     552    5658
Hunslet                   1150    1749    2940    5799    6393    8171   12074    5956    6118
Potternewton              2340     136     180     509     571     664     865     393     470
Wortley                   1036     661    1264    1995    2335    3179    5944    3006    2938
Total                    21766   18708   28047   53162   62534   83796  123393   60473   62920
* The acres in the ten Divisions are included in the total of Leeds Township, which in 1831 made its population return under the heads of twelve divisions, for each of which a constable is appointed yearly at the manor court. In municipal affairs the township is divided into eight Wards.

+ All the out-townships are Chapelries, except Potternewton. The greater part of Leeds township is on the north side of the river Aire, and, with Headingley- cum-Burley, Chapel-Allerton, and Potternewton, is locally situated in Skyrack Wapentake; and all the other seven townships are on the south side of the river in Morley Wapentake.

# Of the males above twenty one years of age, 9,400 were returned as being employed in the woollen and worsted manufactures (chiefly in the former); upwards of 1,000 in coal mines and stone quarries; and 108 on the Leeds and Selby Railway.

The township of Leeds extends nearly three miles in length from east to west, and averages about one mile and a half in breadth from north to south, including the villages, hamlets, of Woodhouse, Woodhouse-car, Little Woodhouse, Little London, Sheepscar, the greater part of Buslingthorp, the Barracks, Black-Bank, Ivy house, Knostrop, Hillhouse, and Richmond-hill. The whole lies on the north side of the river Aire, between Joppa and Burley Terrace on the east and the termination of the Knostrop-cut near Thwaitegate on the east; except a small but populous portion which lies on the south side of the river, bounded by Hunslet and Holbeck, extending from Water Lodge to Sayner's Dyehouse, and including Campfield, Water-lane, Meadow-lane as far as its junction with the Dewsbury-road, and Hunslet lane as far as the Coal staiths.

The Borough comprehends the whole parish of Leeds, which includes the eleven townships enumerated in the foregoing table, together with the hamlets of Coldcotes, Osmondthorpe, Skelton, and Thornes, which lie at the west end of the Borough, about 2 miles from the town, and maintain their roads separately; but for the maintenance of the poor they form part of the township of Temple Newsam in Whitkirk parish; though they have been from time immemorial ecclesiastically included in the parish of Leeds, and contributed to the reparation of its mother church. They were not however considered as being within the borough, until the passing of the Parliamentary reform act in 1832, and the Municipal Corporation Reform act in 1835, since which these hamlets have been called upon to contribute to the borough rates, but they have hitherto refused payment on the ground that they derive no benefit from the police establishment; - a complaint which may be urged by all the out-townships, except Hunslet and Holbeck. The two latter adjoin and form populous suburbs of the town, and consequently participate in all the security and benefit derived from the day and night police, which, for the year ending April 1837, cost 5,300, paid out of the watch and borough rates, which for the same year amounted to 10,817. 6s. 7d. Of this sum 3,300 was levied as a watch rate, and the remainder in two borough rates, to which may be added upward of 5,000 levied yearly as lamp and improvement rates, in the town and within the suburbs extending one mile beyond the bars, as will be seen in a summary view of the several local act of parliament at subsequent pages. The Reform Act of 1832, conferred on the borough the privilege of sending two representatives to parliament, and the Municipal Act of 1835, changed the self elected corporate body for one to be chosen periodically by the election of the burgesses, and consisting of a mayor, 16 aldermen, and forty eight councilors, with a recorder, and a commission of the peace (comprising twenty two magistrates,) appointed by the crown on the recommendation of the Town Council. The Borough is divided by the last named act into twelve Wards, of which the following is an enumeration, shewing the number of councilors appointed for each, together with their respective numbers of burgesses and voters in 1836; the former being persons who had been rated three years to the relief of the poor, and consequently entitled to vote in the municipal elections; and the latter being occupiers of houses, &c. of the yearly value of 10 or upwards, and entitled, under the Reform Act, to vote in the election of the two parliamentary representatives of the borough.

Cns   Leeds Township                                Burgs Voters
  6   Mill Hill Ward                                  751  1001
  6   West Ward                                       704   843
  3   North West Ward                                 497   383
  3   North Ward                                      467   443
  3   North East Ward                                 287   241
  3   East Ward                                       293   241
  3   Kirkgate Ward                                   505   526
  3   South Ward                                      326   318
 30   Totals                                         3830  3984

Cns   Wards in the out Townships                    Burgs Voters
  3   Hunslet Ward including Hunslet Township         670   250
  6   Holbeck Ward including Holbeck
               & Wortley townships                   1028   410
  6   Bramley Ward including Armley,
               Beeston, Bramley & Farnley            2025   609
  3   Headingley Ward including Headingley-
         cum-Burley, Chapel Allerton & Potternewton   390   309
 18   Totals                                         4113  1578
One third of the councilors of each Ward are changed yearly

From the above table it will be seen that the total number of Burgesses, or municipal voters, in the Borough, in 1836, was 7,943 and of parliamentary voters, 5,562, exclusive of 17 registered in the hamlets of Osmondthorpe, Coldcotes, Thornes, and Skelton, in Temple-Newsam township. The registered burgesses in the out-townships are more numerous than those in the town, owing to the poor-rates of small houses in the latter being generally paid by the owners of the property.

ANCIENT HISTORY: Leeds is a town of great antiquity, but its origin and the derivation of its name are alike unknown. Thoresby supposes the latter to have been derived from the British - Caer Loid Coit, signifying a town in a wood, but this term might have answered the description of almost every British town before the invasion of the Romans. Other antiquaries imagine that Leeds was named after Lede, or Leod, a British chief; but the most probable conjecture is that it received its appellation from the Saxons, there being a town called Leedes on the river Dender in Austrian Flanders, and not far from it a village called Holbeck. Many vestiges of both Roman and Saxon Antiquities have been found in Leeds and the neighbourhood, and the conjecture of Thoresby is that there was a Roman station here, on the road from Calcaria (Tadcaster) to Cambodunum, (Slack) and thence to Mancunium (Manchester), has been proved by subsequent discoveries, though its name does not appear on the Roman maps. On Wallflat, near Quarry Hill, the outline of a castrum was discovered many years ago, but every trace of it is now obliterated by the numerous buildings which have been erected on this site. In 1745, between Wallflat and Briggate, a Roman urn was found containing a British celt; and in digging a cellar behind the old shambles which stood in Briggate, an ancient pavement, strongly cemented, was discovered. The work men employed a few years ago in constructing the new Dock, a little below the old bridge, found part of a Roman ford, composed of a substance known only to that people, wonderfully hard and compact, and calculated to resist the destructive action of water for a long series of ages. Further observations demonstrated that this ford crossed the river in a line with the north-east corner of the gigantic warehouse lately erected by the Aire and Calder Navigation Company, on the opposite side of the river, whence the Roman road is supposed to have passed northward by Call lane, Quarry hill and Wallflat; and southward by the front of Salem Chapel and the Theatre, whence it took a south westerly direction, passing near Beeston, Morley and Gildersome; its line being still traceable in the vicinity of the two latter places. The workmen in excavating the new dock on the south side of the Aire, also found evident traces of a water course, defended on each side by large quantities of piles, and inducing the opinion that the river anciently flowed a little to the south of the present bridge, In the same excavation were found four large oak trees, three of them decayed and as black as charcoal, and the other quire sound at the heart. Of the character and dimensions of Leeds in the Saxon era, nothing is authentically known, but it probably consisted, like other Saxon towns of a small collection of houses built of wood, or mud, wattles and straw, and having windows formed with panels of horn, fixed in wooden frames; streets of such humble dwellings are supposed to have then occupied the sites of Briggate, Kirk gate, and Swine gate. Of the Saxon Church, which occupied the site of the present parish church, not a vestige now remains. Osmondthorpe or Oswinthorpe, near the eastern boundary of Leeds township about 2 miles east of Briggate, is the Villa Regia of Bede, having been the residence of Oswin, King of Northumbria, one of the most mild and peaceable of the Saxon Kings, who was murdered in the ninth year of his reign at Ingithling, now called Yeddingham, in the year 651. Upon some painted glass in one of the windows of the old hall at Osmondthorpe, was a representation of Edwin, King of Northumbria, with a crown, a sword, and a shield. Upon the latter were exhibited the arms of Redwald, King of the East Angles, by whose intercession, Edwin had been restored from the condition of an exile to the possession of his crown. Edwin was the first Christian King of Northumbria, and was slain at Hatfield near Doncaster, in 633, in a severe battle with Penda, the Pagan King of Mercia, who, in the 80th year of his reign, marched his troops northward against Oswy, who then reigned in Northumbria, and whom he wished to add to the five monarchs whose funeral memorials recorded him as their destroyer. Oswy gave the Pagans battle in 655, at Winwaedfield (Winmoor) near Seacroft, about 4 miles N E of Leeds where the haughty Penda and many of his vassal princes were slain, and the whole barbarian army sustained a complete defeat. Bede, who was born about twenty years after this great battle, says the "more of the Mercians were drowned, as they fled, in the river Winwaed, (then overflowing its banks,) than had fallen by the swords of the Northumbrians." This victory was equally advantageous to both nations, for the conqueror delivered his own people from the ravages of the Pagans, and converted the Mercians to the Christian faith. The river which Bede calls Winwaed must have been the Aire, on the banks of which the fugitives were pursued by the victors. The memory of Oswy's victory was long preserved by the Saxons in one of their proverbs, which says "in Winwaed's stream was revenged the death of Anna, the deaths of Sigebert and Egeric, of Edwin and Oswald." - all Kings of Northumbria slain by the Mercians. In the time of Charles 1., fragments of extensive Saxon work were to be seen at Osmondthorpe, but these were cleared away when the late hall was erected, and the trenches were filled up. At Gipton in Potternewton township, about 2 miles N E of Leeds, Thoresby discovered the remains of a Saxon fortification, "the out-trench whereof was 18 feet broad, the first camp 100 feet long and 66 broad; the second 165 square; - both were surrounded by a deep trench and rampire. The out-camp was about 18 poles long and 12 broad; and at a little distance was a small out-work about 4 poles and a half square." Of this fortification all traces are now obliterated.

At the Domesday Survey, Leeds appears to have been rather a farming village than a considerable town, having no doubt suffered first from the incursions of the Danes, and afterwards the exterminating wrath of the Norman Conqueror, who entered Yorkshire with fire and sword, swearing that he would not leave a soul of his enemies alive, as will be seen in the general history of the West Riding in vol.11. The manor of Leeds was given, as part of the great Baron of Pontefract, by William the Conqueror, to Ilbert de Laci. It is noticed thus in Bawdwen's translation of Domesday book; - "In Ledes, ten carucates of land and six oxgangs to be taxed. Land to six ploughs. Seven Thanes held it in the time of Edward the Confessor, for seven manors. Twenty seven villages and four sokemen, and four bordars have now there fourteen ploughs. There is a priest and a church, and a mill of four shillings, and ten acres of meadow. It has been valued at six pounds, now seven pounds." From this notice it would appear that Leeds, at the close of the Saxon era, did not contain a population of more than 300 souls; for no principle of computation will allow a larger number of persons to be attributed to the families of the tenants mentioned in the survey, together with the subordinate labourers and cottagers in their employ. "It further appears that all the land in the immediate vicinity of the town was in a state of cultivation; no mention is made of either wood or waste; the proportion of only ten acres of meadow must be regarded as astonishingly small, and can only be accounted for by supposing that at this period the horses and cattle were wintered in the open air; and the produce of the land which was under tillage, from the wretched state of husbandry, and the system of oppression which generally prevailed throughout the Kingdom, must have been exceedingly limited. The seven Thanes mentioned in the survey were a kind of Saxon Esquires; the other individuals designated by the names which have been repeated, were occupiers of land under different tenure; while of the proportion and condition of the inferior servants, no accurate estimate can be formed. The priest was probably the most influential person among the inhabitants; his house most likely was the best; and the mill, a humble edifice with the rudest machinery, to prepare the corn for the food of the inhabitants." It may safely be concluded that in the Saxon times, Leeds consisted of "three wretched lanes, the humblest and meanest representations of streets, with a population of 2 or 300 semi-barbarians, the rude cultivators of the soil upon which they vegetated, with seven Thanes to hold them in the trammels of dependence, with a priest to rivet the fetters of superstition, and a church in which to behold the unintelligible mummeries, which in those days of darkness were dignified with the prostituted name of Christianity. What a contrast to the appearance, the condition, and the population of the present Leeds! What a cause for gratitude, for pleasure, and yet for anxiety, is to be discovered in the mighty change!" Ilbert de Laci, Lord of the great barony of Pontefract, does not appear to have retained the manor of Leeds in his possession; for we find that Ralph Paganel held the church in 1089, and gave it to the priory of the Holy Trinity of York, and the manor itself was soon afterwards possessed by his family. The Painells or Paganels, may therefore be supposed to have held Leeds under the Lacies, who, as superior lords of the district, resided at the baronial castle in Pontefract. That there was a castle in Leeds, soon after the Conquest, is certain, and it was no doubt erected by the Paganels and stood upon Mill Hill, overlooking the river, and encompassed by a park extending northward to Park lane. In 1139, this fortress was besieged and taken by King Stephen, in his march against the Scots, who had taken up arms in defence of his niece the "Empress Matilda," whose son Henry was heir to the throne. In 1399, it was for a short time the scene of confinement of Richard II, prior to his barbarous murder at Pontefract. At what period, or by what means the castle of Leeds was destroyed, does not appear. Thoresby states that it was the tradition of his time, that the old bridge was built out of its ruins; but this could not be the case, as the old bridge, and the chantry connected with it, were in existence in 1376, and the castle certainly remained till the 15th century, when it was probably abandoned by its proprietors and its ruins may have been gradually removed and applied by the growing population of the town, in the erection of their houses and other buildings.

Burgage Charter; - Though Leeds was but a small and humble place at the time of the Norman conquest, it must have been greatly increased in buildings, population, and consequence, in the 9th of King John, when Maurice Paganel, the mesne lord of the manor, granted a curious charter of privileges to the burgesses, giving them free burgage, together with their several tofts or homesteads, and half an acre of arable land attached to each, in fee, subject to the yearly payment of 1s. 4d. each to himself and his successors. By the same charter he also granted them all such rights and customs as were enjoyed by the burgesses of Pontefract; viz. - that every burgess should be allowed to grant or sell his burgage land to whom he would, saving the lord's superiority, and the charter of the covenant; that every person purchasing part of a toft should be as free as if he purchased the whole; that the tenants occupying tofts, or parts of tofts, should be free to buy and sell goods within the borough; that a person dwelling in the capital messuage of a toft, and paying 4d. yearly to the praetor or mayor, should enjoy all the privileges of a burgess; that whosoever committed any offence within the borough, should be attached and take his trial within the same; that the burgesses should not go out of the borough for any pleas or plaint, except for pleas of the crown; that the praetor or mayor should pay the rent of the borough to the lord at Pentecost, when the lord should remove him, and put into his place whomsoever he thought proper, - the burgesses having the nearest claim, provided they would give as much for the office as another; that the burgesses might erect what officers they chose in order to make up the lord's rent, and might convey their goods by land and water wherever they pleased, without toll or other praestation, unless prohibited by the lord or his bailiff; that every burgess found guilty of larceny, should, for the first offence, make "one compurgation with 36 compurgators," and for the second should purge himself either by the water ordeal, or by single combat; and that the burgesses should be released from all toll and custom in the borough, except the custom of baking in the lord's oven. These are among the most important provisions of this charter, which Dr Whitaker was "compelled" to transcribe from a copy written by some illiterate scribe, who had left some of the passages in great obscurity. At the date of this charter, (1207) Leeds had become a town of some importance, and was then rapidly increasing, as is evident from the grant of so small a portion of arable land as half an acre to every toft. Tofts were the homesteads of houses, containing cartilages, gardens, offices, and all the necessary accommodations for a family, but many of them were now subdivided, and numerous houses soon occupied the site of one original toft. This increase may be attributed o the immunities conferred on the burgesses, and to the protection which the castle afforded them. Their being allowed by the charter to export grain and other commodities by water, as well as by land, implies that the Aire was navigable in the early part of the 13th century, either by dams or some other contrivance. Their exports consisted chiefly of agricultural produce, and the wool which they sent to Flanders, was afterwards returned to them in manufactured clothing, until Edward III encouraged its manufacture in his own kingdom. "The first principles of English liberty sprung up in the boroughs, and it is a singular fact, that the vassals who were most immediately under the eye of the lords, were the first whom they condescended to render independent." At what period the ancient municipal jurisdiction of Leeds became obsolete, does not appear, but it probably ceased after the desertion of the castle. Which is no where mentioned as actually existing after the imprisonment of Richard II. One reason might be that the manor was once more in the greater fee of Pontefract, so that there was no longer any interest in the lords to exercise a local jurisdiction, nor any power in the burgesses to maintain their rights against such powerful antagonists.

The Manor of Leeds appears to have passed from the Paganels, either in the time of the above named Maurice Paganel, or his successor. In 1234, it was granted as part of the estate of Ranulph, Earl of Chester, to Hugh de Albenci, Earl of Arundel, son of Mabel, the second of Ranulph's four sisters and co- heirs. Earl Hugh dyeing without issue, the probability is that it reverted to the family of earl Ranulph, whose fourth sister, Hawise, had the Earldom of Lincoln conferred upon herself and her heirs; for the next mention f Leeds proves it to have been in the possession of the Lacies, - John de Laci, the first earl of Lincoln of that family, having married Margaret, daughter of Robert Quincy, by the Lady Hawise above mentioned. In the 36th of Henry III, Edmund, son of John de Laci, obtained a charter of free warren in all his demesne lands of Pontefract, Rowell (Rothwell,) Leedes, Berwick Seacroft, Bradford, Alemondbury, Windlesford (Woodlesford), Oltone, Carltone, Lofthouse, Sladeburn, Castleford, Methley, Grenlington, Braford (Bradford) in Bowland, Swillington, Farnelegh, Backshelf, &c. in Com. Ebor. In the fourth year of Edward II, Alice, widow of the above mentioned Edmund de Laci, had assigned for her dowry the manors of Leedes, Rodwell, Berwick, Sladeburn, Grinleton, Bradford, &c. Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, having married Alice de Laci, only daughter and heiress of Hugh de Laci, the last earl of Lincoln of that name, the manor of Leeds, with all the vast possessions of the Laci family, were united to those of the Duchy of Lancaster. When the Duke of Lancaster ascended the throne with the title of Henry IV, this manor with the other ducal possessions passed to the crown, and in the crown it was vested, until the death of Anne, princess of Denmark, and consort of James I, part of whose jointure it was. At this period it was sold into private hands. From the records in the office of the Duchy of Lancaster, it appears that the manor of Leeds was granted by Charles I, in the fourth year of his reign, to Edward Ditchfield and John Highlord, in trust for the city of London. It seems, however, to have reverted to the crown, in some unknown manner, almost immediately; for Thoresby tells us that it was purchased of the crown, by his great grandfather, Richard Sykes, Alderman of Leeds, in the years 1629 and 1636. At the request of John Harrison, the founder of St. John's Church, who thought that the possession of the manor by a single individual, a resident in the place, would give him too great a superiority over his fellow townsmen, and expose him to considerable odium, Mr Sykes permitted him and several other gentlemen to become joint purchasers with him, reserving only one share for himself and another for his son. It has ever since been divided into nine shares, of which four now belong to Christopher Wilson esq. of Ledstone, and one each to Lady Frances Gorden, Rev. F T Cookson, Christopher Beckett, Esq. the Executors of the late Cphr. Bolland, Esq. and Robert Sangster, Esq. The latter gentleman purchased his share by auction in 1837, for 695, and about five years ago Mr Beckett gave 590 for his share, though the income of each share is only about 17 per annum. These owners of the manorial rights of Leeds, hold a Court Leet, at which a jury is empannelled, to inspect the weights and measures, to resist encroachments, &c. &c. Messrs. Atkinson, Dibb and Bolland, are the Manor Stewards. Leeds is still subject to the paramount jurisdiction of the Honour of Pontefract, for which a Court Baron, for the recovery of debts under 5, is held at Pontefract on Wednesday, in every three weeks, (return days;) and by adjournment from thence at Huddersfield, Bradford, Leeds, and Barnsley, about eight times a year at each place. John Hardy, esq. of Bradford, is the steward, and attends at the Leeds Court House, twice a year, to try all cases that are standing over. Mr Samuel Hailstone is the deputy steward. This court was extended for 40s. to the recovery of debts under 5, by an act passed in 1777, which established Courts of Request in several neighbouring parishes, but not in Leeds. The Debtors' Gaol is at Rothwell, 41/2 miles S W of Leeds, and Chpr. Jewison, Esq. is the governor, and also chief bailiff and a coroner for the

Honour of Pontefract, as will be seen in Vol. II.

Soke; - The feudal rights of Leeds now in use are few in number and unimportant in their operation, with one solitary exception - the rights claimed and exercised by the owner and occupier of the King's Mills, of compelling the inhabitants of the manor of Leeds grind their corn at the said mills, subject to a toll, which on malt amounts to a 32nd part, and on wheat to a 16th part. The origin of this custom is very remote. In ancient times each family ground its corn in hand-mills. When water mills were invented, their introduction was eagerly desired, and no one being found able to build them, in some poor districts, the king was petitioned to erect mills in various places, to which he consented, on condition that the inhabitants would bind themselves and their heirs for ever, to grind at such mills, on the terms then agreed on. During the Crusades or Holy Wars, many privileges and immunities were granted to the Knights Templars, of whom there was a large, wealthy, and iniquitous community at Temple Newsam, who had bestowed upon them land, messuages, and tenements in Leeds, which they annexed as members to their manor of Whitkirk,. The occupants of the houses in Leeds, standing upon the land which formerly belonged to these knights Templars, of the order of St. John of Jerusalem, claim exemption from the soke by the payment of a trifling septennial demand. They have, however, had several disputes with the miller, the last of which was an expensive litigation, which terminated in a trial at York, March 27th, 1787, when all the tenants of the manor of "Whitkirk-cum-Membris", were declared to be exempt for suit and service at the King's Mills. In this trial the miller was plaintiff, and John Peart defendant; and the houses in Leeds which claim exemption have ever since been distinguished by stone crosses placed upon their fronts, as may be seen in St. John street, Templars street, &c. The Soke Mills have been rebuilt and enlarged at various periods, and stand in Swinegate, upon a stream which flows in a channel cut across from the two points of a semicircular reach of the river Aire. In 1372, under the designation of the "two corn mills of the Queen's Majesty," they were held by letters patent under the seals of the Duchy of Lancaster, by John Lindley Esq. of Leathley, at the yearly rent of 13. 6d. 8d. but their clear yearly value was then 126. 13s. 4d. Charles I granted the soke and the mills to Edward and Wm. Ferrers; and in 1815, thy were purchased by their present proprietor and occupier Mr Edward Hudson, at the cost of 31,000. The Commune Furnum or Common Bakehouse, with a soke annexed, as noticed in the burgage charter of Maurice Paganel, stood at the upper end of Kirkgate, opposite the site of the old prison. It wan an evil which grew with the growth of the town, but common sense and the necessity of the case gradually abolished it, in the early part of the 17th century, when James Ibbetson, Esq. built a square of houses in the yard where the bakehouse stood. Its annual value was 120 in the reign of Elizabeth, though it was them farmed by John Metcalf, at the yearly rent of 12. At the Domesday Survey, Hunslet, now a populous suburb of Leeds was in the soke of Beeston.

Leland, who wrote in the reign of Henry VIII, and was honoured by that monarch with the title of his antiquary, affords us a comparative view of Leeds and the neighbouring towns, as they existed about the year 1538, when it appears that Leeds was less than Bradford, and Wakefield was larger than the latter town. It is probable that at this period Leeds was only just uprising from the depression of ages, - that its woollen manufactures had very recently been introduced from Wakefield, Bradford, and other places, and that it was only commencing that career of industry and enterprise which has elevated it to the highest rank among the Yorkshire towns. The letter patent of Henry VIII, granting the advowson of the parish church to Thomas Culpepper, Esq. - the foundation of the Grammar school,. - the purchase of the advowson by the parishioners, - the munificent benefactions of Harrison and others, - the improvement in the streets, &c., - and the rise, progress, and present state of the trade, commerce, and institutions of the town, will be shewn under their proper heads at subsequent pages. In 1583, the stone stairs or "Grieve," on the west side of Leeds bridge, were built with stone from Kirkstall Abbey. These stairs led to the tenters and to Embsey Bridge which crossed the mill stream to the Isle of Cinder. From 1572 to 1691, there were eleven triple births in Leeds, as appears by the parish register. In 1615, a bill of complaint was exhibited in Chancery by the inhabitants of Leeds, stating that "The said town and parish being very large and populous, consisted of five thousand communicants, or more, and though some were three or four miles distant from the parish church, yet nevertheless three or four thousand of them ordinarily resorted thither on Sabbath day, &c." Chapels had previously been built at Beeston and Chapel Allerton, but not withstanding the urgent want of further church accommodation, set forth in the above bill of complaint, St john's the second church in Leeds, was not built till 1634, nor the chapels at Armley and Hunslet till 1630 and 1636.

The Borough, was first incorporated in 1626,by a Charter of Charles I, under which it was governed till 1661, when Charles II granted the burgesses a new charter, preserving nearly the same form as the first incorporation, but conferring additional power and privileges, after making the following reference to his father's charter - "Our most dear father Charles the First, lately King of England of blessed memory, by his letters patent under the Great Seal of England, made bearing the date the thirteenth day of July, in the second year of his reign, of his special grace did ordain, grant, and appoint, the town aforesaid to be a free borough of this his real of England, and that under the name of the borough of Leedes aforesaid the whole parish of Leedes should be comprised, and that all and every the inhabitants of the town and parish of Leeds aforesaid, and their successors thenceforth for ever, should be and continue one body corporate and politic in thing, fact, and name, by the name of aldermen and burgesses of the borough of Leeds, in the county of York; and should have, exercise, and enjoy, divers liberties, privileges, powers, and authorities, in those letters patent particularly specified." Under the charter of Charles I, Sir john Savile, the builder of Howley Hall, and at that period the great patron of Leeds, was the first mayor, and in that capacity he was so highly respected, that his arms, known by the name of Hullarts, (Three Owls,) were adopted by the town. He did not however formally discharge the functions of his office, which were performed for him by John Harrison, the great benefactor of the town. John Clayton was the first recorder, and George Banister the first town clerk. One of the objects of the charter of Charles II, was to protect the merchants and clothworkers of Leeds from "the many great abused, defeets and deceits," which had been discovered "in the making, selling, and dyeing of woollen cloths," by fraudulent individuals, to the injury of the manufacture itself, and the prejudice of the royal customs and revenue. The limit of the borough are repeatedly stated in this charter to be commensurate with those of the parish and it vested the government of the borough in a corporate body, consisting of a Mayor, twelve Aldermen, and twenty four Assistants, forming the Town Council with power to fill up the vacancies in their own body, and to elect the mayor yearly from the Aldermen on the feast of St. Michael. The charter also provided that the borough should have a Recorder and Town Clerk, to be appointed by the King on the petition of the Mayor, Aldermen, and Burgesses, and that each of these officers might appoint a deputy. The Mayor and Aldermen were empowered to elect a Coroner, two Sergeants at Mace to serve in the borough for proclamations, arrests, and execution of processes, and a Clerk of the market. The Town Council were to appoint Constables and a Prison was enjoined to be kept for the reception of offenders, under the control of the mayor and his deputy. The Mayor, Aldermen, Recorder, and Deputy Recorder, were to be justices of the Peace, within the borough, with power to hold both Petty and Quarter Sessions. The Town Council , when assembled by the summons of the Mayor, were invested with full power o make "such reasonable laws, orders, statutes, and ordinances, in writing, for the good rule and government of the borough, as to them might seem reasonable and meet. They had the power to propose new laws relative to the manufacture, dyeing, or the sale of woollen cloth, but under this restriction, - in all such cases they were commanded to summon "forty of the more honest and sufficient cloth workers, inhabitants of the borough," who, with the Council, were to be called the Common Assembly; to them the Corporation were to submit the proposed statutes, which, if approved by the majority, were to become the standing and effective laws of the borough, obligatory, with the pain and penalties they contained, upon "all the cloth workers, artificers, and merchants." In order to enforce these laws, the Mayor, Aldermen, and Assistants, were empowered, with the consent of the Common Assembly, to impose such fines upon the property, or imprisonment of the person, of an offender, as they might deem requisite and reasonable. And they were intrusted with the same power respecting their laws for the internal regulation of the borough, it markets, and fairs, and the conduct of the different officers and servants they might be under the necessity of employing. These fines for offences against the municipal laws were to be collected by the Corporation and applied to the use of the body; as also were all the fines, forfeitures, issues, and amerciaments, imposed before the borough justices and in the borough courts, which they were empowered to levy by attachment of the goods or persons of offenders. To the Mayor, Aldermen, and Burgesses, were committed the inspection, correction, and enforcement of the assize of wine, bread, ale, and other kind of victuals sold within the borough; but the fines imposed upon offenders upon these matters, were not to be applied to the use of the Corporation, but to be laid out for the benefit of the poor. It was expressly declared by another provision of the charter, that all victuallers, and fishmongers, and other persons coming to the borough with victuals for sale, should be under the government of the Mayor and Aldermen. The charter freed the Mayor, Aldermen, and Burgesses from serving as jurors, bailiffs, or constables out of the borough, except they possessed such lands or tenement out of the borough as might render them liable to such offices. It also confirmed to them the privilege of a market to be held every Tuesday, with free customs, tolls, stallage, fines, &c, and empowered them to "impose, tax, and assess," upon the inhabitants, such sums of money as might be necessary to the support of their dignity and authority, as conservators of the peace and general weal of the borough.

The burgesses were not long allowed to manage their municipal affairs under this charter without interruption. "In the reign of James II there was great dabbling among charters, to extend the influence and facilitate the designs of the court." That monarch forced upon the borough a new charter in the first year of his reign, (1685) but the innovation was abrogated in 1689, by William and Mary, who restored to the burgesses their second charter, under which the borough was governed till 1835, when an act was passed by the legislature to provide for the regulation of all the Municipal Corporations in England and Wales, This national charter gave the Corporation a new and popular constitution, and the Reform Act, passed in 1832, conferred upon the borough the privilege of sending two representatives to parliament. These great charters passed under the auspices of our late lamented sovereign, William IV, who died June 20th, 1837, will carry the memory of his reign to all posterity, as one of the most glorious in our country's annals, as one in which the deeply rooted abuses of ages were abolished, and a sure foundation was laid "for the progressive establishment of equal rights and equal freedom, civil and religious, to every class of the community."

In the reign of Queen Anne, (1710) the office of recorder being vacant, the corporation elected Mr Wilson, by a very large majority of votes, but his politics being disliked by the Tory party, Wm. Nevile, Esq. the acting High Sheriff of Yorkshire, "in order to obtain his deposition, represented, in the name of the church, the magistrates of Leeds as being infected with the principles of Whiggery," in consequence the appointment was conferred upon a tool of the court, altogether inadequate to the office. The misrepresentation was soon discovered, and the corporation determined to deliver themselves from the imputation. Two years afterwards they presented a loyal address to the Queen, in the palace at Kensington, and it was so graciously received, that Alderman Wm., Milner was at the expense of a white marble statue of her majesty, which he present to the corporation, who placed it in front of the Moot Hall. "The day when this statue was erected, (May 12th 1713) was observed in the town as a festival and holiday, a splendid procession traversed the streets, and every demonstration of joy was exhibited by all grades of the people." When old Moot Hall was demolished, in 1825, this statue of Queen Anne, executed by Carpenter, was re-chiselled, and now looks down Briggate from an elevated niche in front of the Corn exchange. The above was not the only instance of the interference of the crown in the election of the officers of the Corporation. In 1753, they chose Mr Barstow to be the Town Clerk, but the King annulled the appointment, and ordered Mr Thomas Atkinson to have the place, then valued at 200 per annum.

In the Civil Wars, which so long disturbed the kingdom in the 17th century, between Charles I and the Parliament, most of the towns of the clothing district were decidedly in favour of the latter; but Leeds does not appear to have exercised much opposition to the royal cause, perhaps from a sense of gratitude for the charter of incorporation with which the unfortunate King had honoured the town. Immediately before the commencement of these intestine broils, the government agent at York, sent orders to the corporation of Leeds, to levy on the inhabitants 72 as their quota towards the setting out of one ship of 450 tons, to be furnished with "men, tackle, munition, victuals, and other necessarys for the safeguard of the seas and the defence of the realme." The agent at York, declared in his letter that the town was highly favoured in "having but to pay 72 toward soe great a charge." In the same year, the celebrated Hampden refused to pay his contribution to the ship money, and his example was followed by other popular leaders, who soon raised such a storm of prejudice against the proceedings of the crown, as brought about a long and bloody contest between the King and the Parliament, in which Leeds did not suffer so much as Bradford, Wakefield, and some other places in the West Riding. The principal action here was the capture of the town on the 23rd January 1643, by the Parliamentarians, under Sir Thomas Fairax. That General, with six troop of horse, three companies of dragoons, one thousand musketeers, and two thousand club-men, marched out of Bradford to attack Leeds, and advancing within a short distance, summoned Sir Wm. Savile to surrender the town; but receiving a haughty answer, he advanced with colours flying to the south west side of the town, and began the assault, which lasted about two hours, when the royalists were beaten from their out works, and their cannoneers were killed. Sir Thomas, and his brother Sir Wm. Fairfax, with Sir Henry Fowlis, and Captain Forbes, now cut their way thorough all opposition, and took possession of the town, where they found two brass cannon, with a large store of ammunition, and took 500 prisoners, among whom were six officers. Sir Wm. Savile (the governor for the King) fled, and escaped being taken by crossing the river; but Serjeant-Major Beaumont was drowned in making the attempt. Leeds often changed master in these turbulent times, but was never the scene of much blood-shed, as is shown in the following extract from the register of the parish church; - "23rd Jan. 1642-3, Leedes was taken by Sir Tho. Fairfax, 11 soldiers slain, buried 24th; five more slain two or three days after; six more died of their wounds. Buried 1st April, 1643, Captain Boswell, slain at Seacroft battel, and six soldiers. A gentleman and two common soldiers slain in Rob Williamson's house, of Hunslet, buried 13th April, 1643. Five soldiers more slain. Nine more in May, 1643. Sixteen more in June under Capt. Lascells, Major Gifford, Sir George Wentworth, Capt. Thornton, and the Earl of Newcastle. Twelve more in July under Gen. King, Sir Ingram Hopton, and Sir Wm. Widdrington. 26 soldiers buried in July and august 1644. A soldier buried in the old school garth."

In 1646, after the battle of Marston Moor, and the surrender of the castles of Skipton, Sandall, and Pontefract, had annihilated the hopes of the royalists, King Charles I surrendered himself to the Scots at Newark and was conveyed by them to Newcastle upon Tyne. On the road, the treacherous Scots halted at Leeds where the royal captive lodged at the Red Hall. A servant maid at this house, compassionating the fallen condition of the king, intreated him to put on her clothes, and make his escape, assuring him that she would conduct him in the dark out of the garden door, into a back alley, (Lands Lane,) and thence to a friend's house, whence he might escape to France. The King however declined the woman's offer, but with many thanks, and gave her for a token, "The Garter", saying , that if it were never in his own power, on sight of that token, his son would reward her. After the Restoration, the woman presented the token to Charles II, and told him the story - The King inquired whence she cane? She replied, from Leeds, in Yorkshire. Whether she had a husband? She replied, yes, - What was his calling? She said an, Under Bailiff. Then, said the king, he shall be Chief Bailiff in Yorkshire. The husband was elevated to affluence, and afterwards built Crosby House, in the Head row.

During the Commonwealth, when the reins of government were held by Cromwell, Leeds was allowed to send a representative to parliament; and the person chosen was Adam Baynes, Esq., of Knostrop, a captain in the parliamentary army. It appears from a letter written by a Mr. Walker to Mr Alderman Thwaytes, that this honour was procured for the town of Leeds by the influence of Mr Baynes himself. The words of Mr Walker are, "Capt. Baynes, as I am credibly informed, out of courtesy and good will procured the town this honour; but for him it had not been; now we shall render ourselves unthankful persons indeed, if at the first election we give that coat of honour to another which he won for us; far be it from us." Captain Baynes was duly elected, in July 1654, and in his first Letter to his constituents, he says, "I understand by letters from Dr. Diveroe, and other good friends, how exceedingly you have obliged me beyond my deserts and expectations, so that I am at a loss for power and abilities, nay even for expression, to show my gratitude for the same. And therefore can only return you my affections, which shall ever continue to supply all other defects to do you faithful service; to which end I desire you to look upon me as one ever ready to receive and obey your commands in every thing tending to your service. And in order thereunto, I make bold to hint to you. how short a time it is before the parliament beginneth to sit, and also the multiplicity of business that the next parliament will have, to the end that you may lose no time in preparing your commands for me, either in relation to your government, civil or political, or any thing else that may concern you. To which end my humble advice to you is, that you will study peace and love amongst yourselves, (if any thing contrary be) that you may be as unanimous as may be in your meetings, for a house or a kingdom divided against itself cannot stand; and in all your consultations let me beg of you to endeavour the promotion of the clothing trade, which you know, under God, is the greatest means of most of your well beings; and to that end let every man divest himself of self, and adhere to that which may be for the public good, which will be great honour and comfort to you, and satisfaction to him that is." As the Rev. E. Parsons says, "making the necessary allowance for the difference of style, this letter may be compared with our modern production of the same class; there are the same expressions of gratitude, the same protestations of unbounded service, facturing interest, and it may be added, the same concealed and very natural exultation."

When James II evinced his intention of dispensing with acts of parliament and overturning the Protestant religion, Leeds and the neighbourhood took an active part in bringing about the "Glorious Revolution", and in 1688, when William and Mary ascended the throne, they were proclaimed here Feb. 19th amidst the joyful acclamations of thousands. In the Rebellions of 1715 and 1745, when attempts were made to re-establish the Stuarts on the throne, the insurgents did not reach Leeds, though in the latter year, the Pretender, at the head of an undisciplined, but intrepid and faithful army of Highlanders, passed from Scotland to Manchester and Derby, whence he made a hasty retreat, and soon after quitted the Kingdom. During this period of alarm, General Wade, with a numerous army, lay encamped on the north side of Leeds, between Sheepscar and Woodhouse, and from the absence of old trees in that vicinity, it I supposed that the soldiers used all the timber they could find, in keeping alive their own fires. Though they had little to fear from the expected approach of the rebels, during the presence of Wade's army, many of the inhabitants took the precaution of hiding their plate and other valuables; but as no slaughter followed, all survived to dig up their treasures again. Wade's encampment is commemorated in the names of Wade lane, Camp road, &c and it is celebrated as being the last tented field in actual war in England.

Duke of Leeds: - This town was of such consequence in the 5th of William and Mary, as to be selected to give the title of Duke to one of the most distinguished statesmen of the age, by whose descendants the same honour is still sustained. "This circumstance seems to have afforded no little gratification to Thoresby. In the first page of his Ducatus, he speaks with evident pride of "His Grace, the High Puissant and most Noble Prince, Thomas Osborne, Duke of Leeds, Marquess of Caermarthen, Earl of Danby, Viscount Latimer, Baron Osborne of Kiveton, and a Baronet, Lord President of his Majesty's most Honourable Privy Council, Lord Lieutenant of the East, West, and North Ridings in the County of York" &c, &c. &c. In giving the Duke of Leeds a title derived from a trading town, it must be confessed that there was something appropriate. For his Grace's family originated from among the people. Its founder, Edward Osborne, in the middle of the sixteenth century, was the apprentice of William Hewett, and opulent tradesman, who lived upon London bridge, then occupied by a number of houses and presenting a continued street. The only daughter of Mr Hewett, on one occasion, fell into the river, and would have been drowned but for the gallantry of young Osborne, who plunged into the stream at the hazard of his life, and succeeded in saving his young mistress from destruction. He received the fair lady's hand as the reward of his courage; his father in law, who became Sir William Hewett, and Lord Mayor of London, richly endowed him with wealth; he was created a knight and elevated to the highest civic honours in the reign of Elizabeth; and his son, Sir Edward Osborne of Kiveton, was made a baronet by Charles I, and was afterwards appointed Vice President of the Council for the north of England, The son of this Sir Edward was High Sheriff of Yorkshire the second year after the Restoration, and by his patriotic conduct as Earl Danby (so created 1674) in taking arms at York for Wm. and Mary, he obtained the Dukedom of Leeds in 1694; and died full of honours at the advanced age of eighty one, in the year 1712". The present Duke is the sixth in order from the creation of the title and resides generally at Hornby Castle, in the north Riding of Yorkshire.

"Though Leeds was formerly connected with some of the principal families of the West Riding, some of whom made it the place of their residence, others sustained offices in its corporation, and others interested themselves in the transaction of its affairs; it has long been totally abandoned by the aristocracy. Three distinguished noble families reside within a few miles of it, and one of them is possessed of considerable property in the borough; but the residents at Harewood, at Temple Newsam, and at Methley, are seldom to be seen in its streets, the independence of manufacturing wealth being inconsistent with both the taste and the pride of dignity and rank."*

* The Denison Family are connected with Leeds, and one of them was elected Bishop of Salisbury in 1837. The name of this prelate's father was originally John Wilkinson Esq. a London merchant, and first cousin of Wm. Denison Esq. of Kirkgate, in this town, where he carried on an extensive business as a woollen merchant and realised a fortune of 700,000, a large portion of which he gained, it is said, by one ship's cargo, which arrived at Lisbon immediately after that city had been nearly destroyed by an earthquake. He died in 1782, and was interred at Ossington, where, on his monument in the church, he is represented standing on a pedestal, with his ship unloading in Lisbon haven. He bequeathed the bulk of his property to the above named John Wilkinson Esq. on condition of his assuming the name of Dension, and continuing to carry on at Leeds. Mr D's business as a cloth merchant, along with Mr W's brother, to whom about 3,000 or 4,000 year was also bequeathed and who retained his own name. Mr John Denison built for himself the spacious mansion in Hanover Square, (London) called Denison Hall, and was for some time a member of Parliament. The principal estate left to him was Ossington, in Nottinghamshire, the present residence of J E Denison Esq. M P for that county, and brother to the present Bishop of Salisbury. The families of John Denison, Esq. and his brother - Wilkinson Esq., still hold jointly the property extending for some distance on both sides of the river Aire near Knostrop, and they have also property at Woodhouse and in Kirkgate.

Two fatal Riots occurred here in the first half of the 18th century. The first in 1735, was occasioned by the dearness of provisions, and the allowance of a bounty on the exportation of corn. The rioters were so violent, that the King's troops were obliged to fire upon them, and 8 or 9 were killed. The second in 1753, exhibited a painful instance of the ignorance and folly that often give rise to popular clamour. The public roads in Yorkshire then consisted of narrow lanes, fitted only for the transit of pack-horsed; carriages could only move in a single row, while an elevated causeway, covered with flags or boulder stones afforded a narrow path for pedestrians. The first law for making Turnpikes was enacted in 1663; but it was not till long afterwards that local acts were rendered available to facilitate the communication between the towns in the West Riding. When the first turnpikes near Leeds were opened, the exaction of tolls excited an immense ferment among the people, and they determined to destroy the toll bars and the houses of the collectors. They demolished the gate between Bradford and Leeds, and also those at Halton Dial and Beeston. Three of the rioters were apprehended at the latter place, and conveyed before the borough magistrates then assembled at the King's Arms inn, in Briggate. The mob having in the morning rescued a carter who had been seized by the soldiers for refusing to pay toll at Beeston, assembled before the inn with the determination of liberating the prioners, and they soon broke the windows and shutters of the house with stones which they tore up from the pavement. The magistrate ordered out a troop of dragoons but the mob furiously assaulted them as they had previously done the constables. Orders having been issued for the closing of the shops and for every family to retire as far as possible from danger, the troops were commanded to fire fist with powder and this proudcing no effect, with ball. The people then fled in all directions, leaving in the streets about ten persons killed, and 27 wounded. Some of the latter afterwards died, and many others were injured. No subsequent explosion of popular violence occurred on this subject, and the people soon perceived that turnpike roads were a great benefit, instead of an oppressive grievance. The Pack horses now gave place to carriers' waggons, and stage coaches were established. The first stage coach in Yorkshire, proceeded from York to London, and performed the journey in four days. In 1764, we find the following advertisement; "Safe and expeditions travelling with Machines on steel springs, in 4 days to London, from the Old King's Arms, in Leeds, every Monday and Wednesday." The roads and carriages were much improved, and the speed of travelling greatly accelerated in 1776, when a new post coach was advertised to go to London from the same inn, in 39 hours.

Though the convenience and speed of stage coaches have been greatly improved since the close of the 18th century, they may, in a few years, be nearly all superseded by locomotive engines on rail roads. "and the next generation may smile at the clumsy dilatoriness of our present method of travelling, just as we ridicule the tediousness and apprehensions of our forefathers," who looked upon a journey of 50 or 100 miles as a perilous adventure. The great advantage of railways having been fully ascertained in other parts of the kingdom, an act of parliament was obtained on the 1s of June, 1830, for making the Leeds and Selby railway. The company of proprietors, incorporated by this act, were authorised to raise money amongst themselves for the undertaking, not exceeding 210,000, to be divided into shares of 100 each; "and they might also raise an additional sum of 90,000," by way of mortgage. The work was commenced in the beginning of the year 1831, and the road was opened for passengers on September 22nd 1834, and for the transit of merchandise on the 15th of December following. The whole length of the line is 19 miles, 7 furlongs, including the tunnel at the Leeds end. The work was executed under the direction of Messrs. Walker and Burgess, engineers, of London, and the contractors were Messrs. Nowell and Sons, of Dewsbury, for the fist two miles, including the tunnel; and Messrs. Hamer and Pratt, of Goole, for the remainder. The road is formed of a bed of stone broken small, and two feet thick. Upon this, two lines of railway are laid down, six feet six inches apart from each other. The rails are fastened into iron chains, which are plugged into heavy blocks of stone, at the distance of three feet, and to prevent the loosening of the chains by the shaking of the rails, a sheet of Borrodaile's'' composition felt is bedded between each of them and the stone. Three miles of the road is a dead level; seven miles on an inclined plane of one in one thousand; and the other inclined planes are so gentle in slope as to be nearly imperceptible to the naked eye. It commences on the east side of the town near the upper end of Marsh lane, where the company's extensive warehouses, &c. are admirably arranged, and afford every possible convenience for the reception and transmission of passengers and goods. Immediately after leaving this station the traveller arrives at the tunnel which is 700 yards long, and in the deepest part 70 feet below the surface. One third of the excavation is through rock, and the remainder through shale and coal measures. The materials derived from the rock have been used for the foundation of the middle part of the railway. The tunnel was excavated from five different points - one at each extremity, and from three shafts sunk to the proper level, at intermediate distances. An open excavation of 160 yards in length, retained by a strong wall of excellent masonry rusticated, precedes the actual entrance into the tunnel. This entrance is by a handsome stone archway built with large stones, and admirably appropriated to its purpose. The tunnel is 22 feet wide at the springing line of the arch, and 19 feet high from the invert to the top of the arch; from the level of the railway to the top of the arch is 17 feet. It is walled and arched with brick throughout. There are generally two courses of bricks placed lengthways so as to make the thickness of the arch twenty inches, and where the shale or earth is at all loose, there are three courses of bricks. The bricks are of superior quality, and they are carefully cemented with mortar, in which volcanic matter is mixed, and which soon becomes as hard and as tenacious as the brick itself. The walls are not perpendicular, but form a slight concave curve so that the tunnel is wider at the springing line of the arch that at the level of the road. The object of this mode of construction is to give strength to the whole mass of brickwork, and to preclude the possibility of the superincumbent earth forcing in the walls. The work is still further strengthened by an inverted arch of brick, passing under the railway from wall to wall, wherever the excavation is through earth or shale. The tunnel is sufficiently and very ingeniously lighted; and the traveller leaves behind him a region where the smoke of countless factories pollutes the atmosphere, and he enters upon a scene where no such contamination affects his organs, where the whole population is agricultural, and where rural tranquillity and peace are never invaded and destroyed by the confusion and bustle of manufacturing industry." The embankment upon which the railway is carried from the mouth of the tunnel across the valley to the opposite hill of Halton, is a very stupendous work, supported by immense walls and buttresses, and crossing the road to Ferrybridge by an arch of excellent workmanship. The hours of departure of the trains of coaches and carriages are stated at page 533, together with the passengers' fares. In 1836, and 7, acts of parliament were obtained for making upwards of thirty lines of railways, which will in a short period intersect kingdom in almost every direction. One of these is to extend from Leeds to Manchester; another from Selby to Hull; and a third from Leeds to Derby. The cost of the first is estimated at 1,300,000; of the second, 400,000; of the third (the North Midland) 1,500,000. Locomotive Steam engines were first invented by Mr Trevethick, of Merthyr Tydvil Iron Works, in South Wales, in the year 1804. They were subsequently tried at various coal and iron works, but were not brought into constant use in Yorkshire, till 1812, when one began to run on a railroad from the Rev. R Brandling's colliery at Middleton, to the coal staith in Hunslet lane, - a distance of three miles and a half.

The formation of these tram roads, on which carriages may be propelled at the rate of more than twenty miles per hour will no doubt materially injure the proprietary interest in the extensive and greatly improved Inland navigation, to which Leeds has long been indebted for a larger portion of its growing prosperity. In 1627 a Mr. Meeres suggested to Sir T Savile, the propriety of making the Calder Navigable to Wakefield, but it was not done till 1698, when the Aire was made navigable to Leeds, under the same Act of Parliament obtained in that year by the Aire and Calder Navigation Company, who, in 1760, extended the navigation of the Calder to Salterhebble, and since 1820 have extended the latter to Halifax, and cut the Knottingley and Goole Canal, which branches from the Aire, and saves a distance of seventeen miles in the navigation from Leeds to Hull. They have also constructed a large Dock on the south side of the Aire, and have so improved the whole navigation as to make Leeds a Port for sea-borne vessels of 120 tons. Their warehouses on both sides of the river are extensive, especially that near the north end of the bridge, which was built in 1827 & 8, and is seven stories in height forming a prominent object in the approach from the south. The Leeds and Liverpool Canal, which extends the navigation from the German Ocean to the Irish Sea, was commenced under an act passed in 1770, but amended by other acts passed in 1790 and 1794. About thirty miles of this great canal, extending from Leeds to Holm Bridge near Gargrave, and 28 miles, extending from Liverpool to Newbrough, were finished before the close of the 18th century, but the whole line (129 miles) was not finished till October 19th 1816, when it was opened by a grand aquatic procession. It commences on the south side of the Aire, opposite School close, where there are spacious wharfs and warehouses, and a large dock and basin, communicating with which is Victoria Bridge, which crosses the Aire to Sandford street and was erected in 1837. A general survey of the rivers, canals, and roads, of the West Riding will be found in Volume II.

Water Works; - The attention of the inhabitants of Leeds was directed at an early period to the supply of their families with water. In 1694, works were constructed for this purpose, under the direction of an engineer of the name of Sorocold, who had been employed in a similar manner at London, Bristol, and Norwich. A large reservoir was constructed at Lidgates, and pipes were laid from it to Kirkgate; but these works were greatly inadequate to the wants of the increasing population, and in 1754, the proprietors obtained a lease for 99 years of the Pit Fall Mill, near the bridge, which had been occupied as a fulling mill in the time of Charles II. From this mill they forced water from the river Aire into the reservoir, but the works were so inefficient, that in 1790, an act of parliament was obtained, not only for better supplying the town and neighbourhood with water, but also "for more effectually lighting and cleansing the streets and other places," and for "preventing nuisances, annoyances, encroachments, and obstructions therein." This act authorised the borrowing of money requisite to complete the woks, on the mortgage of the works themselves; and the present shareholders, 122 in number, are in fact the mortgagees. The management of the Water Works is in the hands of Commissioners appointed yearly by the Vestry , and who are the same as the Improvement Commissioners. The total nominal amount of the shares is 14,600, which bears 5 per cent interest. Only 2200 houses, inhabited by 12,000 persons, receive water from the Water Works; and a population of upwards of 60,000 in the township of Leeds alone, have no supply, except from wells and rain-water. The water is raised by the Water Works from the river near the Bridge, and forced up by a water wheel to reservoirs in New street, St. John's, and Albion street, at the rate of 80 or 90 gallons per minute. Its quality is very indifferent; and from this cause, as well as from the deficient quantity, the inhabitants, a few years ago, engaged several eminent engineers for the purpose of finding out some new source, whence pure water, in sufficient abundance might be provided. This desideratum has been obtained, and in June 1837, an act passed both houses of parliament, for the construction of New Water Works, by a company of proprietors, at the estimated cost of 91,000, to be raised in shares of 25 each. The new works will derive their supply form copious springs at Alwoodley and Eccup, on the Earl of Harewood's estate, about six miles N of Leeds. These springs yield about 500 gallon of water per minute in the driest seasons, and this ample stream will be conveyed to a reservoir of six acres, on Woodhouse Ridge, from which elevation, the water will be sent in pipes to all parts of the town and suburbs. The management of the works is to be equally in the shareholders and the Town Council, and the rates to be paid by the consumers are to be on a moderate scale, so as to yield merely a remunerating interest on the capital expended. The proprietors of the old works (valued at 12,000 in 100 shares) are to have the option of receiving 100 for each of their shares, or of receiving in lieu thereof four shares in the new works.

The first Act for Lighting and Paving the streets, was obtained in 1755, and its preamble describes the town as follows; "Whereas the town of Leeds, in the county of York, is a place of great trade and large extent, consisting of many streets, narrow lanes and alleys, inhabited by great numbers of tradesmen, manufacturers, artificers, and others, who, in the prosecution of and carrying on their respective trades and manufactures, are obliged to pass and repass through the same as well in the night as in the day time; and whereas several burglaries, robberies, and other outrages and disorders have lately been committed, and many more attempted within the said town, &c., and the enlightening the said streets and lanes, and regulating the pavements thereof would be of great advantage, and then not only to the security and preservation of the person and properties of the inhabitants of the said town, but the benefit and convenience of strangers and persons resorting to the several markets within the said town &c. When the act for the water works , in 1790 was obtained, it extended the provisions of the former act for lighting and improving the streets, to those parts of the town which had hitherto remained without the privilege of nocturnal lamps, and to this distance of 1000 yards from the Bars. By oil lamps the town continued to be lighted till 1828, when an act was obtained for the establishment of coal Gas Works, by a company of shareholders, with a capital of about 30,000, which they expended in laying pipes through the streets, and in erecting commodious buildings with gasometers, retorts, &c, in York street. These works were finished, and the town first illuminated with their brilliant vapour, on the 4rh February, 1829, when the twinkling coruseations of the oil lamps, which had so long rendered "darkness visible," were disused. In 1824, an Oil Gas Company was established here, with a capital of "20,000 and erected works in New Park street; but the speculation proved abortive, and the works were discontinued after the lapse of about seven years. In 1834, a New Coal Gas Company was formed, and erected works in Meadow lane at a considerable expense,. The town and suburbs are now efficiently lighted by the two establishments, at the rate of 8s. for every thousand cubic feet of gas. The act of 1755, and 1790, so far as regards lighting, paving, and the prevention of nuisances, &c. were amended by an Act passed in 1809, which also contained provisions for erecting a court house and prison for the borough, and for widening and improving the streets. This act was amended in 1815, by another act, which provided for the expense of the prosecution of felons in certain cases, and established a police and nightly watch in the town and borough. All these four local acts, except such parts as relate to the water works and court house, were amended in 1824, by another Improvement Act, which after reciting that the town had greatly increased during the preceding ten years, and enumerating the titles of the former Acts, states that "there are several narrow, confined and inconvenient markets, streets, passages, and public places, and dangerous impediments, obstructions, and annoyances, in the town and neighbourhood of Leeds, which it is expedient to alter, remove, prevent, and remedy; but by reason of the defective or insufficient powers and provisions contained the said Acts, the same cannot be effected, nor can divers other beneficial and salutary regulations for the improvement of, and rendering more commodious the said markets, street, highways, public passages, and places in the said town and neighbourhood of Leeds, be accomplished, without the further aid and authority of parliament; it is therefore expedient that further and more effectual powers and provisions should be granted and made for the purposes aforesaid and for raising money for carrying the same into execution." This Act appoints all the Justices of the Peace for the Borough. And nineteen persons elected yearly by the rate payers, to be Commissioners for carrying it into execution. The jurisdiction of this act comprises the town and all the suburbs within the distance of one mile in a direct line from any of the Bars, and within these limit the commissioners were empowered to levy three distinct rates, to be called the "Middle Row Rate;" the "Improvement Rate," and the "Lamp Rate," the first not to exceed the yearly sum of 5d.; the second 3d.; and the third 4d. in the pound upon the rackrent or real annual value of the property chargeable thereto. The improvement rate is only to be levied within such parts of the aforesaid limits as are in the township of Leeds. The primary object of the first named rate was the purchase and removal of the Middle Row, an ancient pile of buildings, having at its south end the old Moot Hall. And extending along the centre to Briggate from Kirkgate end to a little above Wood street, where the upper part of Briggate then bore the name of Cross parish or Market place. The removal of this great obstruction from the principal thoroughfare in the town, was effected in 1825, at the cost of about 13,000, exclusive of nearly 2,000 expended in obtaining the act. These sums were liquidated in 1833, but the Middle row Rate was continued three years longer, being made available to the cost of purchasing the Vicar's Croft, and opening it as a Free market. The lamp and Improvement rates are levied yearly, generally to the full amount allowed by the act, and out of the latter, the commissioners have at various periods expended large sums of money in widening contracted thoroughfare, &c. In 1836, they expended 3,986 in improving Quebec and Mill hill, and in 1837, they widened the narrow entrance into Mab-gate from Quarry hill. The Bridges and the Market places which have been provided in various parts of the town during he last twelve or fifteen years (since he removal of the markets and fairs from Briggate,) rank amongst the most important improvements of the town, as will be seen at subsequent pages.

Floods:- The Aire has at various periods overflowed its banks and inundated some of the lower parts of the town, especially those on the south side of the river. One of the highest of these floods was on the 20th and 21st of October, 1775, when the bridges at Calverley and Swillington were destroyed, and a hare escaped by floating down the stream on the body of a drowned sheep. The height to which the water rose in Leeds, is commemorated by a notice at the corner of Water lane. In December 1790, another flood destroyed several bridges, and washed away Mr Gilyard's dyehouse, on Sheepscar beck. On February 9th, 1795, a most destructive flood was produced by a rapid thaw and heavy rain; during which a boat was carried away from it moorings, and forced on its broad side across one of the arches of the bridge, where it was broken to pieces by the force of the ice and water; horses, carts, timer, and furniture were carried away, and three men were drowned at Hunslet dam. Similar floods occurred in 1799, 1806, 1807, 1816 and 1822. "The most remarkable, though not the most destructive flood which has ever been known in the river Aire, was in 1824. On the night of Sept. 2nd in that year, the inhabitants on the banks of the river were astonished to perceive in a few moments a very considerable height, by a frightful accumulation of black water, which prevented the dyehouses and similar establishments from working, destroyed the fish in the river, and effected immense damage in it irresistible course. This strange inundation was produced by the sudden discharge of a vast quantity of peaty water from a bog on the summit of Crow hill, about nine miles from Keighley, and six from Colne. An area of bog three quarters of a mile in circumference, sunk to the depth of from four to six yards, and the flood which was thus discharged rolled down the valley to Keighley with a terrible noise and violence. Stones of a vast size and weight were carried down by the stream more than a mile, corn fields were covered, and bridges were damaged, but happily no life was lost. A dreadful thunder storm raged at the time when the water descended from the moor, and the inundation was no doubt caused by the electric influence, or the agency of a waterspout, by which the accumulation of ages was liberated in a moment, and precipitated into the valley below. In 1829, there was a yet more destructive flood in Leeds. At Black hill, near Addle, there was a large reservoir occupying an extent of from twenty to twenty five acres, and formed by the natural inequality of the ground and a large embankment at the east end about fifteen feet high. This reservoir was situated at the head of the stream known nearer Leeds by the name of Sheepscar beck. On the evening of July 11, the quantity of water in the reservoir had been materially increased by a heavy fall of rain during a thunder storm, and in the night the embankment gave way. The beck was in a moment increased to a mighty torrent; the fences, the walls, and bridges were carried away, the lands in the valley were covered; the mills by the bed of the stream were overwhelmed, and the goods they contained on their lower floors were either ruined or carried away; the houses and cottages exposed to the inundation were deluged, their contents were destroyed, and many a poor family lost all the clothing and furniture they possessed in the word; in the neighbourhood of Timble bridge and East street, great confusion was occasioned, as some of the inhabitants were in imminent danger of losing their lives, so that altogether this was by far the most calamitous flood that ever occurred in the neighbourhood of Leeds.

In 1730, Leeds Bridge was enlarged for the passage of "double carriages," and two men were killed during the alteration. In 1796, it was again repaired and widened. In 1750, the Methodists obtained a lease for 99 years of an old house and piece of land, on which they built their first chapel in Leeds. Lunardi, the first aeronaut in Britain, ascended in his balloon from the area of the White Cloth Hall, Dec 4th 1786. Here were great rejoicings and a grand procession of workmen, on July 1st, 1788, as a testimony of gratitude for the passing of an act to prevent the exportation of live sheep and wool, in which the French had encouraged an illicit trade, for the purpose of robbing the English clothier of his staple. A speech, written for the occasion, and delivered by a woolcomber on horseback, at the head of the procession, concluded with "may we never want a Pitt for the French to fall into." In November, the centenary of the "Glorious Revolution," was honoured with every demonstration of public joy. In 1790, as some workmen were digging clay in a field now occupied by part of George street, they discovered about 50 oak coffins, containing human bones and supposed to have been buried there during he plague of 1644-5. In 1792, the effigy of Tom Paine (properly labelled, and holding a pair of stays in one hand, and his "Rights of Man" and "Age of Reason" in the other,) was carried through the streets with a halter round his neck; and having been whipped and hanged at the Market cross, was thrown into a large bonfire, amidst the shouts of the surrounding multitude. In 1791, corps of Volunteer Infantry and Yeomanry Cavalry were established at Leeds, Bradford, Halifax, Wakefield, and other towns, for internal defence against insurrection or invasion. To assist in clothing the former, liberal subscriptions were raised to which Earl Fitzwilliam gave 1,000, and many other gentlemen 100 each. In 1795, Leeds raised its quota of 27 men for the navy. In 1796, wheat sold at from 12s to 13s per bushel, and the inhabitants of Leeds and Bradford entered into a solemn engagement to reduce its consumption in their own families at least one third. On January 4th, 1796, Leeds Volunteers were reviewed on Chapeltown Moor, by the Royal Duke of Gloucester, and on Feb 13th, the extensive linen manufactory of Messrs. Marshall and Benyon was destroyed by fired. The damage was estimated at 8,000, and 8 persons were killed and 20 wounded by the falling of one of the walls. On the 29th of May following, another melancholy accident happened in a building called Thoresby's Chapel, where a crowded congregation of Methodists were holding a love feast in a large upper room, the floor of which gave way, and 10 men and a boy were killed, and upwards of 30 others were so dreadfully bruised that several of them died of their wounds.

In 1797, public credit suffered a severe shock, from a scarcity of gold and the depression of trade; many banks stopped payment, but those at Leeds were promptly assisted by the gentry and merchants, who declared at a public meeting that they would take their notes in lieu of specie. An invasion being threatened by the French, three regiments of Supplementary Militia were raised in the West t Riding, in 1797; and in the following year, an Armed Association was formed in Leeds, and the Corporation subscribed 500 in aid of the supplies requisite for the defence of the kingdom. This gift was transmitted to the cashier of the Bank of England, and in order that it might be considered liberal, compared with their means, it was ordered to be entered thus on the subscription list - "The Corporation of Leeds having no property or income whatever, save the interest of 1,800, arising from fees of admission, and fines paid by those refusing to serve office, - 500." For the same purpose, J Smyth, Esq. of Heath, near Wakefield, gave 1,000 and the Earls of Harewood and Carlisle, each 4,000. Sir R B Johnston contributed 1,000 annually during the continuance of the war, which commenced after the decapitation of the King of France, in 1793 previous to which, the trade of Leeds and other place suffered severely from the effects of the American War which commenced in 1775. During both these long expensive wars, great distress frequently prevailed amongst the poor, but their sufferings were often alleviated by the liberal contributions of their more fortunate neighbours, in addition to the relief which they derived from parochial assessments, which pressed heavily on the smaller tradesmen. On May 6th, 1800, the market was disturbed by a riot, occasioned by the high price of corn, which in July, rose from 14s to 16s. 8d. per bushel.. To reduce its price, the inhabitants bound themselves not to consume more than 4lb of bread per head per week, until corn should be 10s. per bushel; and to make mutton cheaper and more plentiful, they determined not to eat lamb for three months. The Peace, which was ratified between Great Britain and France, on the 27th of March, 1802, was celebrated here by great rejoicings and a day of thanksgiving. The Volunteers were disembodied, and their colours deposited in the parish church. This peace only continued a year and sixteen days;- war being declared against France on the 16th May, 1803. An Act having hastily passed, requiring all the male inhabitants between the ages of 17 and 55 years, to be enrolled for the defence of the kingdom, the lieutenancy, magistracy, and principal gentry of the West Riding, assembled in Leeds, and resolved to have none but Volunteers "to stand forth to meet and resist an enemy threatening us with invasion and destruction." Aided by a subscription of 15,000 a regiment of Volunteer Infantry was raised in Leeds, and it soon comprised 2,400 men, who were provided with flannel waistcoats by the contributions of the ladies. In 1803, there was 1,364 deaths in Leeds, and in the following year only 671; - this decrease of mortality was supposed to have been occasioned by the introduction of Vaccine Inoculation. On the 9th January, 1805, died Jervas Storr, of this town, a worthy member of the Society of Friends, who possessed a yearly income of several hundred pounds, of which he expended 30 per annum on himself, and distributed the rest among the poor.

In 1808, the iniquitous practices of Mary Bateman, the Yorkshire witch, who had long resided in Camp field, Leeds, were exposed before the borough magistrates. The following is the outline of the tragical history of the abominable hag, who in 1806, alarmed her credulous neighbours with an egg, on which she had cunningly inscribed "Crist is coming." She was born at Aisenby, near Thirsk, in 1768, and having married, and taken up her residence in Leeds, became a witch by professon. Her arts were innumerable, and her crimes even to murder not a few. Poison was her favourite instrument and when her interest prompted to the deed, her conscience never stood in the way of its application. After practicing upon a number of other persons, She was directed by a young woman, one of her dupes, to the ill fated family of William Perigo, a small clothier at Bramley, whose wife was supposed to labour under an evil wish. This was in the year 1806. For upwards of nine months, the enchantress, aided by an imaginary personage, to whom she gave the name of Miss Blythe, held Perigo and his wife in her toils, now exciting their hopes, then rousing their fears, but all the time draining their purse, till she had got from them 70 in money, and remorselessly stripped the house of its furniture, and the inmates of their be apparel. At length, when they had nothing more to give, and when they became clamorous for the fulfillment of her promise of happiness and prosperity, she took the desperate resolution to silence their importunities and avoid detection, by terminating their lives. With this purpose, and under the pretence of administering a charm, she gave them poison to mix in their food. Both Perigo and his wife partook of the honey and the pudding in which the noxious drug was infused; she to the loss of her life, and he to the injury of his constitution. The death of Perigo' wife, dissipated the delusion under which he had so long laboured. He laid his case before the magistrates at Leeds, and Mary was committed to the County Gaol. On the 17th of March, 1809, she was tried for the willful murder of Rebecca Perigo, and being convicted on the clearest evidence, she was ordered for execution of the Monday following. At the appointed time she expiated her crime on the gallows, and her body was given for dissection to the Leeds infirmary. The lawless system of "Luddism," under which the enraged workmen of the clothing district arrayed themselves, in 1812, against the introduction of machinery, extended its depredations to this town and neighbourhood but its most destructive and tragical operations were in the neighbourhood of Huddersfield, as will be seen in Vol II. On January 10th, 1814, died Joseph Linsley, who for upwards of 34 years was governor of the Leeds workhouse and was several times visited by the philanthropic Howard, who wrote as follows;- "The poor of Leeds are well fed and taken care of; indeed, they, and the people at large, are happy in having a worthy and very honest man for the governor of the workhouse, a Mr Linsley, who was formerly a manufacturer in the town. His temper and disposition, as well as those of his wife, seem peculiarly adapted for their charge; mildness and attention to the complaints of the meanest, joined with firmness of manner, gain the respect of those who are placed under their care." Saml. Birchall, a member of the Society of Friends, and industrious naturalist, and author of a work on provincial coins, died here the same year, May 17th, aged 53. The Austrian Archdukes, John and Charles, visited the Cloth Halls, and principal manufactories of the town, on December 13h, 1815, after the general peace, which had been honoured here on February 3rd, by a grand Bishop Blaize Procession, but was for several months disturbed by the re-entry of Napoleon into France. In December 1816, the Grand Duke Nicholas, (now Emperor) of Russia, visited Leeds, Harewood House, York, and many other places in this county. In 1817, peace not having brought with it a revival of trade, many political meeting were held in Yorkshire, and subscriptions were opened for the relief of the unemployed. Cries for parliamentary reform became loud and urgent, and many large meetings were held, wearing the aspect of sedition, and excited, it was supposed, by several government spies. The gig-mill of Messrs. Willans and Sons, Hunslet lane, was destroyed by fire on November 10th, and as the pipes of the engines brought to extinguish the flames, were willfully cut, the fire was supposed to have been lighted by an incendiary. The damage was about 2,000, but the premises were insured. On Dec 17th, 1819, Benjamin Surr, a poor innocent of Leeds, then about 30 years of age, was found chained to the wall, in his father's cellar, where he had been confined more than 15 years, with nothing but a few sacks and a little straw for his bed, and such a scanty supply of food that his bones had in several places penetrated the skin. He was removed to the workhouse, but only survived the transition from misery to comfort, 13 days. On Sept 4th, 1823, Mr W W Sadler ascended in his Balloon from the Coloured Cloth Hall. The latter in his descent at Haxey, near Gainsbro', was thrown out of the car without much injury, but his balloon having re-ascended, passed over the German Ocean, and fell on the coast of Holland, where it was found by a Dutchman, who demanded 18 for its restoration, though it was much torn, and the barometer was lost. The failure of the great bankers, Messrs. Wentworth, Chaloner and Rishworths, of Wakefield, December 9th 1825, was followed by the bankruptcy of nearly fifty other banking houses, which created a long depression of trade and much distress amongst the poor. In the winter of 1826, the inhabitants of the town and neighbourhood had their feelings frequently wounded by a gang of "Resurrection Men," who during the night purloined many bodies from the church yards, and sent them to the anatomical schools of Edinburgh, but two of the packages were intercepted at a coach office in Newcastle and the body of Mary Oddy, the daughter of an Armley clothier, was recovered after a tedious search. Two of the gang (George Cox, and Michael Armstrong,) were detected and sentenced to six months imprisonment.

Sir John Beckett, Bart., an eminent banker and alderman of Leeds, died at his seat, (Gledhow,) on the 18th of Sept. 1826, aged 84 years. He was created a Baronet in 1813; was twice mayor of Leeds; and as a magistrate of the borough and the West Riding, he was distinguished for legal knowledge and impartiality. He was succeeded by his son, the present Sir John Beckett, Bart., one of the present parliamentary representatives of the borough, who married Mary Anne Lowther, third daughter of the Earl of Lonsdale.

In July 1827, Elizabeth Armitage, of Woodhouse, a spinster aged 69, suddenly fell into a state of lethargic stupor, in which she continued eight days, without receiving any kind of food or shewing any signs of life, except a slight breathing. She expired on the eighth day without a struggle. On Dec 18th, Kirkstall abbey Mills were destroyed by fire, and the damage amounted to 12,000. The building belonged to Sir Sandford Graham, Bart., and the occupants were Messrs. O Willans & Son. During the preceding twenty hears, many destructive fires happened at mills and factories in the town and neighbourhood; and in 1828, Mr. Hammond's flax mill at the Bank, was burnt to the ground; but such conflagrations do not now so often occur, owing, perhaps, to more care being used in the construction of the building, and in the manufacturing processes. On Dec. 22nd, 1828, died Betty Jackson, of Holbeck, aged 106. When in her 23d year, she accompanied the pack horses with rations to General Wade's army, then lying at Tadcaster. Many other instances of longevity have occurred in the parish.

Parliamentary Reform and elections; - Leeds has long been a populous and wealthy borough, but it had no representative in parliament until the passing of the Reform Bill, in 1832; though it was allowed to send one member to the House of Commons assembled at the commencement of the Commonwealth. In 1821, the electors of Grampound having been convicted of general bribery and corruption, a bill was brought into parliament by Lord John Russell to transfer the franchise of that borough to Leeds; but after passing the House of Commons, it was remodelled in the House of Lords; and instead of two members being returned for Leeds, it was finally enacted that Yorkshire should send four members in lieu of two. "By the memorable act of 1832, the right of the borough of Leeds to return two members to the House of Commons was finally recognised. To describe the anxiety which prevailed in this town during the alarming period when the Reform Bill, and the administration by which it was introduced and supported, were in jeopardy - to give a detailed history of the numerous public meetings which were held, of the energetic spirit which was displayed, and of the overwhelming manner in which public opinion lifted up its voice in the borough of Leeds at this crisis in the national affairs, would occupy too extended a space in these volumes; we can only state that the proceedings adopted by the inhabitants of Leeds not only coincided with the general sentiments of convictions of the vast majority of the people in every part of the kingdom, but materially contributed to sustain the hope and invigorate the exertion of the other towns in the West Riding, and had no inconsiderable influence upon the legislature and the empire." After the dissolution of the last parliament under the old system, three candidates appeared for the honour of representing Leeds, viz. Thomas Babington Macaulay, and John Marshall, jun., Esqrs., supported by the Whigs; and Michael Thomas Sadler, Esq., supported by the Tories. The nomination took place at the Mixed Cloth Hall, on Dec 10th 1832, when the shew of hands was decidedly in favour of the two first named candidates; but Mr. Sadler demanded a poll. Which commenced on the 12th, and closed on the 13th, in the election of Messrs. Marshall and Macaulay; the Votes being 2,102 for Marshall; 1,984 for Macaulay; and 1,596 for Sadler. The first had 38, the second 39, and the third 1,380 plumpers. In February, 1834, another election occurred in consequence of the resignation of Mr. Macaulay, preparatory to his going out to India as a member of the Governor General's Council, under the new India Bill. The candidates for the vacant seat were Edward Baines, sen., Esq., Sir John Beckett, Bart., and Joshua Bower, Esq. The nomination took place on Woodhouse moor, on the 13th; the polling on the 14th and 15th; and the result was the election of Mr Baines, who polled 1,951 votes, Sir J Beckett, 1917 and Mr Bower, 24. At the general election in January 1835, the late Mr Marshall declined appearing again as a candidate, and Edward Baines, Esq., and Sir J Beckett, were elected. The Votes for the three candidates being 1941, for Sir J Beckett, 1803 for Mr Baines and 1665 for William Brougham Esq.

Corporation Reform; - One of the great national charters passed in the reign of William IV, was "an act to provide for the regulation of Municipal Corporations in England and Wales," which received the royal ascent September 9th 1835. Preparatory to the introduction of this measure into parliament, his late majesty instituted a commission to enquire into the existing state of the different corporations. On Dec 14th, 1833, Fortunatus Swarris, Esq., one of the commissioners, opened a Court of Enquiry in Leeds; when John Nicholson Esq., the Town Clerk, said the Corporation considered that the Commission was illegal, but had allowed him to answer all questions asked by the Commissioners. He then described the limits of the borough and the constitution of the Corporation under the charter of Charles II. As already shown at previous pages and stated that they were Commissioners under all the Acts of Parliament relating to the borough, and that the only property which they possessed was obtained by fines amongst themselves, and consisted of 6,500 three per cent consols, and 500 secured on mortgage of the tolls of the Leeds and Wakefield road. Though their income was small, he said they had contributed various sums towards the improvement of the town and for the benefit of the nation, having given 500 in 1798, towards the supplies for the defence of the country; 400 in 1806, towards opening an new street from Briggate to Commercial street; 824, in 1820, for fitting up a temporary barracks in the town to be used for soldiers during a time of popular tumult, and 257.8s.3d. in 1826, towards the commutation of the vicarial tithes. He said also the Corporation had occasionally been at the cost of public entertainments, and that these expenses, with the salaries of the Recorder, Deputy recorder, and other officers, amounted nearly to the whole of their income. The emoluments of his office, as Town Clerk, Clerk of Indictments at the Sessions, &c., were about 700 per annum. The complaints urged by Mr Richardson, Mr Clapham, and other burgesses, against the Corporation, were confined solely to the non publication of their account as receivers and disburses of the Court House and Watch Rates, and of the close system of election by which they filled up vacancies in their own body to the exclusion of all who differed from them in religion and politics - none but Churchmen and Tories being admitted, even after the Test and Corporation Act had been repealed. The accounts were produced for the inspection of the burgesses present who, in return, expressed their satisfaction, but said the majority of the people desired the introduction of a new and more popular municipal system. The Commissioner then closed his enquiry, after sitting about six hours and a half. Before the passing of the Municipal Reform Bill, the old Corporation determined to prevent their funds passing to the new Corporation, and with this view they alienated the above named sums of 6,500 and 500, to three trustees - Messrs. Wilson, Beckett, and Ballads, for the purpose of being applied to some public purposes. They afterwards requested the trustees to dispose of part of the money as follows; 525 to the Recorder, as a gratuity for his past services; 105 to the Deputy Recorder; 750 to the Infirmary; 500 to the House of Recovery; 250 to the Dispensary; 1,000 towards the erection and endowment of a Church (St George's) on the west side of the town; and 2,000, in equal portions, to improve the stipends of the incumbents of Christ Church and S. Mary's. But the Town Council have now (1837) a suit in Chancery, and anticipate the recovery of the whole or part of the 7,000 from the trustees. They have, however, had to grant some compensation to the late Town Clerk and Chief Constable for the loss of their offices. The Constitution of the present Corporate Body, or Town Council. With the division of the borough into wards, the number of burgesses, and the amount of rates levied in 1836, has been seen previously. Under the old system, the last Mayor was Griffith Wright, Esq. and the Aldermen were H Hall, G Banks, C & T Beckett, R Markland, T Blayds, T Motley, R Bramley, W hey, B Sadler, R W D Thorp and J R Atkinson, Esquires. The following is a list of the present Borough Magistrates and Town Council with their officers;

Magistrates in priority, as named in the Commission of the Peace; but those marked * have not qualified, and one is vacant by the death of John Marshall jun, in 1837

James Williamson Esq  Edward Baines, sen. Esq
George Banks Esq *  Thomas Beckett Esq
Thomas Benyon Esq  Thomas Wm. Tottie Esq  William
W Brown Esq  James Holdforth Esq
George Goodman Esq  David William Nell Esq  Hamer
Stansfield Esq  James Musgrave Esq
John Clapham Esq  Thomas Hebden Esq  William
Pawson Esq  William Cadman Esq
Edward Grace Esq  William Smith Esq  John Gott Esq *
William Hey, sen. Esq*
Darnton Lupton Esq  Clerk to the Magistrate - Mr Robert
Barr  Mayor Jos Williamson Esq
Recorder Rt. Baynes Armstrong Esq

ALDERMEN
George Goodman  William Williams Brown  Hamer
Stansfield  Thomas William Tottie  James Williamson
James Holdforth  Thomas Benyon  William Pawson
Thomas Beckett  John Clapham
Griffith Wright  John Rainforth Bywater  William George
Scarth  James Musgrave  Henry Hall
Thomas Hebden  (eight of the aldermen are changed triennially)

COUNCILLORS (1836-37)
(Sixteen out of the 48 are change yearly)
 Mill Hill Ward   Wm. Hey. Jun.  John Heaton  Thos
Shann  John Howard  Henry Jennins  Edward
Charlesworth

West Ward  William Smith  Joseph Bateson  Robert
Dorrington  Obadiah Willans  Peter Fairburn
Richard Bramley

North West Ward    Jas. Robinson  Jas. Ogle  Matthew
Gaunt

North Ward  Wm. Cadman  Darnton Lupton  Wm.
Brown

North East Ward  Robert Jackson  Joshua Barett
Robert Baker

East Ward  John A Buttrey Israel Barrows  Eli Whiteley

Kirkgate Ward  Wm. Beckett  J S Barlow  T H Pease

South Ward  John Wilkinson  Rt. Derham  Jtn.
Dickinson

Hunslet Ward  John Bower  Joshua Bower  Wm.
Heaston, sen.

Holbeck Ward  Jas Hargreave  Jas. Whalley   Rd.
Jackson  Jonth. Shackleton  Chas. G Maclea
Edw. Tatham

Bramley Ward  Samuel Priestman  Matthew Moss,  jun.
Rd. Wilson  Benj. Rogers  Wm. Clark
Wm. Musgrave

Headingley Ward  Jas. Maude  Rt. Harrison  Geo.
Heyward

Officers appointed by the Council

Edwin Eddison, Town Clerk, John Smith Treasurer,
John Blackburn, coroner, Jas. Richardson, Clerk of the
Peace, George Hanson, Sergeant at Mace, Jas.
Lancaster , Gaoler and Edward Reed, Foreman of the
Town Fire Engine.

Officers appointed by the Watch Committee

Wm. Heywood, Chief constable, Williamson Etches,
Superintendent, John Wood, Committee Clerk, John
Handley, Beadle, Jas. Child, Wm. James, John Ulleart
and Joseph Hainsworth, Police Inspectors, and Benj.
Wood, Captain of the Watch and Bail Constable.
The Court House, under which is the prison and Police Office, is an elegant stone building fronting Park row, commenced in 1811, and finished in 1813, from designs by Mr Taylor, under the sanction of an Act of Parliament, which was obtained in 1809, and provided, among other things, that a rate of 1s. 3d. in the pound should be levied, to defray the expense of this building, on such messuages in the borough as were usually assessed to the poor. The form has a centre and two wings, the former having a lofty portico of four Corinthian columns, supporting a handsome pediment; and the latter have panels, in which the faces, fleece, wreaths, &c. are highly wrought in bas-relief. The Rotation Office and Magistrates' Room are on each side of the vestibule, and both communicate with the large hall which affords accommodation for the assembly of a considerable number of persons; having two galleries, one for the Grand Jury and one for ladies, and an elevated stage capable of containing 800 persons. The Grand Jury Room is over the vestibule, and communicates with their box. While two other rooms are appropriated to the Counsel and Juries and communicate with their boxes. This hall is used for the municipal and other public meetings, for the transaction of such local affairs as involve popular discussion. The basement story, which is entirely arched with stone, consists of an open arcade, a guard room, police office, and engine room,* and the gaoler's apartments, which overlooks the prison court, in which are thirteen cells. A room for military stores, an armoury, &c. are accessible through a guard room at the west end of the building, where there is also a distinct entrance for the public.

* Fire Engines - Two engines belonging to the Leeds and Sun Fire Offices are stationed at the Court house, the Leeds and Yorkshire Company have one at the White Hart Yard; the Norwich Union one in the Black Bull Yard, and four others are stationed at the Leeds Pottery and at the factories of Benyon & Co. Meadow lane, Marshall and Co, Water lane, and Hives and Atkinson, at the Bank

The Old Rotation Office was in Kirkgate, opposite Vicar lane, and was so called from the Aldermen attending there in turn for the administration of justice, after the ancient Moot Hall, which stood in the centre of Briggate, at the lower end of the Middle row, had become too small for the crowds who assemble at the quarter and Petty Session. Near the latter stood the Old Prison, which contracted the entrance into Kirkgate, and had long been a disgrace to the town, but was taken down after the completion of the Court House. The present gaol is said to be the worst in the county affording no classification of prisoners, and having only one small airing yard, so that the borough culprits, after conviction, are sent to Wakefield House of Correction; but the town Council had had the erection of a new borough gaol in contemplation, since 1836. Quarter Sessions are held here four times a year for the Borough, and for the west Riding at Michaelmas Petty Session, for the Borough, are held here every Tuesday and Friday, and it has long been a matter of surprise that the Corporation have not appropriated a room in the Court House for the weekly sittings of the west Riding Magistrates, who attend in the town to hear causes from the surrounding parishes. The Act for the erection of the Court house was the origin of some of the most useful improvements effected in the streets, and authorised the establishment of the present system of Police, which without any undue exercise of rigour, or any ostentatious display of authority, is efficient, and well regulated. The Vagrant Office, in Grantham street, was established in 1818, for the suppression of mendicity, and is supported out of the poor rate of Leeds township. It is under the care of a superintendent and assistant, who in some years, relieve as many as 6,000 vagrants, none of whom are allowed to beg in the streets, nor to remain longer than one night in the town. The number of criminal committals, in the borough of Leeds, amounted from the year 1816 to 18127, to no fewer than 17,463, being an average of 1,455 per annum.

The Cavalry Barracks, near Buslingthorpe, just within the northern boundary of Leeds township, were built at the cost of about 28,000, granted by Government, in 1819 and 1820, for the purpose of keeping in awe the populous clothing district, then supposed to be on the verge of insurrection. The barracks for the officers and men and the stables, are built of brick, on a commodious plan, and with the spacious parade ground, occupy more than eleven acres of land, in a pleasant and salubrious situation.

Market and Fairs - The market days are Tuesday and Saturday, and both of them are extensive marts for cloth, provisions, &c., and the former is also a corn, cattle, and swine market. A Fortnight Fair for cattle and sheep was established in 1827, and continues to be held on the opposite Wednesday to that at Wakefield. Two Annual Fairs are held on the 10th and 11th of July, and the 8th and 9th of November the former for horses, and the latter for horned cattle, &c. On the second day of each fair, young persons of both sexes, from the country attend to hire as servants, principally into the families of farmers. A Quarterly Leather Fair was established in 1827, to be held on the third Wednesdays in January, April, July and October; but in consequence of the increased demand for leather four additional fairs were established in 1833, to be held on the first Wednesdays in March, June, September, and December, and all of them are numerously attended by tanners and buyers. Until 1823, Leeds had no Market Places but its Cloth Halls, except such a formed parts of its streets and thoroughfares. Previous to that year, vegetables were mostly exposed for sale on the east side of Briggate, and the stalls of country shopkeepers, &c., occupied the west side of the same street The Shambles occupied the east side of the Middle row, above which Briggate took the name of Cross Parish from a convenient cross erected in its centre in 1776, on the site of an older structure, and round which the corn, butter, egg and poultry market was held. The cattle market was held in the narrow avenue of Vicar lane, the swine market in Lowerhead row, and the horse fair in Upperhead row, to the great annoyance of residents and passengers. Before the removal of the Middle row and the cross from the centre of Briggate, in 1825, and the exclusion of the market stalls and carts from that street, it was necessary that other market accommodation should be provided. In 1823, a company of shareholders raised a large capital for the erection of the Bazaar, New Shambles, Fish Market, &c, which extend from Brigatte into Vicar lane, and were finished in 1826, at a great expense, no less than 6,000 being given for that part of the ancient buildings which formed what was called the Old Square. The shambles are in two streets opening into Briggate, and called Cheapside and Fleet street, and above the centre row of shops is the Bazaar, a spacious room about 80 yards long, let in compartments to dealers in fancy goods, millinery, clothes, &c. At the end opening into Vicar lane, is "Leadenhall Wholesale Carcase Market," where 150 beasts, besides sheep, calves, &c., may be killed and dressed. Being below the surface, this slaughter house is cool in summer, and sheltered from the frost in winter. It is plentifully supplied with water, and kept perfectly clean and free from offensive smells. The free Market, for the sale of vegetables, fruit, hay, cattle, swine, &c., occupies and area of 9,758 square yards of land at the junction of Vicar lane and Kirkgate, formerly the Vicar's Croft, and the site of the Vicar's house outbuildngs, gardens, &c., all of which were purchased, in 1823, by the Improvement Commissioners, for a very considerable sum, part of which was laid out in land, and the rest in the purchase of an excellent mansion in Park square, to be the future residence of the Vicars. Though originally intended to be a free market, kept in repair, &c. out of the improvement rates, the farmers, graziers, and other dealers, preferred paying small tolls which are now let by the Commissioners to Mr Joshua Bower, for 1,200 per annum.

The Central Market, a spacious covered building, occupying a large square plot of land at the corner of Duncan street and Call lane, is one of the principal ornaments of the town. It was commenced by a company of shareholders in Nov 1824, and finished in October 1827, at the cost of about 35,000, from designs by F Goodwin, Esq, of London. Its principal front is a handsome elevation of Grecian architecture, consisting of a central and lateral divisions or wings, the former having two fluted Ionic columns and two antae, crowned with an entablature inscribed, "Central Market," above which is a blocking course with socles at the extremities, and a large acroterium above the centre, charged with three paterae, and finished with a pediment having Grecian tiles at the angles. The entrance between the columns is through a lofty doorway. The interior is very spacious and commodious; the centre is divided into three walks with stalls, and a gallery is carried round three sides of the building, with a Bazaar on one side. Streets or alleys, round the exterior of the market, are occupied by butchers and other traders; an avenue to Kirkgate leads to the Free Market, and in 1833, an opening called Market street was extended into Briggate. The Corn Exchange, at the head of Briggate, where the corn market is held every Tuesday from 11 to 1 o'clock, was commenced in 1826, and finished in 1828, at the cost of abut 12,500, raised in 50 shares, exclusive of the land which is held with some adjoining building sites on a 999 year's lease, at the yearly rent of 300. The form, which looks down Briggate, is extremely neat, having two Ionic columns and two antae, supporting an entablature and pediment, crowned by an elegant bell turret. In a niche between the columns is placed the renovated statue of Queen Anne. Art of the building is a commodious hotel, and behind it is a large court with a piazza where the corn market is held by sample; but corn is still sold in sacks, at the top of Briggate, though on a smaller scale than formerly. The erection of the corn exchange was followed by another great improvement - the widening of the Upperhead row, by pulling down and rebuilding the north side of that once narrow and dangerous thoroughfare. The South Market, where eight leather fairs are held yearly, occupies a large plot extending from Hunslet lane to Meadow lane, and was built in 1823 and 4, as a general market for the accommodation of the southern portion of the town and suburbs It consists of a great number of uniform shops, partly disposed in the form of streets, with a semicircular range surrounding an area, in the centre of which stands a circular temple, or cross covered by an hemispherical dome, resting on 24 Doric pillars. This market though it cost about 22,000, raised in 50 shares, was never patronized by the inhabitants of the populous part of the town and suburbs for whose use it was erected; and though many of the shops are now let for the use of the leather fairs the rents have never afforded any thing like an adequate interest for the capital expended.

The two Cloth Halls are among the largest and most important, though the plainest buildings in Leeds. In these halls the principal sales of woollen cloths, in their rough state, from the country manufacturers to the merchants take place on Tuesdays and Saturdays. The arrangement of the markets is well adapted to the despatch of business and in brisk times exhibits an interesting view of the trade of the town and neighbourhood. The Coloured or Mixed Cloth Hall, built in 1758, at the junction of West bar, Park row, and Wellington street, is a large quadrangular building, 127.1/2 yards long and 66 broad, enclosing an area, and divided into six departments, which, from their magnitude are denominated streets. Each street contains two rows of stands, and every stand measures 22 inches in front, and is inscribed with the name of the clothier to whom it belongs. The total number of stands is 1,800, and each of them cost originally three guineas; but in the early part of the present century they sold at from 16 to 24 each, though they have since been reduced in value to 50s. each. In 1810, an additional story was erected on the north side, and it is used chiefly for the sale of ladies' cloths in the undyed state. The White Cloth Hall, built on the same plan in 1775, is nearly as large as the other. It has an entrance from the "Calls," and forms one side of the street to which it give name. The original cost of its stands was 30s. but now only 20s. each; though about 30 years ago they sold at from 6 to 8 each. This depreciation is not owing to any decrease in the quantity of woollen goods manufactured, but to the factory system having so far prevailed over the domestic system, as to reduce the number of that valuable class, the clothiers attending the Leeds market, from upwards of 3,000 to less than half that number. The Cloth Market is held ever Tuesday and Saturday forenoon, and opens at each hall by the ringing of a bell; in a few minutes, the merchants walk in, each manufacturer appears behind his stand, and the sales immediately commence At the end of an hour, a warning bell announces the approaching close of the market, and the sound of the third bell, in a quarter of an hour afterwards, terminates the business of the day Each merchant now quits the hall on pain of a penalty of five shillings for every five minutes that he continues in after the last bell has rung; and thus, in an hour and a quarter, transactions are completed at each hall, often to the amount of 15,000 or 20,000, and sometimes to a still greater extent. The Mixed Cloth Hall opens at half past eight in summer; nine in spring and autumn; and half past nine in winter. The White Cloth Hall opens when the other closes; and strangers passing through the town frequently gratify themselves by visiting the halls during the hours of business, to which there is no objection. The cloth is brought to these halls in the unfinished state, and it is dressed under the merchants direction, either by his own workmen, or by persons whose business it is to dress and finish woollen goods. One of the regulations of the halls is, that clothiers who have not served a regular apprenticeship to the business, cannot occupy any of the stands. Those who were thus excluded, opened a cloth market in the basement story of the Music Hall, in 1792, but it was discontinued many years ago.

The original cloth market at Leeds was held upon the bridge until 1684, when it was removed into Briggate. Thoresby, who wrote about the year 1700, says "The Brig end shots have made as great a noise amongst the vulgar, where the clothier may, together with his pot of ale have a noggin of porrage and a trencher of either boiled or roast meat for twopence, as the market itself; amongst the more judicious, where several thousand pounds' worth of broad cloth are bought, and generally speaking, paid for (except the water-lengths, which cannot be determined,) in a few hours time, and this with so profound a silence as is surprising to strangers, who from the adjoining galleries, &c., can hear no more noise that the lowly murmer of the merchant upon the Exchange at London. After the signal is given by the bell, at the old chapel by the bridge, the cloth and benches are removed, so that the street is at liberty for the market people of other professions, as the country linen drapers, shoe makers, hardware men and the sellers of wood vessels, wicker baskets, wanded chairs, flakes &." In 1711 the cloth market had so increased and the inconvenience of holding it early in the morning in an open street, was so apparent, that a cloth hall was built on the site of the old Hospital. This hall was soon found too small, and the clothiers erected a larger edifice in Meadow lane, 70 yards long and 10 broad, in 1755, but this also was speedily abandoned, and gave place to the two more commodious cloth halls, just described.

Manufactures &c., - Though Leeds is now the principal seat and emporium of the woollen cloth manufacture it does not appear to have enjoyed that pre-eminence longer than the middle of the 17th century; previous to which, Halifax and Bradford were its equals, and had formerly been its superiors both in trade and populations. At the beginning of the present century, there were in the clothing district, extending westward from Leeds to the confines of Lancashire, nearly 6,000 master clothiers, who employed, besides their wives and children, between 30 and 40,000 persons; but their number has been considerably diminished during the last twenty years, by the introduction of the factory system. The first stages of the manufacture are, however, still extensively carried on in the villages and hamlets, where the wool goes through the respective operations of spinning, weaving, and fulling. The clothiers are generally men of small capitals, often annexing a little farm to their other business, or occupying as much land as will maintain a cow and a horse. During the present century, machinery has been extensively introduced and many gigantic manufactories have been established, in which the whole process, from the breaking of the wool to the finishing of the cloth ready for the consumer, is carried on. Yorkshire was famed only for the coarser kinds of broad and narrow cloths until about 25 years ago, when Mr Wm. Hurst, who rose from the rank of an operative, introduced such improvements into his manufactory, as enabled him to equal, if not to outstrip the far famed superfine black and blue cloth of the West of England. His merit was for some years rewarded with the most distinguished success, and excited by his example, many other manufacturers began the fabrication of woollens of the finest description, so that the term "Yorkshire Cloth," no longer conveyed the exclusive idea of inferiority, either at home or in foreign countries. Mr Hirst applied for no exclusive patents for his inventions and improvements, but generously laid them open to the manufacturers. Though he rose to affluence, he was afterwards, by those reverses to which extensive commercial concerns are subject, reduced to bankruptcy, and in 1837, was confined 9 months in the debtor's gaol at Rothwell; it is hoped, however, that the numerous manufacturers who are so much indebted to him for his improvements, will raise him and his family, above want, by purchasing an annuity for their support. Worsted stuffs are also manufactured in Leeds and the neighbourhood, and immense quantities are purchased in the rough state at Bradford and Halifax, by the Leeds merchants, and sent here to be dyed and finished There are in the town several very extensive establishments for spinning flax for canvass, linen, sacking, thread, &c., also several carpet, glass, earthenware, tobacco and steam engine manufactories; besides many iron foundries, machine works &c.; but the most striking objects are the numerous mills, factories, dye houses* and other works connected with the general staple trade - the woollen manufacture, the rise and progress of which will be shewn in Vol II. By a survey in 1830, it was found that there were in the parish of Leeds, 225 steam engines of the aggregate strength of 4,048 horses, and the number has since considerably increased.

* Dyeing - In 1770, parliament granted 5,000 to Messrs. James Berkenhout and Thomas Clarke, of Halton, near Leeds, on condition that they should make known to the public their newly discovered method of dyeing linen and cotton cloth in scarlet, crimson and other colours variegated; but though the secret was attempted to be divulged, no hues could ever be produced like the fist specimens, which in all probability were the effect of accident, rather than skill, as had been the case eight years before at Barnard Castle, where a dyer's boiling kettles were, in 1771, suddenly inundated by the overflowing of the Tees, which struck such a beautiful shade upon the cloth then in process, that it sold in London at a greatly advanced price, and orders poured in for more of the same hue, which the poor dyer could never again produce, the Genius of the river not deigning to pay him another visit.

The Commercial Buildings, which may be considered as an Exchange for the merchants and manufacturers, form a splendid elegant, and classical structure in a commodious situation, opposite the Mixed Cloth Hall at the junction of Park row, Wellington street, and Quebec. It is a stone edifice of Grecian architecture, commenced in May 1826, and finished in 1829, from designs by Mr. Clark, by a company of proprietors, at the cost of nearly 35,000. Its plan is a parallelogram with its south western corner rounded off, and formed into a spacious portico of four fluted Ionic columns, crowned with an entablature, and surmounted with a concave attic, the hollow of which is filled with steps set on in the main wall of the edifice. Behind the portico rises a circular dome, crowned with a cornice, and enriched with Grecian tiles. The two facades branching from the portico, correspond in their architectural features, but differ in their length, one having four, and the other two fluted columns. The other side not being so open to observation, are of a plainer character. The interior corresponds with the eternal appearance. The staircase, formed within a circular hall, 44 feet in diameter, and crowned with a beautiful panelled dome and a light of stained glass, is magnificent. The news room to the right of the vestibule is extensive and beautiful, and has two rows of six Corinthian columns, supporting an architrave cornice, rich with mouldings. The ceiling in the centre division is coved and panelled, and those over the side divisions are flat, but adorned with sunken panels. Above the news room is the concert room, which is large and elegant; having attached antae and a beautiful frieze. In the building are also several other handsome rooms devoted to various uses. The new room is well supplied with papers, and was opened on Mayday, 1829, with 500 subscribers of 31s. 6d per annum.

The trade and commerce of the town are facilitated by nine Banking Houses, two of which were established many years ago; six are Joint stock Companies formed since 1830; and the other is a Branch of the Bank of England, established in 1827. The Yorkshire District Bank, opposite the commercial Buildings, and erected from designs by the same talented architect, (Mr Clark) in 1836, is a beautiful structure of fine stone, with a semi circular front, and Corinthian columns supporting a handsome entablature. The Joint stock Banks in Leeds have hitherto enjoyed a prosperous career, yielding about 8 per cent interest to the shareholders, except the branch of the "Northern and Central", which had about 40 branches in other towns, but is now (1837) "winding up" its embarrassed affairs, with the assistance of the Bank of England. The Post Office is at Mill hill, but it is anticipated that a more commodious edifice will shortly be erected for its use, in a central part of the town. The amount collected in this branch of the public revenue, at Leeds, in 1835, was 22,192. 11s. 10d; at Sheffield, 12,215 4s. 8d and at Hull, 15,219. 17s. 1d. The Excise Office is in the court, at No 10, Briggate; Jesse Woodward, Esq. is the collector, and Mr J Bedford the clerk. There are in Leeds Parish 370 licensed public houses, and 520 beer shops. The Stamp Office is at No 14 Benson's building; and Wm. Willock, Esq. is distributor for the borough and the wapentakes of Skyrack, Staincliffe, Ewcross, Osgoldcross, Agbirgg, and Morley.

CHURCHES

The Parish Church, dedicated to St Peter, is a large and venerable Gothic fabric, at the foot of Kirkgate, supposed to have been erected on the site of a smaller edifice, in the reign of Edward III and to have been considerably enlarged in the reigns of Henry VII and VIII, when the aisles were rebuilt on such an ample scale as nearly to close up the transepts, at the intersection of which, with the nave and chancel, rises a massive embattled tower, resting on arches springing from four "prodigiously large pillars". The whole pile is of free stone, which has long worn a sable hue, and though it has few pretensions to elegance, it has a solid substantial air of unassuming dignity, not ill suited to an opulent commercial town. It measures 165 feet in length, and 97 in breadth. The height of the nave is 52, the chancel 36, and the steeple 96 feet. The nave is 95 and the chancel 57 feet long, and they are divided from the aisles by clustered columns and pointed arches. The whole of the south side was rebuilt in the Carpenter's Gothic style, between 1808 and 1812, when many fragments of an older fabric were discovered, together with a Saxon wheel-cross. The windows are many of them square headed, and others pointed, ornamented with perpendicular tracery, and each divided into five or six lights; except the clerestory windows, which are circular headed, with gargoyles. The great east window is obstructed partly by a screen and partly by the large vestry. The window of the south transept is filled with beautiful stained glass representing St Peter, and several armorial devices, executed by Mr Smith, a native artist, who afterwards lost his sight by an accident. In the north transept is a modern octagonal font with a beautiful spiral cover, richly crocketed. The aisles are divided from the transepts by carved oak screens, enriched with a profuse variety of tracery. The spacious chancel is un pewed, and had formerly several chapels or chantries, one of which belonged to the ancient owners of Rockley Hall. The nave and its aisles are well pewed, and have galleries extending all round, In front of the gallery, facing the pulpit, are the arms of the town and the date 1760. At the west end is an octagonal basin with blank shields in each face. The walls of the church are decorated with neat monuments, non older than the 15th & 16th centuries, and most of them modern. In the north transept is a beautiful monument of statuary marble, erected by subscription, at the cost of 600, in memory of Captains Samuel Walker, and Richard Beckett, who were killed at the battle of Talavera, in 1809. It was executed by Flaxman and represents Victory weeping, seated in a cannon, and resting against a palm tree, below which is a noble lion with several flags. A more splendid monument is about to be raised here in memory of the late Michael Thomas Sadler Esq. M P For Aldborough, and an eminent merchant of Leeds, celebrated for his advocacy of Poor Laws in Ireland, and for the introduction of a bill into the House of Commons, to limit the labours of children in factories to ten hours per day. In the tower is an excellent peal of ten bells, put up in 1798, in lieu of the old peal of eight. The organ was purchased by subscription, in 1714, at the cost of 500. The clock has chimes which play at the hours of 4, 8, and 12. The church yard is small, and was contracted about 12 years ago, for the purpose of widening the street, on the opposite side of which is "St Peter's New burial Ground", a large plot of land extending to York street, and devoted to sepulchral purposes in the early part of the present century. From 1803 to 1828, the church rates, levied in the parish, averaged upwards of 1,500 a year; but since then they have been reduced to an average of less than 800. The old Vicarage House, with its croft, gardens, &c, was given by Wm. Scott of Potternewton in 1453, and was rebuilt by the incumbent in 1727; but it was purchased and taken down to make room for the Free Market, in 1823, when part of the money, derived from the sale of the old premises, was laid out in the purchase of the present Vicarage House, - a large and handsome modern mansion at Park place, in one of the most respectable and salubrious parts of the town. The Vicarage, valued in the King's Books at 38, is now worth upwards of 1,300 per annum. In 1089, Ralph Paganel gave this church to Holy Trinity Priory, at York but after the dissolution of the monasteries, Henry VIII granted the great tithes of the parish to the Dean and Chapter of Christ church, Oxford, who are still the appropriators. The advowson of the vicarage was granted by the same monarch to Thomas Culpepper, Esq.; and in 1582, it was sold by Oliver Darneley to the parishioners for 130, which they had raised by subscription, so that they might in future have a vicar of their own choice; - the office having previously been held by persons "who were unlearned, and unable to discharge so great a function." The parishioners having thus become possessed of the advowson, bested it in trust with 25 of the principal inhabitants. In 1748, there was a contested election for the vicarage, which led to a suit in the Court o Equity, where it was decreed by Lord Hardwicke, that "For the more regular and orderly proceedings of the election of a Vicar upon any future vacancy, it is ordered, that as often as the said vicarage shall become void, such of the trustees resident in the said parish of Leeds, who shall happen to stand first named in the then subsisting deed of trust, shall within fourteen days after such avoidance shall happen, send notice in writing to every one of the other trustees for the time being, appointing a meeting of the trustees to be held in the parish church, on some day, not less than fourteen days after sending such notice; which notice shall be delivered either personally to such trustees, or left at their respective dewelling houses or places of abode, with some to the family there; and in case it shall appear at such meeting, that the number of twenty five trustees was then complete, and that a major part of them were assembled, then the trustees so assembled, shall proceed to the election and presentation of a vicar; but in case it shall appear at such meeting, that there is or are any vacancy or vacancies in the number of twenty five, then the trustees assembled or the major part of them, shall proceed to fill up the number to the twenty five trustees, and make new conveyances, and afterwards proceed to elect a vicar;" and his Lordship was pleased to declare "that no proxies ought to be admitted or made use of at any election of trustees, or of the vicar of the said parish." All the subsequent elections have been made in conformity of this decree, and the present Trustees are H Hall, C Beckett, J Hardy, J Hill, G Banks, W Hey, M Hind, T Blayds, J Wilks, P Rhodes, C Smith, T Beckett, R Markland, J Gott, R W D Thorp, R Hall, J M Tennant, R Bramley, G Wright, J W Rhodes, W Gott, J G Appleby, W Hey jun. J R Atkinson and G Bischoff, Esqrs. The Rev Richard Fawcett, M A. the late vicar, as elected in 1815, and died in January 1837. He bequeathed 90 guineas each to the Leeds Infirmary, the Dispensary, House of Recovery, and the west Riding Charity. The Rev. Walter Farquhar Hook M A, the present vicar, was elected March 20th 1837. He is a member of Christ Church, Oxford, vicar of Trinity parish, Coventry, and a prebendary of Lincoln Cathedral. He was also preacher in ordinary to his late majesty William IV. The value of the vicarage of this great parish was much increased in 1823, by the sale of the old vicarage house, as already noticed, and by the commutation of all the Vicarial Tithes for an annuity of 500, arising from 14,000, of which 7,000 was the munificent gift of Rd. Fountayne Wilson, Esq., and the remainder was raised by subscription. The vicar has the patronage of all the seventeen churches or chapels of ease in the parish, except St John's and Trinity Church, of which he is a trustee. His assistants are the Rev. Robt. Taylor, curate; the Rev. John Clarke, lecturer; and the Rev Edward Brown M A. clerk in orders. Mr David Rider is the deputy clerk; Mr Rd. Hodgson, the sexton; and Mr Henry Smith, the organist. The only monastic institutions in Leeds consisted of several small Chantries, one standing near the bride, another at the north west corner of Briggate, and a third in Kirkgate, below the site of the Vicar's Croft.

St John's Church, in the higher part of the town, behind Upperhead row, was the second Episcopal church erected in Leeds, being commenced in 1631, and finished in 1634, at the sole cost of the charitable John Harrison, Esq., who in 1638, endowed it with an adjacent house, garden, and croft, for the residence of the minister and with 82A, 1R. 39P. of land at Woodhouse, then worth 90 a year, of which income he directed the trustees to pay 80 in half yearly moieties to the minister, and to employ the residue in repairing the church. The land is now let to nine tenants for 322. 10s. per annum, eight ninths of which are paid to the minister, who also receives about 30 a year from two portions of the parsonage croft, one added to the Grammar School yard, and the other occupied by four messuages built under a lease in 1824. The church consists of a nave, chancel, south aisle, and porch, with a plain tower at the west end; crowned by an embattled parapet and crocketed pinnacles. Seven pointed arches, resting on a row of octagonal columns, divide the aisle from the nave and chancel, and the two latter are separated by a heavy screen of carved oak. The exterior walls have long worn a dilapidated aspect, but they are now (1837) being entirely rebuilt of a more durable stone, in the same mixed style of architecture, some of the windows being pointed and others square headed. The founder died in 1656, aged 77, and was interred here under a black marble tomb. He also founded the Hospital which stands on the west side of the church, and was a great benefactor to the Grammar school. The benefice is a perpetual curacy now worth 375 per annum. The Mayor, Vicar, and three senior Aldermen, are the patrons; and the Rev. Fras. Thos. Cookson, MA is the incumbent. The surviving trustees in 1826, were Sir John Beckett, John Blayds, and John Hardy, Esqrs. Mr Thomas Davison is clerk; Charles Fryer, sexton; and John Swallow, organist.

Trinity Church, in Boar lane, was endowed with lands, &c., worth 80 a year, by the Rev. Henry Robinson, nephew of the founder of St. John's and was built by subscription at the cost of 4,563, of which 1,000 was contributed by Lady Elizabeth Hastings The first stone was laid by Mr Robinson, August 23rd, 1721, and the edifice was consecrated August 27th 1727. It is a neat structure of durable moor stone, comprising a nave, chancel, and aisles; with a tower in two stories, at the west end, surmounted by a small spire. The south and north sides are each divided into seven divisions by Doric pilasters, supporting an entablature, cornice, and vases, and have between them two ranges of windows the lower tier are alternately angular and circular headed, ad the upper are small square windows. The two divisions of the tower display Ionic and Corinthian pilasters, and the roof of the church rests on two rows of graceful cylindrical columns, with capitals of the Composite order, The galleries which extend round three sides, were erected in 1756. The Rev. H Robinson died in 1736, and his monument here records that he gave land worth 2,000 for the endowment of this church; 2,540 to procure Queen Anne's Bounty for 21 poor livings; 455 to the Leeds Charity School; 100 each to schools at Rotherham and Kirkburton; and 200 to the Society for the propagation of the Gospel. In 1727, Wm. Milner, Esq., bequeathed for the reparation of this church, 5A, 3R, 26P of land, in Hunslet, now let for 36. 15s. per annum. After paying for occasional repairs, the surplus rents are invested in stock, which in 1826 amounted to 1,600 three per cent consols, standing in the names of the trustees, who, in 1793, purchased 523 square yards of land behind the church for the site of a house for the minister, but it has not yet been erected. The benefice is now worth about 300 per annum, and is in the patronage of the vicar, the recorder, and the minister of St John's. The Rev. John Sheepshanks, M A, has been the incumbent nearly 20 years, but his duty has been usually performed by the master of the Grammar School; - the Rev Joseph Holmes, being the present officiating curate, assisted by the Rev Joseph Wardle. Wm. Roberts is the clerk; John Burton, sexton; and John Hopkinson, organist.

St Paul's Church, in Park Square is a plain but neat edifice of brick, with stone quoins and dressings, and in its front are four Ionic pilasters, supporting an entablature and pediment. The existence of this, the fourth church in Leeds, erected to supply the wants of a further increase of the town, is to be ascribed to the zeal and activity of the Rev. Miles Atkinson, a late vicar of Kippax, and lecturer of the parish church, who, with small means of his own, but assisted by his numerous friends, raised the fabric at the cost of 10,000. The ground was given by Dr. Wilson, Bishop of Bristol, who laid the first stone, September 26th 1791. The church was consecrated in 1793. Mr Atkinson, who may be regarded as the founder, became its first minister, and died in 1811, aged 70. The curacy is in the gift of the vicar, and is now worth upwards of 133, derived from the seat rents, and a parliamentary grant of 300, obtained in 1814. The Rev. Miles Jackson is the present incumbent; Wm. Fryer, is the clerk; and E Walker, the organist.

St James' Church in York street, not far from the parish church, is a plain octagonal building, erected in 1794, for the use of a congregation of dissenters belonging to the "Countess of Huntingdon's Connexion". It was then called Zion Chapel; but the society who built it having become embarrassed, sold it a few years afterwards to two clergymen of the established church , from whom it was purchased by its present minister, the Rev. John King, MA. It was consecrated at the beginning of the present century, by the late Archbishop Markham, and dedicated to St. James. The present venerable incumbent is to have the next presentation, after which the patronage will be in the vicar. The interior is neat, and has a gallery round the whole edifice. Wm. Fothergill is clerk and sexton; and Joseph Fothergill, organist.

Three New Churches have been built in the township of Leeds since 1823, under the "Million Act." Passed in the 58th of George III for building and promoting the building of additional churches in populous parishes. Two of them are in the town, and the other is in the suburban village of Woodhouse. These churches, dedicated to Christ, St. Mary and St. Mark, are handsome and substantial edifices, built of durable freestone, mostly from Bramley Fall, and are all in the patronage of the vicar. Each cost about 10,000, and was calculated to hold about 800 hearers in free seats, and 50 in pews; but in 1836, their accommodations were enlarged by the erection of spacious galleries, so that each building has now nearly 2,000 sittings, except that at Woodhouse, which had three small galleries before, and has now 1,500 sittings. The new galleries were raised by subscription, and by the same means, St. Mary's and Christ Church were lighted with gas, and supplied with two additional curates in 1837. Christ Church, situated in Meadow lane is the most costly and elegant fabric of the three, being in the rich Gothic style which prevailed in the 14h century. It consists of a nave, chancel and aisles, with a beautiful tower at the west end, 127 feet high. The aisles are divided from the body by six pointed arches, springing from lofty columns formed by the union of four large and four small cylinders. The whole is highly creditable to the taste of the architect, R D Chantrell, Esq. The first stone was laid January 29th, 1823, and the church was opened in 1826. The Rev. John Holroyd is the incumbent; the Rev. J Ware, assistant curate; and Wm. Chapman clerk. St Mary's Church, at Quarry hill, is a complete specimen of what is called "Carpenters' Gothic" and occupies an elevated site in a spacious burial ground, which measures about 270 yards in length and 80 in breadth. The first stone was laid January 29th, 1823, and the church was finished in 1827, from designs by the late Mr Taylor. It has a lofty tower at the west end, and the aisles are separated from the body by seven pointed arches, springing from lofty octagonal columns. The organ was purchased by subscription, in 1836. The Rev. Edward Cookson, B A is the incumbent; the Rev. Graham, is assistant curate; and J Turner, clerk. St Mark's Church, in the populous village of Woodhouse, is a pleasing edifice of the architecture of the 15th century, with a large burial ground, and an airy and elegant tower at the west end. The first stone was laid April 23rd 1823, and the building was finished in 1826, under the directions of Messrs Atkinson and Thorp, the architects. In 1832 it was declared to be a Parochial District Church for Woodhouse and the adjoining parts of Headingley and Potternewton. The benefice is a perpetual curacy, valued at 140 per annum The Rev. James Fawcett, M A is the incumbent, and Joseph Thompson, the clerk.

St George's Church, at Mount pleasant, was built in 1837, for the accommodations of the north western suburbs, and is the ninth church in the township of Leeds, and the eighth in the town. It was erected and endowed by subscriptions amounting of upwards of 11,000. The first stone was laid Dec 16th, 1836, by Dr Langley, Bishop of Ripon. It is in the Gothic style of the 13th century, with side aisles, a blue slated roof, and a tower at the west end, surmounted by a spire rising to the height of 52 yards. It is 130 feet long and 75 broad, including the tower and the vestry, the latter of which is at the east end. The interior is neatly pewed, and contains 1,500 sittings, of which 500 are free. The estimated cost of the building was 5,960.

Chapels: - The churches, chapels, and charitable institutions of Hunslet, Holbeck, and the other out townships, will be described in vol II. With the history of the villages and hamlets in the borough and parish. Though there are now nine Episcopal places of worship in Leeds township, they are greatly out numbered by the Methodist and Dissenting chapels, of which here are no fewer than 29, exclusive of many preaching rooms. Here are also two Catholic Chapels, one a large plain brick building in Lady lane, erected about 1792, and the other a handsome stone structure in York road, dedicated to St Patrick, built in 1832, ornamented with turrets and crosses, and lighted by lancet windows, and a large dome. The priests of the former are the Rev. Richard Walmsley and Chas Pratt; and the Rev. Robert Thompson officiates at the latter. The Wesleyan Methodists, have six large chapels situated in St Peter's street, Brunswick street, Oxford place, Meadow lane, and Woodhouse. Their Old Chapel in St Peter's street, was built in 1771, since which it has undergone many repairs and alterations. Adjoining it is a large burial ground in which stands St Peter's Chapel, a large building containing 2,500 sittings of which 1,000 are free. It was opened in 1834. Its organ purchased in 1837, is excelled by none in the kingdom, except that at York Minster, and another at Birmingham. Brunswick Chapel and Oxford Place Chapel - the former finished in 1825, and the latter in 1835, are perhaps the largest and handsomest Wesleyan chapels in the kingdom, each having about 3,500 sittings, of which 1,000 are free. Each has a splendid organ; that at Brunswick street erected in 1827 and the other in 1837. Wesley Chapel in Meadow lane is a neat brick building erected in 1816. Albion street Methodist Chapel, built in 1802, is now converted into a warehouse having been superseded by the gigantic fabric at Oxford place. The Methodists built a small chapel in Leeds as early as 1750, and erected another near the White Cloth Hall in 1755, but both of them were disused in 1837; another in Caroline street, West street; and a smaller one in the Old Rotation Office yard. The New Connexion is an older schism from the Wesleyans, and belonging to it here are three chapels; Ebenezer Chapel, in Ebenezer street, a small building formerly belonging to the Baptists; Zion Chapel, at the Bank, erected in 1825; and Bethesda Chapel, near Wellington street, opened in 1833. An organ was erected in Ebenezer Chapel, in 1836. The Primitive Methodists have two chapels here, one in York road, built in 1822, and another in Hill's yard, Meadow lane. Another sect of Methodists, called Female Revivalists, formed here under the auspices of Ann Carr, their present leader, have now a small chapel in Regent street, built in 1825, and one in Holbeck opened in 1826.

The Independents, or Calvanistic Congregationalists, have long been a numerous and influential body in Leeds, where they have now seven chapels. Their first Minster was the Rev. J Edwards, who left the Methodists in 1754, when his friends built for him the White Chapel in Hunslet lane, which was disused after the erection of Salem Chapel, in 1791. The latter is in Hunslet lane, and has a rusticated form consisting of a centre and two wings. The interior is neatly pewed, and has accommodations for a large congregation. The Rev. J Edwards died in 1781, aged 71, and was succeeded at the old white Chapel, by the Rev. Edward Parsons, for whose ministry, Salem Chapel was built. The latter was eminent both for piety and learning and died at an advanced age, about five years ago, when he was succeeded by the Rev. John Ely, the present pastor. Albion Chapel, is Albion street, was built in 1796, and the ritual of the Church of England was used in it until 1802, when it was re- opened as a Scotch Church. About 22 years ago, its congregation became Independents, under the ministry of Rev. R W Hamilton, for whom Belgrave Chapel was built. The latter was opened January 6th, 1836, and is a handsome brick edifice with an excellent organ, and seat room for 1,800 hearers. Albion chapel is at present under the ministry of the Rev. J Fox. Queen street Chapel is a large and neat building, erected in 1824, and containing 1,200 sittings. The Rev. Thomas Scales is its minister. Bethel Chapel, in George street, a small brick edifice was built by Mr Thoresby, a dissentient of the Methodist persuasion, but it has been occupied more than 20 years by the Independents, and is now under the pastoral care of the Rev. Wm. Hudswell. Byron street Chapel was built by the Swedenorgians, of whom it was purchased in 1836, by the Independents, who in 1837, erected another chapel in Marshall street.

The Unitarian or Mill Hill Chapel, at the foot of Park row, was built in 1672, and is said to be the first dissenting meeting house in the North of England, erected after the general indulgence. It is incrusted with grey plaster and the interior is neatly fitted up with galleries, the celebrated Dr Priestly presided here for many years. The Rev. Charles Wickstead is the present minister. Call Lane Chapel, the second meeting house erected in Leeds, is a gloomy looking fabric, built in 1691, by the Nonconformists, or old Presbyterians. Its congregation are generally designated Arians, and their sentiments are not so decidedly Unitarian as those at the Mill hill Chapel. The Rev. Samuel Crawford is their pastor. Both these venerable chapels are endowed.

The Baptists, in Leeds originated in 1779, and about two years afterwards they built the Stone Chapel in St Peter's street, which they sold after they had erected South Parade Chapel, - a handsome structure, built in 1826, and considerably enlarged in 1836, when its number of sittings was augmented from 800 to 1,400, at the cost of about 1,700. The Rev. J E Giles is the Minster. They have also a chapel in Low road, Hunslet, built in 1836, at the cost of 1,000, and having about 700 sittings. The Inghamites, who originated here in 1751, have a small chapel in Duke street; and the Society of Friends have a large substantial Meeting house in Camp lane, erected in 1699, and rebuilt in 1788, but they had a burial ground here as early as 1673. A small congregation of Swedenborgians have a meeting room in Lowerhead row, and had formerly a chapel in Byron street. A few of the deluded Southcotarians still remain, and assemble in a room in George street. The Jews have no regular synagogue here, but in 1837, the Earl of Cardigan granted them a piece of land near Kirkstall to be used as their burial ground. Previous to this accommodation, they sent their dead to be interred at Hull.

The Leeds General Cemetery, for persons of all religious denominations, occupies 10 acres of land adjoining Woodhouse Moor, purchased at the cost o 4,000, by the company of proprietors, who have already expended about 11,000 raised in 10 shares; though the intended Arcade of Vaults and Catacombs has not yet been erected. This necessary and long wanted burial ground was opened July 23rd 1835, when the remains of G McDermott, surgeon of his Majesty's Forces, were interred with military honours, in the presence of thousands of spectators. The ground is a gentle acclivity overlooking the town and the vale of the Aire, and beautifully laid out in walks and grassy lawns, shaded with trees and shrubs. It is enclosed by a wall twelve feet high. The principal entrance is through an imposing structure containing the residences of he registrar and sexton, and in the centre of the cemetery stands an elegant chapel in the Grecian style, from a design by Mr John Clark, the architect. The Rev. James Rawson is registrar and chaplain, and the form of burial used is that of the Church of England, slightly altered; but persons interring are allowed to bring their own minister, and to use their own burial service The ground affords a space for 14,000 graves, in addition to the vaults under the chapel and the intended arcade, which latter will consist of a range of 48 spacious vaults. Which may be subdivided, into catacombs or drop vaults to suit the purchasers. In April, 1837, the number of interments here amounted to 500; indeed the beauty and seclusion of the ground recommend it strongly both as a place of sepulture for the dead, and as a healthful retreat for the promenades of the living, in both of which characters it is an honour to the taste and public spirit of the proprietors.

Bible, Missionary, Tract, and other societies for the promotion of religious knowledge, are liberally supported in Leeds and there are attached to the churches and chapels in the town more than fifty Sunday Schools, attended by upwards of 12,000 children. The Sunday School Union was instituted in 1816, and comprises 20 schools and 4,000 scholars belonging to the Independents, Baptists, New Connexion, and Primitive Methodists, and the Female Revivalists. The Church has 13 schools and 3,400 scholars; the Wesleyans, 11 schools and 2,700 scholars; and the Association of Methodists have 10 schools and 1,900 scholars. The Wesleyan Sunday schools were commenced in 1806; but the New Connexion opened the first of these useful institutions in the town, in 1798. The Leeds Temperance Society was established a few years ago, and has an ample field for its labours, there being in the parish, no fewer than 370 old public houses and 520 beer houses. The Leeds Guardian Society was established in 1821, and its object is "to provide a temporary asylum for such women as having deviated from the paths of virtue, are desirous of abandoning their vicious practices." This asylum is at No 48, St James street, and has generally from 10 to 13 inmates, who are provided with suitable employment and instruction, for the purpose of inculcating such virtuous and industrious habits as will qualify them for domestic servants or other respectable situations. Ample provision is made in the town by posthumous charity and annual contributions of the benevolent, for the instruction of the children of the poor in Public Day Schools, conducted on the Lancastrian, National, and Infant systems, besides which, here is a richly endowed Grammar school. These institutions now afford instruction to upwards of 1,400 children, exclusive of those who attend the four large Wesleyan Day Schools, in School street, Sweet street, and at the Bank, where they each pay weekly, 2d. for reading and writing upon a slate; 3d. for accounts and writing on paper; and 4d. when instructed in grammar.

St John's Charity School in Mark lane, where 80 girls are clothed and educated, was originally established about the year 1705, by subscription, for the maintenance and instruction of forty children of both sexes. The school was kept in a building which had been used as a workhouse till 1726, when it was removed to a chapel belonging to Harrison's Hospital, and at the same time the number of scholars was increased but the practice of maintaining them was discontinued, and the charity limited to clothing and education. In 1815, the trustees, considering that ample provision was made in other schools for the instruction of the younger children of the poor, determined on converting this into an institution for clothing and bringing up girls, not less than twelve years of age, as household servants; - a very necessary branch of education in a place where so many females, from being brought up in factories, are too often unfit for the duties of domestic servitude. The school was soon afterwards rebuilt on the site of the old school room, and apartments for the mistress. The 80 girls are provided once a year with a comfortable blue cloth dress. The management is confined to such persons as subscribe one guinea a year to its support The property belonging to the charity produces about 400 per annum, and savings of income; 550 vested in the Leeds and Selby turnpike; 5 a year from Ellis's Charity; - the Lion and Lamb public house, with the adjoining cottages, let for 50 per annum, and bequeathed by Timothy Fearnsides and Thos. Kitchingman, in 1727 & 8; - half of a close at Farbank, let for 10, and left in 1717, by Thos Paring, (the other moiety for the lecturer of the parish church); - Priestclif Farm, at Hillhouse, let for 73 10s.; - 13A, 1R, 32P; of land at Carlton near Rothwell, left by John Grave, in 1716, and now let for 40; - a yearly rent charge of 10 out of Beeston mill estate, bequeathed in 1717 by Thos. Kitchingman; - 5A. 11P. of land at east Keswick, near Harewood, let for 14, and left by Sarah Hall in 1709. The yearly salaries are 60 to the mistress, 27 to her assistant, and 10 to the clerk and receiver of the rents. The School of Industry, at 61, Coburg street, is supported solely by annual subscription, for the instruction of 50 poor girls in reading, writing, and needlework. Half of them attend in the forenoon, and the other in the afternoon. They are admitted at ten, and may remain till they are 14 years of age.

The National School, in Wharf street, near the parish church, is a large and handsome edifice adapted for the instruction of 320 boys and 180 girls, on Dr Bell's or the Madras system; but the number of day scholars seldom exceeds 250 boys and 150 girls. It stands on the site of the old tithe barn, which was granted on a lease by the impropriators of the rectorial tithes, at the yearly rent of 10. The barn, worth 200, was presented to the subscribers, and the first stone of the school was laid May 18th, 1812. The building was finished in the following year, at the cost of 1,208 6s. 6d. It is in two spacious rooms, forming the "Central schools" of the Leeds District National Society, under the presidency of the Earl of Harewood, and patronage of the Archbishop. Mr and Mrs Smith are the teachers; and the former has a salary of 80 and the latter 50 per annum. Woodhouse School was built on the waste, in 1784, when the lords of the manor also granted a piece of land to be used as the master's garden. It was rebuilt of stone in 1832, by subscription and a grant from the National School Society. About 40 free scholars are instructed in it on a week days, & 450 on Sundays.

The "Royal Lancasterian School," for 500 boys, was commenced on a smaller scale, in 1811, in and Old Assembly Room; but a liberal subscription enabled its supporters to erect the present commodious school at the foot of Alfred street, in 1812, at the cost of 2,092 13s 10d. It was vested in thirteen trustees, - seven of the Church of England, and six of the different Denominations of Dissenters. The upper room is the school, and the lower part of the building is let off for various purposes. Mr Geo. Thurnell is the master; and the 500 boys are instructed in reading, writing, and arithmetic, at the cost of about 5s. each per annum. Here are three other Lancasterian Schools, one for 100 girls in the Old Assembly Room, Kirkgate; one in School street, attended by 100 boys and 90 girls; and another in Back Rockingham street, attended by about 70 girls. The latter is supported chiefly by the society of Friends.

The Leeds Infant School Society was established in 1826, and had the school near the South Market, till 1836, when the present convenient building, in Park street was erected. It is now attended by about 150 children, and has apartments for the master's residence. The Infant School, at Camp field, has 180 scholars, and was established and is still chiefly supported by Messrs. Marshall and Co., flax spinners. Another public school, on the Infant system, was opened in 1836, at Spitalfields; and several private schools on the same plan, are established in various parts of the town.

Charities In Trust With The Committee Of Pious Uses;- By an inquisition taken under a commission of charitable uses, on July 5th 1620, it was found that several messuages, lands, annual rent charges, and sums of money, (specified in the said inquisition) were respectively given and vested for the reparation of the highways in and near Leeds, the use of the poor parishioners, and the maintenance of the free grammar school; and by this decree, grounded upon the inquisition, it was ordered that the vicar of Leeds, and the twelve persons therein named, and their successors, should be the sole and peculiar committee, or trustees, for the management of the said charities, and should appoint yearly four of their number to receive and apply the rents and profits of the estates, and that the four receivers should yearly, in Easter week, account for the same to the rest of the committee, and that the committee, should from time to time let the premises at the best yearly profit, with sufficient provision for maintaining the houses, buildings and fences in good repair; the leases not to exceed 21 years, and the deeds and writings to be kept in a chest, in the parish church. And it was further decreed that after the death of one of the committee, the survivors, or a majority of them should elect others to make up the number twelve, and in their default for 40 days, the vicar should appoint persons to fill up the vacancies. Any of them removing out of the parish, or appearing unfit for office, may be displaced by a majority of the other trustees. By a decree in the 13th of Charles II, the number of the committee or trustees was increased to fifteen, with power to elect a master and usher for the free Grammar School, and to make such law and orders for its government, as to them, or the major part of the, should seem expedient. In pursuance of these decrees, a committee of 15 persons, including he vicar of Leeds, have continued to act in the general management of the estates and property appropriated to the reparation of the highways, the use of the poor, and the support of the free grammar school; but the administration of the trust as to each of the three different purpose, is confided to a separate sub committee and treasurer, whose accounts are examined and audited once a year, by the general committee. The three trusts produce collectively about 2,300 per annum, and the property was mostly obtained in the reigns of Henry VIII, Elizabeth and James I, - chiefly by grant or purchase from the crown, and the Bequests of Hy Ambler, Alice Walker, John Harrison, Sir William Sheafield, Rd. Ibbetson, Wm. Rushforth, Edw. Brooke, Lawrence Rawson, Christopher Hopton, Geo. Jeffrey, John Bussey, and John and Thomas Savile, knights. The present Trustees are the vicar, and B Gott, H Hall, C Beckett, T Beckett, G Banks, R Bramley, J Gott, J M Tenant, G Wright, G Bischoff, J H Hill, T Blayds, W Hey and J R Atkinson Esqrs. Mr Nathaniel Sharpe is their agent.

Trust for the Free Grammar School; - The annual amount of the rents of the school estates, vested with the Committee of Pious Uses, is about 1.595 12s.; and there are also belonging to this trust, the sums of 2000 and 612 6s. 2d. three per cent consols, which have arisen from the accumulation of surplus income. The real estates consist of 91A. 1R. 34P of land at Wike, Sheepscar, Halton, and Nether green; and a great number of houses, shops, and warehouses, let to 44 tenants, of whom 24 are in Call lane, six in Vicar lane, six at the Bank, five in Holbeck, and three in Marsh lane. The first bequest, to the Grammar School, was the land at Sheepscar, left by Sir Wm. Sheafield, priest, in 1552. The land and buildings in Halton and Marsh lane, were partly left by Lawrence Rawson, in the 39th and 44th of Elizabeth; and a close of 3 acres called the Cawles, (Calls) was give by Chpr. Hopton, Esq., in the 27th of Elizabeth. A large portion of the other school property, with the old chapel at the Bridge, was obtained by grant and purchase from the Crown, in 22nd of Elizabeth. The School premises, in North street, consist of a school and school yard, given by John Harrison, Esq., in 1624; and of a dwelling house for the head master, containing suitable accommodations for boarders, and built in 1780, by the committee, on the north side of the school yard. The school was rebuilt in 1823, on a much larger scale than the old one, and in the gothic style, at the cost o 1,087. It was conducted for the education of boys in the elementary parts of classical learning only, till the death of a late master, the Rev. Joseph Whiteley, in 1815, when the committee made some new regulations for its government, and resolved that the scholars in addition to classical learning, should have the benefit of instruction by the master and usher, in the elementary parts of the mathematics. The number of scholars being greatly increased by this enlargement of the system of education, the committee, in 1819, provided an assistant to the master and usher; and in 1820 they made further new rules and orders, by which it is declared that all boys, being natives of the borough of Leeds, or the sons of residents therein, should be taught and instructed freely, and that the master should receive no present or reward whatever for their teaching, except his salary. The school has a good library, and has the privilege of sending candidates for Lady Hastings' Exhibitions, at Queen's College, Oxford. It is now very ably and satisfactorily conducted, and of late years the number of scholars has greatly increased, being at present upwards of 100. Since 1815, the yearly salaries paid to the teachers have been considerably augmented. The head master's salary is 500, with an allowance of 10 for a gown; the usher's, 250, with 10 for a gown, and 30 in lieu of a house; and the assistant's salary is 60. Besides these certain payments, there is a large annual expenditure on account of the repairs and management of the school property, and the distribution of prizes among the scholars, at the yearly examination; but the income considerably exceeds the expenditure and the surplus is laid out in the purchase of stock, in order to provide for occasional expenses of large amount; and particularly for the payment of fines due on the admission of new trustees to the copyhold estates, which form a large part of the real property belonging to the school. The sum of 1,350 was paid for these fines, on the admission of twelve new trustees, in 1806.

Trust For The Reparation Of The Highways; - The real property appropriated to the repairs of the highways, in and near Leeds, consists of 9 aces of land in Wade lane, and 19 houses, &c, in Upperhead row, let for 611. 6s. per annum; and in 1826, there was belonging to this trust two sums of 316. 17s. 10d. and 5,600 three per cent reduced annuities; but these have been partly expended in effecting several improvements of an extensive kind in the town and suburbs. In the application of the income, the Committee of Pious Uses, receive applications from the different townships in the parish of Leeds for assistance in the reparation of streets and roads; and having determined what should be allowed for each purpose they pay the money on receiving a certificate that the work has been perfectly executed. By order of the Duchy Court of Lancaster, in the 42nd of Elizabeth, the toll dish of corn, formerly collected from each farmer attending the Leeds Market, was to be divided into three parts, for the use of the Bailiff, (then the chief officer of the town,) the Highways, and the Poor. This corn toll produced about 70 a year, but much opposition being made to its collection, it was relinquished more than 40 years ago. The 3A of land in Wade lane, (named above, and now let for 16. 16s a year) was left by Alice Lodge, in 1638, but was retained till 1816, by the Lodge family, who paid to the trustees a yearly rent charge of 5, in place of which they gave up the land in the latter year, after legal proceedings had been taken against them.

Trust for The Poor; - the annual income arising from real estates and rent charges or the use of the poor, amounts to about 153; and there is also belonging to this branch of the trust of the Committee of Pious Uses, 3,800 three per cent reduced annuities, purchased with unapplied income, and 3,043. 6s. 8d. obtained by the sale of the old Moot hall, and the shops and rooms beneath it, in 1825 The 267 per annum, arising from the real and personal property, (after the yearly payment of 3 to Woodhouse school, 5 to the clerk of the committee, and 7 as the receiver's salary,) is laid out in buying cloth and materials for making coats and petticoats, for distribution at Christmas, among poor persons of each township in the parish of Leeds. The real estates consist chiefly of two houses and 73A. 2R. 7P. of land in various lots, situated in Hunslet lane, Woodhouse lane, Potternewton, Halton, Far bank, Sheepscar, and Royds Beeston.

Harrison's Hospital; - John Harrison, Esq., the munificent benefactor of the Grammar School, and founder of St John's Church, built, within a large court on the west side of the said church, two sets of almshouses, each containing 20 separate apartments; and in 1653, endowed the same with 14 houses and other buildings in New street, (now St John's street;) a moiety of the Flay Crow Mills, on the river Aire; two parcels of land called the Nether Tenters, and other property, now let for about 636 per annum. This endowment of the original founder has been augmented with the following bequests viz. 800 left by Joseph Midgley, in 1751, to be paid after the death of his wife, which happened in 1794; - 372 left by Catherine Parker, in 1751; - also 2600 paid in 1792; - 1000 three per cent consols transferred in 1793; - and 100 three per cent consols transferred in 1797. The three last named sums were the clear produce of the residuary personal and leasehold estate of Arthur Ikin Esq., (alderman), who, by will dated 1791, bequeathed all his personal and leasehold property, after the payment of certain legacies, to this Hospital, to be employed in erecting additional almshouses, and in augmenting the stipends of the almspeople. These augmentations were partly expended in improving the old, and erecting new almshouses; but in addition to the land and buildings left by the founder the charity still possesses 800, vested at five per cent and 6,122. 6s. 9d three per cent consols, which swell the yearly income to upwards of 860. The hospital consists of two sets of old almshouses, each containing 20 separate apartments, all thoroughly repaired about 1817, and an additional building forming a square within the old quadrangle court, and containing 12 separate houses, erected pursuant to the will of Arthur Ikin, Esq. Sixty four poor women are now lodged in the hospital, and are allowed each o them a yearly stipend of 10; but the funds are sufficient to pay 13 per annum to each. They are chosen by the trustees, the mayor and the vicar of Leeds, and the minister of St John's; - each having a nomination in turn. The present trustees are John Blayds and Christopher Beckett, Esqrs.

Jenkinson's Almshouses, on Mill hill, were bequeathed for the residence of eight poor and aged persons, in 1643, by Josiah Jenkinson, who, at the same time, devised to four trustees, a house and 8A. 38p. of land at Great Woodhouse, and directed that they and their successors should distribute the rents thereof amongst such of the aged poor of the parish of Leeds, as they should hold most needful. The estate at Woodhouse, is let for 32 a year, and was conveyed with the almshouses, by Richard Fountayne Wilson, Esq., in 1805, to John Beckett, William Cookson, John Blayds, (then John Calverley) and Edward Markland, Esqrs., as trustees for the future management of the charity. The almshouses having become ruinous, were rebuilt in 1807, and the expense was defrayed out of the rents of the estate, except 100 given by Mr Blayds. Since 1808, the trustees have continued to distribute the rents among the almspeople, (who are usually widows,) and since 1823, they have also had the dividends of 150 three per cent reduced annuities, purchased with part of a legacy of 200, bequeathed by Elizabeth Dalley, in 1800.

Potter's Hospital; - Mrs Mary Potter, who died in 1729, left by will to six trustees, (the vicar of Leeds always to be one of them) the sum of 2,000, for the purchase of a situation "as near to St John's Church as might be and erect thereon a decent almshouse, for the reception of the ancient virtuous poor necessitous widows," living in Leeds, Wakefield or York, or within twenty miles of some one of those places, and for applying the yearly interest of the surplusage to their maintenance. In 1736, the trustees purchased a field in wade lane, for 250, and erected thereon the present hospital, at the cost of 482. 12s. The building consists of ten dwellings with two apartments to each. The endowment comprises land in Woodhouse lane and Pontefract lane, let for 34 per annum and 4,200 three per cent consols, - producing altogether a yearly income of 160. The stock has been raised by the investment of savings from the original endowment, and the following augmentations obtained since 1780, viz. 300 left by Mrs Barbara Chantrell; 20 left by Mr John Meslin; and 100 given by Mrs Mary Blayds. The ten almswomen are selected from the inhabitants of the parish of Leeds, and each receives a yearly stipend of 12 guineas.

Isabel Leighton, in 1653, left for the poor parishioners, the Garth, Middle, and Pease closes, in Great Woodhouse, comprising about 4 acres, let for 24 a year, exclusive of a yearly sum paid for the stone got under the land. The trustees in 1830, were Rd. Lee, George Oates, and T W Stansfield, Esqrs. Anne Baynes, in 1807, bequeathed to the minister of St Paul's church, and three other trustees, 1000, in trust, to divide the yearly interest among ten poor widows of Leeds, to be selected by the successive ministers of the said church. This legacy was laid out in he purchase of 950. 18s. 9d., new four per cent annuities. The dividends are distributed half yearly, at St Paul's church, in equal parts, among then poor widows.

Wm. Milner, in 1739, left a yearly rent charge of 40, out of an estate at Knostrop, now belonging to the Maude family; one moiety to the vicar for reading prayers every evening at seven o'clock; and the other for the relief of ten poor widows. Rachel Dixon, in 1719, bequeathed two houses with a shop, warehouse, and two small tenements, in Lowerhead row, to Martha Whitaker, for her life, and at her death without issue, (which happened in 1742) she directed that the rents of the said property should be paid yearly by the vicar of Leeds, and the minister of St John's, to three necessitous Clergymen's widows, whose husbands should have died beneficed, in some of the adjacent parishes. The property is let for 205 per annum, and the trustees are also possessed of 1,300 three per cent reduced annuities purchased with surplus income, since 1819.

Amount of Charitable Funds; - The stream which flows from the fountain of benevolence in Leeds for the education of poor children, and the solace poverty, and sickness yields more than 11,000 per annum, exclusive of nearly twice that amount collected yearly in poor rates. Of the charities already noticed, it has been seen that the yearly income of the Pious Use Property, amounts to upwards of 2,760; the three sets of Almshouses to 1,008; the Girls Charity school to 397, and the Benefaction of Leighton, Baynes, Milner and Dixon, to 352; making a total of 4,457 arising yearly from these sources of posthumous charity. Other schools and charitable institutions in the town, supported chiefly by subscriptions and collections, & partly by benefactions and legacies, dispense more than 6,500 per annum, of which about 3,200 is expended by the General Infirmary; 800 by the House of Recovery; 500 by the Dispensary; 350 by the Benevolent Society; 170 by the Lying in Hospital; and 60 by the Eye Infirmary.

The General Infirmary, is an extensive range of building forming three sides of a square, in a pleasant and airy part of the town, separated from the Coloured Cloth Hall, by the old Dissenters' burial ground, and having behind it a large garden tastefully laid out. This excellent hospital affords medical and surgical aid, both as in and out patients, to lame and sick poor, without regard to residence, on the recommendation of the subscribers; but in cases not admitting of delay immediate admission is given without any recommendation whatever. It was established in 1767, and occupied a hired building till March 1st 1771, when the centre part of the present building was finished, and provided with 27 beds for in patients. An additional wind was added in 1782, and another in 1786. In 1792, an attic storey was added to the central part of the building, and the number of beds increased to 99. Several subsequent additions and improvements have been made so that the house has now accommodations for more than 150 in patients. It is provided with cold, warm, and medicated baths; the wards are spacious and well aired and ventilated; and the large garden behind affords ample space for exercise in the open air. The latter necessary appendage was obtained in 1817, when part of the ground was purchased by subscription, and the remainder, extending the boundary down to Wellington road, and comprising 4,000 square yards, was purchased by Richard Fountayne Wilson Esq., at the cost of 1,500, and munificently presented by him to the institution, which is thus secured against the too close proximity of other buildings. To Mr Wilson, Leeds is indebted for the abolition of the vicarial tithe of the parish, and for many munificent, benefactions. The number of objects who participated in the benefits of the infirmary, in 1835, amounted to 1608 in patients, and 2904 out patients; and the total number admitted since its opening in 1767, amounted in the same year to 153,212. The subscriptions and collections yield about 2,500 per annum, and the rest of the income is derived from occasional legacies and benefactions; from two shares in the water works; one share in the York New Concert Rooms; and the dividends of nearly 3,000 three per cent, consols; of which 600 was bequeathed by Thos. Nicholson, Esq.; 399 by Thos Holroyd, Esq.; 100 by Rd. Ramsden, Esq.; and 70 by the Rev. Saml. Hey. Three physicians and the three surgeons lend their aid gratuitously. Mr John Allanson is the resident house apothecary, with two assistants; and Mrs Page is the matron.

The House of Recovery is a neat and substantial brick building in Vicar lane. It "was built by public subscription , in 1803 & 4, and is appropriated to the reception of persons attacked by infectious fevers. It is, like the Infirmary, to which it may be considered and appendage supported by annual subscriptions and voluntary donations and is extensively useful. By this institution the germ of infection is plucked up before it has time to spread its baleful influence in the crowded districts of the town, and the general health of the inhabitants, both high and low, is much benefited by its operation." This valuable charity arose at the cessation on an epidemic fever, which raged in the town and neighbourhood in Dec 1801, and several succeeding months, when many hundreds of the inhabitants were afflicted at the same time, and among the numerous deaths, were two of the medical men and two nurses. The House of Recovery was opened in Nov. 1804, and it is situated in the heart of the town, but it is hoped that it will, ere long; be removed to the suburbs, where its patients may enjoy a purer atmosphere. Two physicians and two surgeons attend gratuitously. Mr Wm. Ayre is the house apothecary, and Miss Smith the matron.

The Dispensary, in North street, established in 1824, is another charity supported by annual contributions and casual benefactions. It affords medical and surgical aid to the poor and friendless, as out patients; and those who are not able to stand at the dispensary are visited at their on houses by the physicians and surgeons. It relieves about 3,000 patients per annum, at the cost of about 600 but it is to be regretted that its expenditure often exceeds its receipts. Mr J J Ayre, is the house apothecary. The General Eye and Ear Infirmary, on the Old Rotation Office yard, 115 Kirkgate, was established in 1821, and with a small yearly subscription of about 60, and the gratuitous services of three surgeons, dispenses great benefits among the poor; - its number of patients amounting in 1837, to 634; of whom 441 were cured and 44 relieved It is open every Tuesday and Saturday, from twelve till one o'clock. The Lying In Hospital, for poor married women, is in St Peter's Square, and was founded in 1824. In the year 1836, 31 in and 36 out patients participated in its benefits; and the total number of women whom it had relieved since its commencement, was 1,189. Another medical institution but not a charity is The Retreat at Castleton Lodge, near Leeds, for the reception and recovery of persons afflicted with disorders of the mind. This asylum is the property and under the skilful management of Mr Hare, surgeon.

The Benevolent Society, or Stranger's Friends Society, was established in 1790, by the Wesleyan Methodists. It dispenses about 350 per annum, raised by subscription; seeks out the abodes of the wretched, and relieves their wants through the medium of its visitors. The Church of England District Visiting Society, was formed in 1830, and not only relieves the necessitous poor, but inculcates a provident care, by giving premiums on all sums deposited with them by such poor families as have it in their power to lay by a small portion of their weekly earnings against a time of need.

The Workhouse, for Leeds township, is a large and well conducted establishment, at the top of Lady lane, erected in 1629, and considerably enlarged in 1636, 1736 and subsequent years. For some time it was called the "house of correction" and for many years it was employed only as a hospital for the reception of the aged poor. As early as 1740, it had no fewer than 100 inmates; but during the present century it has often had as many as 250, including men, women and children. The poor rates levied in 1832, amounted o 34,812; and in 1835, to 29,962. In the former year, the average number of paupers in the house was 254; and in the latter, 217. The parochial affairs of the township was managed by a committee consisting of 13 overseers, and 8 churchwardens, with the co-operation of 12 trustees, chosen yearly at the vestry meetings, by the rate payers; but on the 12th of Jan 1837, they were vested in the administration of a Board of 20 Guardians to be elected yearly, in accordance with the New Poor Law.

Among the Provident Institutions in Leeds, are the Fire Offices; the Annuitant Societies, the Savings' Bank; and many Benefit Societies, and Secret Orders; including Lodges of Free Masons, Druids, Odd Fellows, Ancient Romans, Foresters &c. These institutions for mutual aid in case of sickness, infirmity and death, amount to nearly 300 in the town and surrounding villages, and are the means of keeping many families from the workhouse, and of materially reducing the amount of human misery. The Savings' Bank, for Leeds and the Wapentakes of Skyrack and Morley was established in 1818, and now occupies a handsome stone edifice in Bond street, built in 1834 & 5, at the cost of about 2500, paid out of the surplus fund of this institution for the beneficial investment of the savings of the humbler classes of society. Since its commencement it has received 51,954 deposits, amounting to 492,735, of which there remained invested on Nov 20th 1836, 202,143, belonging to 5019 individuals, 11 Charitable Societies, and 33 Friendly Societies, exclusive of the surplus fund, which then amounted to 700, after paying for the new bank, Earl Fitzwilliam and the Earl of Harewood are the patrons; and the affairs of the bank are managed by a president, vice president, 12 trustees, 36 directors, a treasurer, and a secretary The latter office is held by Mr Robert Tanner, who resides in the bank, which is open every Tuesday & Saturday from 12 to half past one o'clock. The Leeds Annuitant Society was formed in 1808, for the purpose of providing a yearly allowance of 20 for the widows of deceased subscribers, and of procuring from 10 to 20 per annum, for its aged members. Another of these provident institutions is called the "Leeds Equitable Anniutant Society for Widows", and was formed in 181. The members are admitted between the ages of 21 and 45, and are in three classes, contributing respectively, 1. 5s, 2. 10s. and 3. 15s, per annum. The annuities paid to widows vary from 10 to 20 and 30. The Leeds and Yorkshire Fire and Life Assurance Company was established in 1821 with a capital of one million.

The Philosophical Hall, in Park row, is a handsome stone building with a rusticated basement, and an upper story ornamented with Doric pilasters. It was erected from deigns by Rd. D Chantrell Esq. in 1819, for the use of the Leeds Philosophical and Literary Society, formed in the same yea, and now comprising 70 proprietary, 130 ordinary and 33 honorary members. It has a valuable museum, laboratory, and library, for the illustration of its lectures. Among the curiosities are several mummies in fine preservation, one presented by J Blayds Esq., and another by W M Maude, Esq. Mr John Hey is curator and librarian; and Henry Denny, is sub curator. The Leeds Literary Institution, in the Commercial Buildings, was established in 1834, for the purpose of supplying useful information, and increasing the means of intellectual improvement among persons engaged in professional, commercial, and other pursuits; for which purpose it has a library of reference and circulation, a reading room, and a collection of philosophical instruments and apparatus. It affords public lectures on literary, scientific, and philosophical subjects; and has classes for discussion and mutual instruction. It has now about 860 members, who pay 16s. per annum. The rooms are open daily, (except Sunday,) from 9 to 12 in the forenoon, and from 6 to 10 in the evening. The Northern Society, for the encouragement of the fine arts, has is gallery adjoining the Music Hall, and was established in 1808, discontinued after three exhibitions, and revived again after an interval of several years. Its annual exhibition generally comprises a large and interesting collection of paintings, by living artists ; and the sales, of late years, have been considerable. Mr F T Billam is the secretary. The School of Medicine, for the benefit of practitioners and their pupils, is at No 1 East parade, and its sessions commence on October 1st, and close April 30th. The Mechanics Institution, behind Park row, was established in 1825, and has now an excellent library of more than 1,500 volumes, and commodious reading, class, and lecture rooms; though it has not received that liberal support from the rich nor that general countenance from the mechanics, which it justly merits. A list of the public libraries in the town, with the names of the librarians, will be seen at later pages. The "Leeds Library", in Commercial street, was founded in 1768, by subscription, on the recommendation of Dr Priestly, then minister of Mill hill chapel. It is now one of the most extensive and valuable libraries in the North of England, and the spacious and elegant room which it occupies, was erected at the cost of 5,000. The subscribers pay 25s. per annum, and their number is limited to 500. The price of a new ticket is 20 guineas; but the old ones are transferable, and are often to be had at a very reduced price. The New Subscription Library, is at 33 Park row, and its number of subscribers is limited to one hundred. The Electric Library, in court 48 Briggate, has upwards of 1,20 volumes, belonging to a number of shareholders, who subscribe 6s each per annum. The Parochial Library, in Smithson's yard, Kirkgate, consists of books of divinity, lent gratis to members of the established church and similar libraries are attached to the Methodist and some of the Dissenting chapels. The Young Men's Library, in court 163, Briggate, was established in 1833, and has now 500 volumes.

Three Newspapers, well conducted and extensively circulated, are published her every Saturday morning, viz. The Mercury and the Times, on the side of he Whigs; and the Intelligencer, advocating Tory principles. The Mercury, was first published in 1719, by John Hirst, from whom it passed to James Lister; but was discontinued in 1755, and resumed in 1769, by James Bowling. In 1794, it passed into the hands of Binns and Brown, by whom it was transferred in 1801, to Mr Edward Baines, who is still its publisher and proprietor, in connection with his son and is now one of the parliamentary representatives of the borough. This paper deservedly possesses, perhaps, a more extensive circulation than any other provincial journal in the kingdom. The Intelligencer, commenced in 1754, was formerly published on Monday, and afterwards on Thursday, but was changed to Saturday a few years ago, by its present proprietor, Mr Robert Perring. The Times, was commenced in 1833, by Messrs, Fenton, Roebuck and Bingley; and is now published by Mr Fdk. Hobson. Among the unsuccessful weekly journals formerly published here, were the Independent, established in 1819, and discontinued in 1826, the Gazette, which lived 22 weeks in 1829, and Patriot, of Radical notoriety, which was begun in 1824, and lived about eight years. There is an excellent News Room in the Commercial Buildings and another at No 150 Briggate.

The Places of Amusement in Leeds, are not so numerous, nor so well supported as either its charitable or it literary institutions. The Theatre, built in 1771, is a plain and inconveniently situated building, presenting a barn like gable to Hunslet lane; but the has a more prepossessing appearance. The Assembly Rooms, over the north side of the White Cloth Hall, re built in 1775, and the Music Hall, in Albion street, in 1792; both are plain brick edifices, but their interiors are neat and spacious. The latter in now used for various public purposes; a more elegant Concert Room having been provided in the Commercial Buildings. Here are two extensive and highly interesting Museums, - one at the Philosophical Hall, and the other in Commercial street. The latter is the property of Mr John Calvert, and contains upwards of 15,000 specimens, collected at a considerable expense during the last forty years. The Leeds Horticultural and Floral Society, after being discontinued for several years, was re-established in 1837, and Cphr. Pickering is it secretary. At a public meeting held May 22nd, 1837, a society was formed for the establishment of Zoological and Botanical Gardens, in the suburbs of Leeds, at the cost of not more than 20,000, nor less than 10,000, to be raised in 10 shares. This proposed place of public resort for agreeable and useful recreation, and the cultivation of the sciences of botany and zoology, will be on a similar plan to that at Sheffield. And connected with it is a project for draining Woodhouse Moor, and forming a road round it. The accomplishment of these projects will be highly creditable to the town, which greatly needs the formation of agreeable walks and drives for the health and recreation of its industrious population. The Public Baths, in Wellington street, built in 1820, by a company of proprietors, in 200 shares of 20 each; have a neat stone front, ornamented with Ionic columns and pilasters, and having cold, tepid, war, shower, vapour and medicated baths. The Waterloo Swimming Bath, established by subscription, in 1834, is situated in the new basin of the Leeds & Liverpool canal and is plentifully supplied with water which runs over two filtering beds, enters the bath at seven different apertures, and runs out at the top and bottom of the deepest part.

The Worthies, who occupy the niches in the Leeds Temple of Fame, and the ancient houses and families of the town and suburbs will be noticed in the second Volume of this wok, with the historical, descriptive, and statistical survey of the villages, hamlets, and out townships of the parish, which is rich in manufactures, population, and picturesque scenery, and contains many handsome villas, and several interesting relics of antiquity.

Post: Leeds Post Office, No 35, Mill Hill. Post Mistress, Mrs Jane Temple, - Chief Clerk, Jas. Anderson. The office opens at 7 morning in Summer, and 8 in Winter; and the Box finally closes at 10 night, but letters are taken in at the window until 11, by paying 1d. with each; and after that hour 6d. each is charged upon letters or the East and West Mails.

Mails                                             Arrival                Departure
York and Hull Mail, with letters for the north  10 morning              2 afternoon
Knaresbro' Mail, with letters for the north      past 7 morning        15 min past 5 evng
London Night Mail (via Sheffield &c)            5 afternoon             9 night
London Morning Mail (via Doncaster &c)          4 afternoon             8 morning
Liverpool Mail                                  2 morning               12 night
Manchester Mail                                 2 afternoon             55 min past 9 morning
Otley Ride, to Skipton, Settle, Burnley &c       before 11 night       15 min past 5 evng
Wakefield, Barnsley and Sheffield Ride           before 9  even        10 min past 3 morn
New Ride to Beeston, Morley, Birstal,
Gomersall Cleckheaton, Millbridge               7 morning and   15 min past 5 morning
and Heckmondwike                                 past 1 afternoon      and  past 4 afternoon

[Transcribed from White's History, gazetteer and directory of the West Riding of Yorkshire 1837]


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