TICKHILL, a parish-town, in the lower-division of Strafforth and Tickhill, liberty of Tickhill; (Tickhill Castle, the seat of Frederick Lumley, Esq.) 4 miles from Bawtry and Blythe, (Notts.) 7 from Doncaster, 9 from Worksop, (Notts.) 11 from Rotherham, 43 from York, 156 from London. Market, Friday. Fair, August 21, for horned cattle, horses, and sheep. Principal Inn, Red Lion. Pop. 1,830. The Church is a vicarage, dedicated to St. Mary, in the deanry of Doncaster, value, ~£7. 2s. 6d. Patron, George Foljambe, Esq.
This ancient town is situated in a vale, and the streets of which are nearly in the form of a T, by the roads passing through from Doncaster to Worksop, and Bawtry to Rotherham. The market on Fridays, has nearly fallen into disuse, being now only for butter and poultry. In the market place, is a small neat stone building, erected with a dome over it, for the accommodation of the country people.
The Church of Tickhill, is a spacious and handsome structure, with a lofty and beautiful tower; and from its architecture, and the arms of England and France on the west front of the tower, seems to have been built in the reign of Edward III.
The Castle here was a very strong fortress, situated on a large Mount, and encompassed by a high and strong wall. It was probably built of brick, the word in Dutch signifying a brick. It seems to have been a ruin in Leland's time, who observes "the dungeon is the fairest part of the Castelle, all the buildinges withyn the area be down, saving the old Haulle." The Conqueror gave it to Roger de Busli, with 49 manors in this county. It was of such dignity, in former times, that all the manors round, belonging to it, were styled the honour of Tickhill. King Henry I. seized on this honour, and other succeeding Kings did the like. King Edward III. gave it to John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, from whom it passed to Henry IV. and has remained in the Dutchy of Lancaster ever since. In the reign of Charles I. it was regarded as a strong fortress, and garrisoned by the King's troops. After the battle of Marston Moor, and the surrender of York to the Parliament's forces, the Earl of Manchester sent Col. Lilburn to reduce, this Castle, being induced to it by the complaints of the inhabitants of the surrounding country, to whom it was exceedingly oppressive. After two days siege, the garrison capitulated; and Major Monkton, the Governor, Col. and Major Redhead, with other officers, some of their wives, eighty musketeers, and sixty horse, surrendered themselves prisoners of war. There was only one piece of cannon mounted, one hundred muskets, some powder and match, and above a hundred quarters of grain, many barrels of salt, butter, store of cheese, powdered beef; besides beasts and sheep. In 1646 7, the Parliament ordered that this Castle, with several others, should be dismantled, and rendered untenable. The circular tower was, in consequence, demolished. Since its union with the Crown, in the time of Henry IV. the honour of Tickhill, appurtenant to the Castle, has been held either by the Monarch, or leased out to courtiers. In the 17th of James I. 1620, the King demised it to Sir John Walker, and other trustees, for ninety nine years, in trust for Prince Henry, then alive, and afterwards for Prince Charles, and to grant, assign, and surrender it upon request, according to their discretions after this, it was granted to the Sandersons, Earls of Castleton, whose seat was at Sandbeck, and has descended in lease, with the possessions of that family in 1723, to the Earls of Scarborough. --Camden, --Miller's History of Doncaster. --Northern Star.
In the Market Place is an "Hospital, dedicated to St. Leonard, the sad condition of the brethren whereof Archbishop Grey recommended to the charity of all good people, A.D. 1225." Over the doorway is an inscription, which seems hitherto to have puzzled all antiquaries to decipher. A little to the west of the town are seen the ruins of an ancient Priory, of Augustine Friars, founded in the reign of Henry III. Tanner states it to have been granted in the first year of Queen Mary, to Thomas Reeve and George Cotton. This house, in a low situation, is now occupied by a farmer, and some remains appear of its ancient state.
Clarell Hall, the seat of that ancient and respectable family, the Clarells, is now only to be found in a heap stones, at no great distance from the Church. In the olden time there appears to have been three Churches or Chapels in this parish, viz. St. Mary's, the present Church; St. Nicholas' Chapel, in the Castle, and Allhallows, the situation of which is ascertained to have been on a hill half a mile north west of the town.
At this place was born Ezreel Tongs, D.D. a school master at Churchill and at Islington, where he taught both boys and girls. He first discovered to his Majesty, King Charles II. the popish plot, being told it by Dr. Oates. He wrote several books against the Papists, as "the Royal Martyr; the Jesuits unmasked; Jesuits Assassins, &c. He died in 1680." --Magna Brit.