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Help and advice for Ireland

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Ireland

"Ireland, a large island of Europe, W of Great Britain, between lon. 6 and 10, 40 W, and lat. 51, 15 and 55, 13 N, 280m. long and 160 broad, and containing 19,436,000 acres divided up into 4 provinces; Ulster N, Leinster E, Munster S, and Connaught to the W, and subdivided into 32 counties. ... The climate is in general more temperate than that of other countries in the same latitude; at the same time it is much more inclined to moisture ... The face of the country is level; it is well watered with lakes and rivers, and the soil, in most parts, good and fertile. A remarkable feature of this country is the extensive bogs, estimated at 2,330,000 English acres. Corn, hemp, and flax are produced in great plenty; beef and butter are exported; and hides, wool, tallow, wood, salt, honey, and wax, are articles of commerce. ... The principal manufacture is fine linen cloth, which is brought to great perfection, and the trade in it is very great. Ireland is well adapted to trade, on account of its numerous secure and commodious bays and harbours. The principal rivers are the Shannon, Bandon, Lee, Blackwater or Broadwater, Liffey, Boyne, Sure, Burrow, Slane, and Bann; lakes, lough Neagh, or the lake of Killarney, the most distingished for its beauties, lough Erne, and lough Corrib. The established religion is Protestant, though the majority of the people are Catholics." [From The New London Gazetteer (1826)]

Archives and Libraries

In 1922 the Republic of Ireland was created and six of the nine counties forming the province of Ulster (Antrim, Armagh, Down, Fermanagh, Londonderry, and Tyrone) voted to remain part of the United Kingdom. Separate National Archives were formed for the Republic of Ireland, the National Archives of Ireland (NAI), and Northern Ireland, Public Record Office of Northern Ireland (PRONI). Similarly civil registration became, for the Republic of Ireland, The General Register Office (GRO) and, for Northern Ireland, General Register Office (Northern Ireland) known as GRONI.

Copies of many national records up to 1922 are available in both the NAI and PRONI and similarly registration records in GRO and GRONI. Records after 1922 are held in their respective offices. It is also important to note that several church dioceses of all denominations have parishes on both sides of the border  and some Ulster collections include records from Monaghan, Donegal and Cavan  as Ulster counties pre 1922.

Local records are held in County Archives, Libraries and Heritage Centres

Addresses of Archives and Libraries from https://www.johngrenham.com/ (Formerly the Irish Times site).

Major Repositories: https://www.johngrenham.com/records/addresses.php?locdescid=6&desc=Major%20Repositories#addresses/

Heritage Centres: https://www.johngrenham.com/records/addresses.php?locdescid=3&desc=Heritage#addresses/

Local Libraries (Republic of Ireland): https://www.johngrenham.com/records/addresses.php?locdescid=4&desc=Local%20libraries%20(RoI)#addresses/

Local Libraries (Northern Ireland): https://www.johngrenham.com/records/addresses.php?locdescid=5&desc=Local%20libraries%20(NI)#addresses/

As part of the United Kingdom, Irish records have historically been created and archived in Britain.   The UK National Archives have produced some guides to their archives http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/help-with-your-research/research-guides-keywords/?show=keywords&keyword-letter=i&keyword=ireland#step-three and the Discovery catalogue can be used to search English and Welsh archive holdings http://discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk/

Printed Archive listings include:

O’Neill Robert K, Irish Libraries, Archives Museums & Genealogical Centres, Ulster Historical Foundation

Helferty Seamus and Refausse Raymond (Ed), Directory of Irish Archives, Irish Academic Press

Bibliography

Online resources:

References:

  • Begley, Donal F., ed. Irish Genealogy: A record Finder. Dublin: Heraldic Artists (1981).
  • Falley, Margaret Dickson. Irish and Scotch-Irish Ancestral Research. 2 vols. Evanston, Illinois:
  • Grehnam, John. Tracing Your Irish Ancestors: The Complete Guide. Dublin: Gill and Macmillan (1992).
  • McCarthy, Tony. The Irish Roots Guide. Dublin: Lilliput Press (1991).
  • Quinn, Sean E. Trace Your Irish Ancestors. Bray.Ireland: Magh Itha Teoranta (1989).
  • Ryan, James G. Irish Records; Sources for Family & Local History, Salt Lake City, UT: Ancestry Publishing (1997).
  • Flyleaf Press "My Ancestor was from" series http://flyleaf.ie/ 

Biography

Two sources listing published biographies are:

  • Grenham, John "Family Histories". In Tracing Your Irish Ancestors: The complete Guide.
  • MacLysaght, Edward. Bibliography of Irish Family History 2d ed. Blackrock, Ireland: Irish Academic Press (1982).

The following collections are important sources for biographies of prominent businessmen, political leaders, and religious and historical figures:

  • British and Irish Biographies. London: Chadwyck-Healt (1986).
  • Crone, John S. A Concise Dictionary of Irish Biography.
  • Lee, Sir Sidney, Leslie Stephen, H.W.C. Davis, Et. al., eds. Dictionary of National Biography. 63 vols. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Sieveking, Paul, ed. The British Biographical Archive New York, New York, K.G. Sauer (1986). (FHL fiche 602709-35, 6066966)

Cemeteries

From https://www.irishgenealogy.ie/en/irish-records-what-is-available/graveyards

Two types of graveyard records exist, cemetery burial records and headstone transcripts.

1. Cemetery records: Typically a municipal cemetery owned and managed by the local authority. These cemeteries are multi-denominational, although may have areas reserved for the various denominations. Records may include age, parent’s names and place of birth and plots may contain several members of the same family. By far the biggest online collection comprises the records of Glasnevin cemetery in Dublin, about 1.5 million records dating from 1828 available at the pay-per-view site www.glasnevintrust.ie. Burial registers for Co. Kerry are free at www.kerrylaburials.ie. Limerick city burial records (for Mount St. Lawrence) are free at www.limerickcity.ie/Archives/. For areas in and around Cork city, see www.corkarchives.ie. For Belfast, see www.belfastcity.gov.uk/burialrecords.

2. Headstones: These have been transcribed, published and digitised in many places. For a guide to Dublin city and county transcripts see www.dublinheritage.ie. For the 6 counties of Northern Ireland, the pay-per-view site www.historyfromheadstones.com has an almost complete set, without images. Other resources include:

http://historicgraves.com/

www.interment.net

www.discovereverafter.com

http://www.irishgraveyards.ie/index.html

https://www.ancestryireland.com/search-irish-genealogy-databases/

http://ifhf.rootsireland.ie/index.php

http://search.findmypast.com/search-world-Records/ireland-billion-graves-cemetery-index

http://search.findmypast.com/search-ireland-records-in-birth-marriage-and-death-parish-registers/and_deaths-and-burials

http://search.ancestry.co.uk/search/category.aspx?cat=140 Filter for Ireland includes deaths and wills

http://www.from-ireland.net/free-gravestone-records/

http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gs& Filter for Ireland

Cemetery records, transcribed by volunteers and searchable by country, are to be found on the IGP website http://www.igp-web.com/IGPArchives/#gsc.tab=0

Printed resources:

Mitchell, Brian A Guide to IRISH Churches and Graveyards, Genealogical Publishing Co Inc.

Census

The 1901 and 1911 censuses are the only complete surviving census records for the pre-Independence period. Fragments survive for 1821 – 1851 for some counties, as follows:

Antrim, 1851; Belfast city (one ward only), 1851; Cavan, 1821 and 1841; Cork, 1841;

Dublin city (index to heads of household only), 1851; Fermanagh, 1821, 1841 and 1851; Galway, 1813 (numerical returns for Longford barony) and 1821; King’s County (Offaly), 1821; Londonderry (Derry), 1831 – 34; Meath, 1821; Waterford, 1841.

The household returns and ancillary records for the censuses of Ireland are in the custody of the National Archives of Ireland and indexes and images are searchable on their website: http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/search/  (Free)

The indexes only are also available of Findmypast Ireland: http://search.findmypast.ie/search-ireland-records-in-census-land-and-substitutes/and_census  (Subscription to Findmypast Ireland))

and Rootsireland (not all counties): http://www.rootsireland.ie/ (subscription)

Indexes for the 1821 to 1851 fragments with a link to images on the National Archives of Ireland website are available on Familysearch: https://familysearch.org/search/collection/location/1927084?region=Ireland (free)

Indexes to 1901 and 1911 plus some 1851 records for Antrim and Cork census are available on Ancestry: http://search.ancestry.co.uk/search/category.aspx?cat=35 (Subscription)

In addition to the surviving Census records, information was extracted from the 1841 and 1851 census to support pension applications. The Old Age Pensions Act 1908 introduced a non-contributory pension for eligible people aged 70 and over. Proof of age was an essential part of the process of application for a pension. Because civil registration of births did not begin in Ireland until 1864, applicants had no official documentation to prove their age. It was decided that searches of the 1841 and 1851 census returns could produce acceptable documentary evidence of a claimant's age.

The original images are held in the National Archives of Ireland and the Public Records Office of Northern Ireland. Index and images are available on the National Archives of Ireland   website: http://censussearchforms.nationalarchives.ie/search/cs/index.jsp (free) and Findmypast: http://search.findmypast.ie/search-world-Records/ireland-census-search-forms-1841-and-1851 (subscription)

The indexes with a link to images on the National Archives of Ireland website are available on Familysearch https://familysearch.org/search/collection/2346275 (free)

Index with images of transcriptions on Ancestry: http://search.ancestry.co.uk/search/db.aspx?dbid=48493

Various local indices and transcriptions have been produced by volunteers. Many of these are to be found in the Irish Genealogy Project website http://www.igp-web.com/

In addition some census substitutes exist. Please see subjects “Land and Property” and “Taxation”

Church Records

Parish registers are the most important source of information on Irish family history prior to the commencement of the civil registration of births, deaths and marriages in 1864.  Prior to this parish registers may contain the only surviving record of a particular individual or family and can supply evidence of direct links between one generation and the next (via baptismal registers) and one family and another (via marriage registers). Familysearch recommend the following strategy:

  • Search indexes first. 
  • Search all parish registers and other available church records of the appropriate locality for the time period you are researching.
  • Search available Church of Ireland records even if your family was not Church of Ireland.
  • Search surrounding localities if you cannot find records in the expected locality.
  • Note all entries, including burials, for the surname you are searching (unless the name is very common).
  • Note gaps or missing pages in the record. You may want to search alternative records for the missing time periods.
  • If you find little or no mention of your family in parish records, search other records.
  • Use the additional information (residence, occupation, etc.) given in parish registers to find other records to search.

Parish names and boundaries may differ between Roman Catholic Parishes, Church of Ireland Parishes and the name of the city/town. Reference should be made to an online sources such as The IreAtlas Townland Database (formerly “Sean Ruad”) http://www.thecore.com/seanruad/ or Irish Ancestors https://www.johngrenham.com/places/  or reference books including: Mitchell Brian, A New Genealogical Atlas of Ireland, Genealogical  Publishing Co Inc.

The following websites provide guidance on which parish registers still exist

General Information https://familysearch.org/wiki/en/Ireland_Church_Records

PRONI: https://www.nidirect.gov.uk/sites/default/files/publications/03%20%20Church%20Records.pdf

The List of Church of Ireland Parish Registers : https://www.ireland.anglican.org/cmsfiles/pdf/AboutUs/library/registers/ParishRegistersTable.pdf

Catholic Parish Registers at the National Library of Ireland:  http://registers.nli.ie/

Presbyterian Historical Society of Ireland: http://www.presbyterianhistoryireland.com/collections/library/guide-to-congregational-records/

Methodist Historical Society of Ireland:  http://methodisthistoryireland.org/

Baptist Historical Society:  http://baptisthistory.org.uk/discover/family-history/

Reference can also be made to: Mitchell Brian, A Guide to Irish Parish Registers, Genealogical Publishing Co. Inc.

Websites offering national and multi-county indexes and images of parish registers.

National Library of Ireland: http://registers.nli.ie/ Catholic Parish Registers Images (Free)

Irish Family History Foundation: http://www.rootsireland.ie/ Parish Registers and Civil Registration with links to NLI images. (Subscription)

Irish Genealogy: https://www.irishgenealogy.ie/en/ Church Records Cork, Kerry and Dublin, Civil Records for Ireland Some images. (Free)

Emerald Ancestors: https://www.emeraldancestors.com/search/search.asp Births, deaths and marriages from historic Ulster (subscriptions)

Ulster Historical Foundation: https://www.ancestryireland.com/search-irish-genealogy-databases/  Baptism and Marriage records Co. Antrim and Co. Down. (subscription)

Findmypast Ireland: http://search.findmypast.ie/search-ireland-records-in-life-events-birth-marriage-death  Parish records from across Ireland and across all religions. Some images. (subscription)

Ancestry: http://search.ancestry.co.uk/  Parish records from across Ireland and across all religions. Some images. (Subscription)

Ancestry: http://search.ancestry.co.uk/search/db.aspx?dbid=61039 Ireland, Catholic Parish Registers, 1655-1915 with images from NLI. (Free)

Familysearch: https://familysearch.org/search/collection/location/1927084?region=Ireland Parish records  indexes from across Ireland and across all religions. (Free)

The following libraries have collections that include indexes and transcriptions of parish registers Irish Genealogical Research Society http://www.irishancestors.ie/ and the Society of Genealogists http://www.sog.org.uk/

Volunteer County/Parish indexes can be found on http://www.igp-web.com/

Civil Registration

Civil registration of all births, marriages, and deaths in Ireland began in 1864 (except for non-Catholic marriages, for which registration started in 1845). Registration produced two sets of records: registers for births, marriages, and deaths and published indexes to these registers. The repository split in 1922, with the records for Northern Ireland being kept by the General Register Office Northern Ireland (GRONI) in Belfast, while records for the Republic of Ireland are housed at the General Register Office (GRO) in Dublin.

Certificates can be ordered online and by post from GRO https://www.welfare.ie/en/Pages/Apply-for-Certificates.aspx and GRONI https://geni.nidirect.gov.uk/  or by post from the local Registrar.

The Irish Government website https://civilrecords.irishgenealogy.ie/churchrecords/civil-search.jsp (free) is publishing the indexes, together with images of the register pages for Births over 100 years old, Marriages over 75 years old and Deaths over 50 years old.

Indexes only have been published on a number of websites: Familysearch https://familysearch.org/search/collection/1408347 to 1958, but excluding index records for Northern Ireland after its creation in 1922. (free).  These indexes are also available at Family History Libraries on microfilm. Ancestry births. http://search.ancestry.co.uk/search/db.aspx?dbid=2573 , deaths , http://search.ancestry.co.uk/search/db.aspx?dbid=2534, marriages, http://search.ancestry.co.uk/search/db.aspx?dbid=2572  (subscription), excluding index records for Northern Ireland after its creation in 1922. RootsIreland , birth, http://ifhf.rootsireland.ie/quis.php?type=birth&new=1 death, http://ifhf.rootsireland.ie/quis.php?page=0&prevStartQuery=0 marriage http://ifhf.rootsireland.ie/quis.php?page=0&prevStartQuery=0 (subscription) Civil records are included with parish record.

Various local indices and transcriptions have been produced by volunteers. Many of these are to be found in the Irish Genealogy Project website http://www.igp-web.com/

Court Records

Familysearch Wiki Ireland Court Records

“The Irish court system was based on the English system of law. The Four Courts of Equity were the Exchequer, Chancery, Common Pleas, and King’s/Queen’s Bench. The destruction of the Public Record Office in 1922 significantly impacted the record availability for these courts. Of the four courts, only a small collection of original records for the court of Chancery survive. There are however, a number of indexes, abstracts, and transcripts that are available. “

For the full article read https://familysearch.org/wiki/en/Ireland_Court_Records

Court proceedings are widely reported in local and national newspapers

Websites with Court related collection

Findmypast

Deserted Children Dublin

Irish Prison Registers 1790-1924

Ireland Dog Licence Registers

Ireland, Petty Sessions Court Registers

Ireland, Catholic Qualification & Convert Rolls 1701-1845

Ireland, Royal Irish Constabulary History & Directories

Ireland, Royal Irish Constabulary Pensions 1826-1925

Ireland, Royal Irish Constabulary Service Records 1816-1922

Ancestry

Ireland, Intelligence Profiles, 1914-1922

Ireland, Police Gazettes, 1861-1893

Ireland, Courts Martial Files, 1916-1922

 Convict Transportation Registers 1787-1870 (Requires worldwide subscription)

Familysearch

Calendar of the justiciary rolls or proceedings in the court of justiciar of Ireland: preserved in the Public Records Office of Ireland.

https://familysearch.org/search/catalog/280912?availability=Family%20History%20Library

Margaret Falley, Irish and Scotch-Irish Ancestral Research provides a good description of court records and lists repositories and published inventories of court records. Many of the published inventories she notes are available at the Family History Library.

Description and Travel

Under this topic here, and on the county pages, we list links to sites that provide general tourist and current information, and to large online services related to particular localities.

Directories

Directories for Dublin first appeared in the early eighteenth century and continue today. Provincial (town) directories began somewhat later and have continued only sporadically. See the research guide on Irish Ancestors https://www.johngrenham.com/browse/retrieve_text.php?text_contentid=77

The following websites hold online collections of national, regional and local directories

Findmypast: http://search.findmypast.com/search-ireland-records-in-directories-and-social-history   (Subscription)

PRONI: https://www.nidirect.gov.uk/information-and-services/search-archives-online/street-directories (Free)

Ancestry: https://www.ancestryireland.com/search-irish-genealogy-databases/ (Subscription)

Hard copies of national, regional and local directories are held in local studies libraries throughout Ireland and some facsimile copies have been published. These are mostly out of print but may be available second hand or on CD.

Newspaper advertising is also a useful source for commercial life.

Emigration and Immigration

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

“The phenomenon of migration from Ireland is recorded since early Medieval times,[ but it is only possible to quantify it from around 1700: since then between 9 and 10 million people born in Ireland have emigrated. This is more than the population of Ireland at its historical peak in the 1840s of 8.5 million. The poorest of them went to Great Britain, especially Liverpool; those who could afford it, almost 5 million, went to the United States.

In 1890 40% of Irish-born people were living abroad. By the 21st century, an estimated 80 million people worldwide claimed some Irish descent, which includes more than 36 million Americans who claim Irish as their primary ethnicity.”

In the 19c emigration from the island of Ireland was mostly from Derry/Londonderry in the North West and Cobh (Cork) in the South West. Journeys to the ports were either overland or via coastal shipping. Many travelled via mainland ports, including Liverpool, Bristol and Glasgow.

It should be noted that until 1922 travel between the UK mainland and Ireland was a domestic journey and no records were kept.

The following websites offer collections of passenger lists and other documents:

Irish Ancestors

https://www.johngrenham.com/records/passenger_urls.php?StartLetter=A#passengerlists

https://www.johngrenham.com/records/irishabroad.php#emigration/

FindmyPast

http://search.findmypast.com/search-world-records-in-immigration-and-travel

 

Canada, Home Children Immigration Records Index, 1869-1930

Canada, Immigrants To Canada Index, 1750-1854

Emigrants Seeking Free Passage To South Australia 1836-1841

Ireland, Society Of Friends (Quaker) Migration Records

Irish Famine Immigrants, 1846-1851

New Brunswick, Canada, Irish Immigrants In The New Brunswick Census Of 1851 and 1861 Index, 1851, 1861

New York, New York, Castle Garden Immigration Index, 1820-1913

Ontario, Canada- The Migration Of Voyageurs From Drummond Island To Penetanguishene In 1828.

Parliamentary Papers, Emigration (Canada)Canadian Emigration: 1826 Parliamentary Papers

Queensland Assisted Immigration 1848-1912

Queensland Immigrants Nominated For Passage 1884-1907

Queensland Immigration Registers 1922-1940

Queensland Nominated Immigrants 1908-1922

Queensland Register Of Immigrants 1864-1878

Queensland, Brisbane Register Of Immigrants 1885-1917

Queensland, Maryborough Registers Of Rations Issued To Immigrants 1875-1884

South Australia, Immigrant Agricultural Workers 1913-14

Transatlantic Migration From North America To Britain & Ireland 1858-1870

Ancestry

http://search.ancestry.co.uk/search/category.aspx?cat=40

UK, Incoming Passenger Lists, 1878-1960

England & Wales, Criminal Registers, 1791-1892

UK and Ireland, Masters and Mates Certificates, 1850-1927

UK, Naturalisation Certificates and Declarations, 1870-1912

England, Alien Arrivals, 1810-1811, 1826-1869

Irish Passenger Lists, 1847-1871

Passengers from Ireland

Glasgow, Scotland, Crew Lists, 1863-1901

UK, Aliens Entry Books, 1794-1921

Dorset, England, Crew Lists, 1863-1914

A List of Emigrants from England to America, 1718-1759

Emigrants from England to the American Colonies, 1773-1776

More Emigrants in Bondage, 1614-1775

UK, RMS Titanic, Crew Records, 1912

Maryborough, Queensland Australia Immigrants from the British Isles & Germany 1861-91

Scotch-Irish Migration to South Carolina, 1772

 

Others

USA Ellis Island

http://www.libertyellisfoundation.org/passenger

http://www.libertyellisfoundation.org/ship

Canada

http://www.bac-lac.gc.ca/eng/discover/immigration/Pages/introduction.aspx

Australia

Passenger arrivals index, 1898-1966 http://recordsearch.naa.gov.au/Scripts/PassengerSearch.asp

Search the register of British ships http://www.naa.gov.au/collection/explore/migration/british-ships/index.aspx

http://www.ancestry.com.au/immigration

http://www.findmypast.com.au/articles/world-records/full-list-of-australia-and-new-zealand-records/travel-and-migration/victoria-inward-passenger-lists-1839-1923

Other material on Irish Emigration and Immigration

Gazetteers

The Ordnance Survey Archives provide an extensive set of search facilities, including what is in effect a Gazetteer of Irish Parishes.

The Irish Ancestors site also provides an online facility  https://www.johngrenham.com/places as does the SeanRuad Townland Database Townland Database

One of the best printed gazetteers, providing detailed information on all towns, parishes etc, is S. Lewis. A topographical dictionary of Ireland, comprising the several counties, cities ... and villages : with historical and statistical descriptions ..., S. Lewis (1846).

Genealogy

Irish Ancestors (formerly the Irish Times) has produced an online genealogy guide based on Grenham's 1992 book "Tracing Your Irish Ancestors". (Direct links to appropriate parts of this guide are given under relevant topic headings on this page.) The guide includes an "expert system designed to provide comprehensive information about records relevant to a particular Irish ancestor" - for fee-paying subscribers only.

  • What to do if your ancestor (or any of his or her siblings) was born, married or died in Ireland after 1863?
  • What to do if your ancestor (or any of his or her siblings) was of a religious domination other than Catholic, and married in Ireland after 1844?
  • What to do if your ancestor was not born, did not marry, and did not die in Ireland after 1863 and you do not know where in Ireland he or she came from?
  • What to do if your ancestor was not born and did not marry or die in Ireland after 1863, but you know where in Ireland he or she came from?
  • What to do if your ancestor lived in Ireland before the nineteenth century, and you know where in Ireland he or she came from?
  • What to do if your ancestor lived in Ireland before the nineteenth century, but you do not know where in Ireland he or she came from?

Other tutorial accounts:

Extensive tutorial material, plus lots of links, are also to be found at the Irish Genealogical Society, International (IGSI) site.

Each county now has a local Heritage Centre - part of the Irish Family History Foundation. (Here is the Irish Times' listing of Heritage Centres A-K and Irish Times' listing of Heritage Centres L-Z.) Many of these centres offer a fee-paid search service. For details see under Genealogy in the individual county pages - however there have been concerns expressed about the accuracy (and cost) of the information supplied by some Heritage Centres.

An overall access point for posting queries about Irish Genealogy is provided by IrelandGenWeb (part of WorldGenWeb) - see also under individual counties.

All-Ireland Newsgroups and mailing lists:

  • Cúpla Focal - The Irish Book Shop.
  • FIANNA-L-request@rootsweb.com (sources and methods for Irish research)
  • GENIRE - Gatewayed with the soc.genealogy.ireland newsgroup
  • IRELAND - A mailing list for anyone with a genealogical or historical interest in the island of Ireland
  • Ireland Genealogy Forum
  • IrelandGenWeb - A mailing list addressing general and specific questions about Ireland genealogy, methodology, etc.
  • IRISH-ADOPTEES-SEARCH (adoptees who wish to share search/reunion stories, genealogical pursuits, and knowledge of Ireland)
  • N-Ireland - A mailing list for anyone with a genealogical or historical interest in Northern Ireland
  • Scotch-Irish Mailing List (Scotch-Irish is a term that has come to be used in the United States to indicate all those who came from Northern Ireland who were not Gaelic Catholic Irish)
  • SHAMROCK - A mailing list for those trying to find their Celtic/Irish roots and for Irish historic research.
  • SURNAMES-IRELAND - Gatewayed with the soc.genealogy.surnames.ireland newsgroup for surname queries related to Ireland and Northern Ireland

Other Online Resources:

See also:

Reference:

Irvine, Sherry and Nora M Hickey. Going to Ireland: A Genealogical Researcher's Guide. Trafford Publishing, Victoria, Canada. [ISBN 1 55212 077 5] [Very favourably reviewed in Family Tree Magazine, June 1998.]

Heraldry

The records of the Genealogical Office (2 Kildare Street,Dublin 2, Ireland) deal mainly with heraldry (mostly relating to English Lords who were transplanted to Ireland as landowners). The office's holdings include information extracted from records that were destroyed when the Public Records Office burned.

See also:

  • Eddie Geoghegan's Coats of Arms in Ireland - a large collection of representations of coats of arms of Irish families/clans.

History

Timeline

See:

Further reading:

  • Sources for the History of Irish Civilization: Articles in Irish Periodicals. 9 Vols. Boston: G.K. Hall and Co. (1970).

Land and Property

Records of place can provide useful information about where your ancestors lived. The main sources for records of place are Griffith's Valuation, the Tithe Applotment Books, Estate Papers and maps.

Griffiths Valuation

The primary valuation of Ireland or Griffith's Valuation - carried out between 1848 and 1864 to determine liability to pay the Poor rate (for the support of the poor and destitute within each Poor Law Union) and provides detailed information on where people lived in mid-nineteenth century Ireland and the property they possessed.  Griffith's Valuation is fully searchable online on the http://www.askaboutireland.ie/griffith-valuation/  (free) and includes images and maps.

Other websites that include Griffiths and other land records:

Valuation Office: http://www.valoff.ie/en/Archives_Genealogy_Public_Office/ (subscription)

Property Registration Authority: http://www.prai.ie/ (subscription)

Ancestry:  http://search.ancestry.co.uk/search/db.aspx?dbid=1269  index and image (subscription)

Findmypast:  Griffith's Survey Maps & Plans, 1847-1864 http://search.findmypast.ie/search-world-Records/griffiths-survey-maps-and-plans-1847-1864  and Griffith's Valuation 1847-1864 http://search.findmypast.ie/search-world-Records/griffiths-valuation-1847-1864  (subscription)

Rootsireland: http://ifhf.rootsireland.ie/quis.php?type=griffith&new=1 index (subscription)

Index and images to valuations between 1824 and 1856 are available on:

National Archives of Ireland: http://census.nationalarchives.ie/search/vob/home.jsp
 Findmypast: http://search.findmypast.com/search-world-Records/ireland-valuation-office-books (subscription)
Familysearch holds 355 microfilms  of Valuation  books available to view as images or microfilm viewable in a Familysearch Family History Library  https://familysearch.org/search/catalog/1149346?availability=Family%20History%20Library .

PRONI: https://www.nidirect.gov.uk/services/searching-valuation-revision-books Valuation Revision Books covering counties Antrim, Armagh, Down, Fermanagh, Londonderry and Tyrone between the years 1864 to 1933.(Subscription)

Tithe Applotment Books

The Tithe Applotment Books were compiled between 1823 and 1838 as a survey of land in each civil parish to determine the payment of tithes (a religious tax). Unlike Griffith's Valuation they do not cover cities or towns. The Tithe Applotment Books are available online at National Archives of Ireland website http://titheapplotmentbooks.nationalarchives.ie/search/tab/index.jsp (free).

Tithe Applotment records can also be found on the following websites

https://familysearch.org/search/collection/1804886

http://search.ancestry.co.uk/search/db.aspx?dbid=1270

http://search.findmypast.com/search-world-Records/the-1831-tithe-defaulters

Estate papers

In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the vast majority of the Irish population lived as tenant farmers on estates. The administration of these estates produced large quantities of records such as leases and deeds, rentals and account books, maps and correspondence.

Archives and Libraries with Estate Paper Collections.

Public Record Office of Northern Ireland: http://apps.proni.gov.uk/DCAL_PRONI_eCatNI_IE/SearchPage.aspx

National Archives of Ireland: http://www.nationalarchives.ie/search-the-archives/

The National Library of Ireland: http://www.nli.ie/en/udlist/manuscripts-collections.aspx?article=c85c048d-ae6a-4ad4-a107-f7e9df641287

Trinity College Library Dublin: Manuscripts and Archives Research Library (Family and Estate Papers): https://www.tcd.ie/library/manuscripts/collections/family-papers.php

Boole Library, University College Cork (Special Collections): http://booleweb.ucc.ie/index.php?pageID=38

James Hardiman Library, National University of Ireland, Galway: http://library.nuigalway.ie/

Cork City and County Archives (Solicitors' & Landed Estate Papers) Boole Library, University College Cork: http://www.corkarchives.ie/collections/solicitorsandlandedestatepapers/

Estate Papers can also be found in County Archives and Local Studies Libraries and  a number of Irish Estate Papers are to be found in U.K. National Archives and County Archives. These can be searched using Discovery on the National Archives website.
http://discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk/

A selection of  websites which include indexes and images relating to Estate Papers

Findmypast: http://search.findmypast.com/search-world-Records/landed-estates-court-rentals-1850-1885 Landed Estate Court Rentals (subscription)

Findmypast: http://search.findmypast.com/search-world-Records/estate-commissioners-offices-applications-from-evicted-tenants-1907  Estate commissioners offices applications from evicted tenants 1907 (subscription)

Findmypast: http://search.findmypast.com/search-world-Records/burkes-landed-gentry-of-ireland-1899 Burkes Landed Gentry of Ireland1899 (subscription)

PRONI https://www.nidirect.gov.uk/services/search-freeholders-records  Freeholders records (free)

Findmypast: http://search.findmypast.com/search-world-Records/thoms-irish-whos-who-1923 Thoms Irish Who’s Who 1923

Ancestry: http://search.ancestry.co.uk/search/db.aspx?dbid=2514 Lord Viscount Morpeth's Testimonial Roll, 1841

Ancestry: http://search.ancestry.co.uk/search/db.aspx?dbid=6269 Burke's Commoners of Great Britain and Ireland

Ancestry: http://search.ancestry.co.uk/search/db.aspx?dbid=48475 Return of Owners of Land in Ireland 1876

Maps

Map of Ireland showing counties and their Chapman Codes - based on a map obtained from Paddy Waldron.

Other sources:

Reference:

  • Mitchell, B. A New Genealogical Atlas of Ireland. Genealogical Publishing Co. [Shows counties, dioceses, baronies and civil parishes.]

Military History

Until the creation of the Republic of Ireland, military service was as part of the British Army and Navy and, as such, most remaining records are held by the UK National Archives at Kew. Northern Ireland continues to be part of the United Kingdom. Before searching these archives some knowledge of the recruiting, organisation and structure of the Army and Navy and their records is recommended.  The National Archives publish a series of free Research Guides:

Army:  http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/help-with-your-research/research-guides-keywords/?show=keywords&keyword-letter=a&keyword=army-2#step-three

Navy:  http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/help-with-your-research/research-guides-keywords/?show=keywords&keyword-letter=n&keyword=navy#step-three

Personnel records are mostly classified by regiment (army) or ship (navy) and are open to the public up to 1923. Requests may be made for WW2 service records, under the Freedom of Information Act. Many of the service records have been indexed but regimental/ship’s muster and pay records can only be searched at the National Archives.

Service record Indexes can be searched using the National Archives Discovery catalogue http://discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk/ and the following websites hold extensive indexes and images.

Findmypast: http://search.findmypast.com/search-united-kingdom-records-in-military-service-and-conflict  (Subscription)

Ancestry: http://search.ancestry.co.uk/search/category.aspx?cat=39  (Subscription)

Familysearch: (Free)

United Kingdom, World War I Women's Army Auxiliary Corps Records, 1917-1920

United Kingdom, World War I Service Records, 1914-1920

United Kingdom, Militia Service Records, 1806-1915

United Kingdom, Merchant Navy Seamen Records, 1835-1941

United Kingdom, Maritime Births, Marriages, and Deaths, 1787-1933

United Kingdom, Chelsea Pensioners' Service Records, 1760-1913

Great Britain, War Office Registers, 1772-1935

Regimental Museums hold some personnel records but mostly record the history of the regiment.

Most military records for the Republic of Ireland are covered by Data Protection legislation, some information is available on Defence Forces Ireland , Military Archives website http://www.militaryarchives.ie/en/home (free) and Findmypast have published the Irish Army Census 1922 http://search.findmypast.com/search-world-Records/irish-army-census-1922 (subscription)

Names, Personal

The pool of Irish surnames is relatively small compared to the rest of Europe and the use and re-use of family forenames can make it difficult for Family Historians to be sure which member of the community is the right ancestor.

The following websites give general information on the history of names in Ireland:

Irish First Names http://www.dochara.com/the-irish/first-names/irish-first-names/

Irish Surnames http://www.dochara.com/ireland/the-irish/surnames/

Irish Ancestors includes pages on specific family histories

Family History websites https://www.johngrenham.com/surnamescode/surnameurls_list.php?startletter=a#links/

Surnames and distribution https://www.johngrenham.com/surnames/ (Subscription)

Other sources:

Reference:

  • MacLysaght, E.The Surnames of Ireland (6th. ed.). Irish Academic Press (1985).

Newspapers

Local newspapers in Ireland have been published since the early 18th century and cover all aspects of national, regional and local life. Copies of most newspapers were sent to the British Library and have since been scanned and indexed (note the indexing has been by OCR and is subject to error). The British Library collection has also been released by Findmypast.

Historic Newspapers collections online.

http://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/ (Subscription)

http://search.findmypast.com/search/irish-newspapers (Subscription)

http://search.findmypast.com/search/british-newspapers (Subscription)

http://www.irishtimes.com/archive (Subscription)

https://www.irishnewsarchive.com/ (Subscription)

Many Irish libraries hold microfilm and paper copies of local newspapers which are free to browse.

Since the 1990s many newspapers have started making copies available online. The following website is a guide to online holdings: http://www.onlinenewspapers.com/ireland.htm

Occupations

Many Irish people were agricultural labourers or small farmers, for which few records exist. However, for other occupations the situation is much better. A detailed description of the various types of Records concerning Occupations is given at the Irish Ancestors site.

Periodicals

Many are listed on the individual county pages.

Poor Houses, Poor Law etc.

Poor Law and the Workhouse in Ireland are included in the excellent website “The Workhouse” http://www.workhouses.org.uk/Ireland/ .Information on individual workhouses includes history, maps , photographs and the location of remaining records. Note individual records may be subject to a 100 year closure period.

A number of workhouses have re-opened as Heritage Centres and Museums giving an insight into life in the Workhouse,

Websites with Workhouse content

Ancestry Ireland, Famine Relief Commission Papers, 1844-1847

Findmypast Dublin Workhouses Admission & Discharge Registers 1840-1919

Findmypast Sligo Workhouse Admission and Discharge Registers 1848-1859

Books

The Workhouses of Ireland John O’Connor Anvil 1995

Derry and the Irish Poor Law Patrick Durnin Waterside Community Local History Group 1991

Probate Records

Irish probates were handled by ecclesiastical courts up to 1858. Twenty-eight diocesan courts, known as consistory courts, existed. The highest court, with authority over all the ecclesiastical courts, was the Prerogative Court of Armagh (which operated from Dublin). If a person had an estate that included property in more than one diocese and was worth more than £5, that person's will would have been proved in the Prerogative Court. And in addition, the wills of wealthy people were usually proved in the Prerogative Court. If the Estate included property in England or Wales the will may have been proven in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury or Prerogative Court of York.

In 1858, civil authorities, government departments, and courts, took on the work of proving wills and administrations. Eleven district will registries and a Principal Probate Registry in Dublin replaced the church probate courts. Each registry made copies of wills and administrations that it proved in 'will and admon books' and after 20 years sent the originals to the Public Record Office in Dublin. The originals and copies, of almost all records of the Principal Probate Registry (which also had jurisdiction as a district court over the counties of Dublin and Kildare) were destroyed in the fire that consumed the Public Record Office in 1922.  Copies of wills and administrations kept by other district registries have been gathered into the National Archives and the Public Record Office of Northern Ireland, where they remain grouped by district.

Websites with Probate indexes and images.

https://www.nidirect.gov.uk/information-and-services/search-archives-online/will-calendars

http://www.willcalendars.nationalarchives.ie/search/cwa/

https://www.johngrenham.com/browse/retrieve_text.php?text_contentid=459 1922-1982

https://familysearch.org/search/collection/1921305

http://apps.proni.gov.uk/DCAL_PRONI_ProniNames_IE/SearchPage.aspx

http://search.findmypast.com/search-ireland-records-in-birth-marriage-and-death-parish-registers/and_wills-and-probate 1484-1820 and WW1 Soldiers Wills

https://archive.org/details/indextoprerogati00vica Index to the prerogative wills of Ireland, 1536-1810:

http://search.ancestry.co.uk/search/category.aspx?cat=140 Filter Location for Ireland

Familysearch Family History Libraries also hold microfilms of indexes and images of probate documents.

Social life and Customs

Societies

Irish Ancestors https://www.johngrenham.com/browse/society_links.php#links/  includes links to the following societies.

  • Ballingeary and Inchigeela Historical Society, Co. Cork
  • Clogher Historical Society
  • Co. Roscommon Family History Society
  • Co. Tipperary Historical Society
  • Cork Genealogical Society
  • Cork Historical & Archaeological Society
  • Dungarvan Museum Society
  • Genealogical Society of Ireland
  • Grand Orange Lodge
  • Irish Family History Society
  • Mallow Archaeological and Historical Society
  • North of Ireland Family History Society
  • Offaly Historical and Archaeological Society
  • Ratoo Heritage Society
  • Skibbereen Heritage Centre
  • Termonfeckin Historical Society
  • The Glens of Antrim Historical Society
  • The Irish Genealogical Research Society
  • The Irish Railway Record Society
  • The Methodist Historical Society of Ireland
  • The Wicklow Heritage Project
  • Western Family History Association
  • American-Irish Historical Society
  • British Isles Family History Society - U.S.A.
  • Irish Genealogical Society International
  • Irish Genealogical Society of Wisconsin
  • New Zealand Society of Genealogists
  • Society of Australian Genealogists
  • The American Irish Historical Society
  • The Bahrain Irish Society
  • The British Isles Family History Society of Greater Ottawa
  • The Federation of Family History Societies (U.K.)
  • The Irish Ancestral Research Association
  • The Ulster-Scots Society of America

Other Societies include

Taxation

Many Irish tax records were lost in 1922 when the Public Records Office burned. Surviving archives are mostly land valuation records, including the Tithe Applotment books and Griffith's Primary Valuation. These sources are included in the Land and Property Section.

During the 18th and 19th Centuries, flax was an important cash crop a list of known flax growers on the island in 1796. It provides the name of grower and county of residence and the number of spinning wheels/looms that were awarded. The index can be searched on Ancestry http://search.ancestry.co.uk/search/db.aspx?dbid=3732 and transcription is available to members of the Ulster Historical Foundation https://www.ancestryireland.com/