"KINCARDINE-O'NEIL, a parish and village, in the district of Kincardine-O'Neil, county of Aberdeen, 11 miles (S. by E.) from Alford; containing 1857 inhabitants, of whom 288 are in the village. This place, which is of some antiquity, derives its name from its position near the termination of a range of hills; and its distinguishing adjunct, O'Neil, from the name of a rivulet that flows round the village. . . The parish is bounded on the south by the river Dee, and is about seven miles in extreme length and nearly five miles in breadth, comprising 15,000 acres, of which almost 6000 are arable, 3500 woodland and plantations, and the remainder (including 1500 acres capable of improvement) moorland pasture and waste. . . The river Dee is here seventy yards in width, and, about two miles below the village, is crossed by an elegant bridge of granite, erected in 1812, at a cost of £3500, of which one-half was paid by government, and the other raised by subscription. . Large portions of the waste grounds have been reclaimed, and brought under profitable cultivation, both by the proprietors and the tenants. The lands have been inclosed with stone fences; substantial and commodious farm-buildings have been erected, many of which are roofed with slate. . . The village, which is on the turnpike- road from Ballater to Aberdeen, is neatly built; it has a rural aspect, and is frequented during the summer months by invalids for the benefit of their health. An excellent inn has been erected; and a circulating library, containing a well-assorted collection, has been established. There are no manufactures carried on here, but many of the women are employed in knitting stockings for the Aberdeen houses. . . For ecclesiastical purposes the parish is within the limits of the presbytery of Kincardine O'Neil, synod of Aberdeen. . . Kincardine church is an ancient structure, of which the date is unknown. Its roof was destroyed by fire in 1733, and only the walls, which are built of small stones embedded in lime, left standing: the edifice was, however, restored immediately, has since been more than once repaired, and is now in good condition, affording accommodation for a congregation of 640 persons. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship. . . More"
[From Samuel Lewis A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (1851) - copyright Mel Lockie 2016]