[Description(s) from The National Gazetteer (1868)]
"CANONBIE, (or Canoby), a parish in the S.E. of the county of Dumfries, Scotland, containing a village of the same name, 6 miles to the S. of Langholm. It has a station on the Langholm branch of the Border Counties railway. The parish is situated on the English border, in a fertile and beautiful country, on the banks of the Esk, where the Liddle falls into that river. The parish took its name from a small monastery or canonry, founded by Target de Rossedal, in the reign of David I., which, with its endowments, was afterwards given to the monks of Jedburgh. This monastery was frequently attacked during the border wars, and was pillaged and laid in ruins by the English in 1542, after the defeat of the Scottish army at Solway Moss. Some slight remains of the monastery exist at Halgreen, half a mile E. of the parish church. The old church perished at the same time. The district is well wooded, especially on the banks of the Esk, which present, for a continuance of 12 miles from Longtown to Langholm, some of the most beautifully picturesque scenery in Scotland. It contains abundance of coal, limestone, and freestone. The living, value £400, is in the presbytery of Langholm, in the patronage of the Duke of Buccleuch. A handsome modern church stands on the E. side of the Esk. There is also a Free church, and a handsome school-house. There are numerous remains of ancient entrenchments and fortresses in the parish, including Johnnie Armstrong's tower, and other mementoes of the mutual incursions of the English and Scottish borderers. The parish, extending about 9 miles in length and 7 in breadth, is the property of the Duke of Buccleuch, who is sole heritor of the parish."
"GILNOCKIE, a tower in the parish of Canoby, or Canonbie, county Dumfries, Scotland. It is situated near the bridge over the river Eske, and is celebrated as the stronghold of Johnnie Armstrong, who was hung by James V."
[Description(s) from The National Gazetteer of Great Britain and Ireland (1868)
Transcribed by Colin Hinson ©2003]