St. Andrews and St. Leonards

Description of the parish in 1856

Map showing the location of the parish

"The parishes lie on the south bank of the River Eden and are bounded by Leuchars, Kingsbarns, Denino, Cameron, Ceres and Kemback. From the Eden to the city of St Andrews the coast presents a flat, firm, sandy beach so famous in the annals of golfing. On Strathkinness moor and on Nydie Hill, both at the west of the parish, are quarries of excellent freestone, of which most of the houses in St Andrews are built. The city contains 3 principal streets, all intersected by smaller ones, all well paved and lit by gas. The weaving of linen is carried on to a considerable extent for establishments in Newburgh and Dundee. The making of golf balls was long a great branch of industry but is now extinct. A spinning mill was tried, but did not succeed. There is now an extensive steam sawmill near the harbour. Flour mills on a large scale are worked by the Incorporation of Bakers." edited from  Wilson's Imperial Gazetteer of Scotland published 1856.

Towns and Villages

The parishes of St Andrews and St Leonards were united to form a single parish in 1895.

Boarhills
St. Andrews
Strathkinness

Places in St Andrews and St Leonards parish, with links to online historical and modern maps.


Please read the main Fife pages if you have not already done so.

Archives and Libraries

St Andrews Library, Church Square, St Andrews, Fife. KY16 9NN. Tel. 01334 659378
The Hay Fleming Reference Library (the library of David Hay Fleming, historian & antiquary, 1849-1931) previously housed here has been transferred to the St Andrews University Library.

St Andrews University Library,Special Collections Department, Special Collections Napier Reading Room, Martyrs Kirk Research Library, North Street, St Andrews, Fife. KY16 9AH. Tel. 01334 467380
In addition to the extensive university library, the Special Collections Department is the archive for local authority and church material in the East Fife area.

There are also a number of museums in St Andrews with varying displays.

The ScotlandsPlaces website lets users search across national databases by geographical location. It includes, amongst other material,

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Bibliography

A very good description is to be found in the relevant chapters in History of the County of Fife: From the Earliest Period to the Present Time by John M Leighton, published 1840, online at Google Books - St Andrews and St Leonards.

Old St Andrews (Stenlake Publishing) contains many photographs and full descriptions.

An excellent history of the town is St Andrews: City by the Northern Sea by Raymond Lamont-Brown (ISBN: 978-1841584508).

Cemeteries

There are 4 cemeteries and 5 other locations of memorial inscriptions in St Andrews & St Leonards parish:

1. St Andrews Cathedral Churchyard, St Andrews (grid ref. NO 514165; GPS: 56.340021 -2.788855 Google map):

2. St Andrews Eastern Cemetery, The Pends, St Andrews (grid ref. NO 515165; GPS: 56.338749 -2.786226 Google map):

3. St Andrews Western & Roundal Cemetery, Strathkinness Low Road, St Andrews (grid ref. NO 487160; GPS: 56.334928 -2.831437 Google map):

4. St Leonard's Chapel, The Pends, St Andrews (grid ref. NO 513164; GPS: 56.339198 -2.789831 Google map):

5. St Salvator's Church, North Street, St Andrews (grid ref. NO 510168; GPS: 56.3413 -2.794326 Google map):

6. Holy Trinity Church, South Street, St Andrews (grid ref. NO 509166; GPS: 56.339522 -2.795528 Google map):

7. Boarhills Churchyard / Cemetery, A917, by Boarhills (grid ref. NO 562137; GPS: 56.313538 -2.710062 Google map):

8. Magus Muir, south of Strathkinness (grid ref. NO 456152; GPS: 56.325229 -2.882142 Google map):

9. Strathtyrum Mausoleum, (grid ref. NO 492170; GPS: 56.343425 -2.822377 Google map):

The pre-1855 monumental inscriptions for St Andrews Cathedral, St Andrews Cemetery, Trinity Church, St Leonard's Chapel, St Salvator's Church and Boarhills Churchyard are listed in Fifeshire Monumental Inscriptions (pre-1855) vol. 3 The north east parishes by John Fowler Mitchell & Sheila Mitchell, published by the Scottish Genealogy Society. ISBN 0901061999

The Churchyard Memorials of St Andrews, Alan Reid, published in Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, 1910-11, vol. 45, pages 488-550, deals mostly with 16th and 17th century memorials. Post-reformation tombstones in the Cathedral Churchyard, St Andrews, George MacDonald, published in Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland,1935-36, vol. 70, pages 40-121, has many detailed descriptions of stones. They can both be downloaded from ARCHway.

Some stones are recorded in Graveyard Monuments in East, North and Central Fife, John di Folco, published in Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, 1969-70, vol. 102, pages 205-236, which deals largely with stones dated pre-1707. It can be downloaded from ARCHway.

War graves can be seen at the Scottish Wargraves Project and war memorials can be seen at the Scottish War Memorials Project.

Census

Parish / district reference number for 1841 - 1901 censuses: 453

Surname indexes to the 1841 and 1861 censuses have been produced by Dr David Calvert. The 1851 census has been indexed by the Tay Valley Family History Society. All are available from the Society.

The 1841 and 1851 returns can be searched on the FreeCEN website.

Some census records on microfilm may be consulted in  LDS Family Search Centres around the world.

LDS Library Film Numbers:

  1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
St Andrews & St Leonards 1042704 1042272 103832 103995 203530 208766
(Data provided by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints)

Further information on the main Fife page.

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Church History

The Old Statistical Account (written in the 1790s) gives this information about the religious views of the inhabitants:

The New Statistical Account of St Andrews (written in 1837) gives this information:

The New Statistical Account of St Leonards (written in 1837) gives this information:

A census of Religious Worship and Education was taken in 1851 at the same time as the census of population. A table of statistics about the churches in Fife at this time is available here. The statistics for the separate burghs were also given. Those for St Andrews are as follows:

St Andrews (Parliamentary Burgh): Population of Parish 7327, Population of Burgh 5107:

Religious Denomination Number of Places of Worship Number of Sittings Number of Attendants at Public Worship on Sunday March 30 1851 (including Sunday Scholars)
Free Appropriated Total Morning Afternoon Evening
Established Church 6 486 970 1456 2085 1696 350
United Presbyterian Church 1   380 380 300 350  
Free Church 2 52 812 1144 766 833  
Episcopal Church 2 184 296 480 191 214  
Independents or Congregationalists 1     360 143 195 173
Baptists 1 250   250 68 71 90
Total 13 972 2458 4070 3553 3359 613
The number of sittings was not returned for 2 of the Established Churches.

Source: Census of Great Britain, 1851, Religious worship and education. Scotland. Report and tables. British Parliamentary Papers 1854 LIX (1764).

The 1865 Ecclesiastical Directory lists St Andrews parish church, a second charge of the Established Church in St Andrews, St Leonard's parish church, an Established Church at Strathkinness, Free Churches at St Andrews and Strathkinness, the Episcopal Church, the Baptist Church, the Congregational Church and the United Presbyterian Church.

Information and pictures of the churches at the Scottish Churches website.

Details of church history:

St Andrews once existed as the ecclesiastical capital of Scotland and there is though to have been a religious community here since around 732AD, when relics of St Andrew were brought to the area, which was known in ancient times as Kilrimont. By 1144 St Andrews had established its place in the Scottish Church when a community of Augustinian Canons was set up here, and additionally in early times, around the beginning of the 12th century, there was a parish church built in St Andrews, which was dedicated to the Holy Trinity and which belonged to the Priory of St Andrews. The parish church was extensively restored in 1798 and again in the early years of the 20th century. A second charge was founded for the parish of St Andrews in 1589 and between the years of 1593-1620 a third charge was also maintained. The General Assembly, during the early years of the reformed church, held sessions on several occasions at St Andrews, the first of these, in 1572, coincided with the time during which John Knox was resident in the cathedral city. The Kirk Session of St Andrews Holy Trinity, the two charges of which were united in 1978, sits within the Presbytery of St Andrews.

St Leonard's originated in a hospital, dedicated to St Leonard, for pilgrims visiting St Andrews founded c1140. In 1512 St Leonard's Hospital was converted into a college of St Andrews University. From the Reformation until 1824, the Principal of St Leonard's College was also minister of the parish. The church was ruinous in 1759, and the congregation thereafter worshipped in St Salvator's Chapel, but a new parish church was dedicated in 1904. In 1975 the congregation was linked with Cameron with Largoward, but the link with Largoward was terminated in 1983. The designation is currently Cameron linked with St Andrews: St Leonard's. The charge is within the Presbytery of St Andrews, and was in the Synod of Fife until synods were dissolved in 1993.

Hope Park originates in a burgher church in St Andrews founded in 1749, although there had been seceding worship in the town for some years before. The first minister was ordained in 1752, but there was not regular ministry thereafter in the remainder of the 18th century. A new church in North Street was opened in 1826, and because the congregation increased another new church was opened in 1865. On the union of the United Presbyterian Church and the Free Church of Scotland in 1900, the congregation became a United Free Church charge, under the designation St Andrews: Hope Park. This name was maintained through the union of the United Free Church and the Church of Scotland in 1929.

A Free Church congregation at St Andrews was established immediately after the Disruption in 1843. At latest on the union of the Free Church of Scotland the United Presbyterian Church in 1900, the charge became St Andrews: Martyrs, in the United Free Church of Scotland, within the Presbytery of St Andrews and Synod of Fife. On the union of the United Free Church and the Church of Scotland in 1929, the charge's designation remained as it was. In 1993 it was linked with Boarhills and Dunino. Jurisdiction: Presbytery of St Andrews

The evangelical activities of the Haldane brothers provoked a growth in non-conformity. An independent or congregational society was functioning in St Andrews with its own minister by 1805 and shortly therafter with a chapel at 101 Market Street. From 1839 the building was also used by a Baptist group who moved in 1843 to their own building on South Street. In 1853 the Congregationalists acquired a new chapel in South Bell Steet, a well-designed gothic building by Jesse Hall of St Andrews, which continued in use until the society was disbanded in 1966.

There was a persistent adherence to the Episcopal order within St Andrews after 1690. However, the association with Jacobitism meant that there were restrictions imposed on Episcopal worship until 1792. It was not until 1825 that the St Andrews Episcopalians were able to build a small chapel in North Street, designed by William Burn and embellished in 1853 with and ornate gothic front by Gilbert Scott. In 1867-1869 this church was superseded by a larger building, also called St Andrew's Church at the foot of Queen Street. This was a dignified neo-gothic design by R Rowand Anderson of Edinburgh, often described as a cathedral in its early days and intended to have a lofty tower and spire. The tower was added in 1892 but was demolished as structurally unsafe in 1938. Associated with the congregation was a fishermen's mission (All Saints, St Andrews), in North Castle Street. The congregation remains the largest in the diocese of St Andrews, Dunkeld and Dunblane of the Scottish Episcopal Church. It is run by a Rector , currently assisted by a Curate and various honorary clergy. Source: R.G. Cant, 'Public Buildings of St Andrews, 1790-1914, Churches, Schools and Hospitals', in Three Decades of Historical Notes, (St Andrews, 1991), p. 121.

The parish of Strathkinness was established in 1860 when it was disjoined from that of St Andrews and erected quoad sacra. In 1935, following the 1929 union of the Church of Scotland and the United Free Church, Strathkinness parish church was joined by the former United Free church congregation of Strathkinness. After the union the former United Free church, which had previously existed as a preaching station, was sold and a link was later established in 1980 with Dairsie with Kemback. The kirk session sits within the Presbytery of St Andrews.

Following the union of the United Presbyterian Church and the Free Church of Scotland in 1900, the former Free Church charge of Strathkinness was accordingly termed Strathkinness United Free Church, and in 1908 was reduced to a preaching station. Following the 1929 union of the Church of Scotland and the United Free Church, Strathkinness United Free joined with the parish church congregation of Strathkinness, and the former United Free church was later sold.

There was a Relief congregation at Strathkinness from c1801-1816, though not continuously in existence. In 1818, the Original Burgher Presbytery of Perth and Dunfermline prepared for a church at Strathkinness, but it was only in 1823 when that congregation was organised. In 1827 Mr Ralph Robb, an Original Burgher preacher, was ordained as first minister of the charge and in 1839 he, along with his congregation, joined the Church of Scotland. At the Disruption in 1843, however, Mr Robb left the session, which then became the Strathkinness Free Church. At the 1900 union of the United Free Church and the United Presbyterians, the charge was accordingly termed Strathkinness United Free Church, and in 1908 was reduced to a preaching station. Following the 1929 union of the Church of Scotland and the United Free Church, Strathkinness United Free joined with the parish church congregation of Strathkinness, and the former United Free church was later sold.

When the church of Boarhills was erected in 1865 it is believed that the remains of an ancient chapel of Boarhills, dating back to the ninth or tenth cent, were found. Prior to the erection of the church in 1865 worship within the district was conducted within Boarhills school from 1840 and it wasn't until the year 1903 that the parish of Boarhills was disjoined from St Andrews and St Leonards and erected as a parish quoad sacra. Boarhills established a link in 1965 with Dunino and a further link followed in 1993 with St Andrews Martyr's. The link with St Andrews Martyr's continued following the union of Boarhills and Dunino in 1994, under the name of Boarhills and Dunino. The kirk session sits within the Presbytery of St Andrews.

Church Records

Data provided by the  Scottish Archive Network (SCAN)

The Parish Church (Established Church, Church of Scotland):

Holy Trinity, St Andrews

The original Old Parish Registers (of baptisms / births, proclamations / marriages, and deaths / burials) of the Church of Scotland, which cover the years up to 1854, are held in the National Records of Scotland in Edinburgh, and they can all be consulted there at the National Records of Scotland. The baptisms / births, proclamations / marriages and deaths / burials indexes can be searched at the ScotlandsPeople website. Copies of the register entries may be purchased.

Parish reference number: 453

The Old Parish Registers (OPRs) span the following dates (although there are gaps within these ranges):

St Andrews OPR Births / baptisms Proclamations / marriages Deaths / burials / mortcloths
453/1 1627-1680    
453/2 1680-1738    
453/3 1739-1803    
453/4 1803-1819    
453/5   1638-1659  
453/6   1659-1670  
453/7   1670-1679  
453/8   1679-1698  
453/9   1698-1706  
453/10   1706-1719  
453/11   1719-1729  
453/12   1729-1740  
453/13   1740-1750  
453/14   1750-1762  
453/15   1763-1771  
453/16   1770-1819  
453/17     1732-1819
453/19 1820-1854    
453/20   1820-1854  
453/21     1820-1854
Register of Neglected Entries 1844-1845    
St Leonards OPR Births / baptisms Proclamations / marriages Deaths / burials / mortcloths
453/18 1667-1819 1668-1819  
453/22 1820-1854 1820-1855  
(Data supplied by the National Records of Scotland)

The Detailed List of the Old Parochial Registers of Scotland, published 1872, provides this information about the content of the OPRs, including the gaps within them:

St. Andrews: B.  With the exception that it is defective Dec. 1737 - April 1740, Record carefully kept throughout; the portion prior to 1680, in particular, being beautifully written. After Record for June 1712, three pp. of entries of children baptized by an Episcopal Minister 1712 - 1741; and at the beginning of vol. 2, two pp. of irregular entries of children baptized by Seceders 1738 - 1757. After Record for 1819 there are 17 slips of paper containing the dates of Births of children born bet. 1803 and 1844.
M.  Record of Contracts and Marriages prior to 1770 mixed up with other matters. Blank 1685 - 1694. Separate Record after 1770. Irregular Marriages occasionally recorded.
D.  Greater part of first leaf destroyed. Prior to Feb. 1735 the entries record not only the date of Death and Burial, but generally also the hour of both. After Feb. 1735 the date of Death only recorded.

St. Leonards: B.  blank Aug. 1695 - June 1696. Only one entry May 1799 - May 1800.
M.  blank Jan. 1677 - April 1678, and March 1690 - Nov. 1691. Only one entry Nov. 1692 - Aug. 1694, and one April 1695 - Aug. 1696. No entry for 1717. Blank March 1739 - June 1740. No entry for 1769. Blank Sept. 1797 - Nov. 1800. No entry for 1821.

Copies of the registers on microfilm may be consulted in some local libraries and at LDS Family Search Centres around the world. The indexes to baptisms / births and proclamations / marriages can also be searched on the LDS Family Search website or on the IGI on microfiche in local libraries.

LDS Library Film Numbers:

1040171 Item 3 Baptisms 1627-1667
1040172 Baptisms 1667-1819; Misc. Baptisms 1820-1843
1040173 Session book (includes Marriages) 1638-1679
1040174 Session book (includes Marriages) 1679-1685, 1694- 1720
1040175 Session book (includes Marriages) 1720-1754
1040176 Session book (includes Marriages) 1754-1771; Marriages 1770-1819; Burials 1732-1819
1040388 Baptisms, Marriages (St. Leonards) 1667-1819; Baptisms, Marriages, Burials (St. Andrews) 1820-1854
1040181 Item 1 Baptisms, Marriages (St. Leonards) 1820-1855; Neglected Entries (Baptisms - St. Andrews) 1844-1845
(Data provided by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints)

Deaths / burials are listed on Fife Family History Society's  Pre-1855 Fife Deaths CD.

Further information on the main Fife page.

Kirk Session records are held at the Special Collections Dept. of St Andrews University Library, with digital copies at the National Records of Scotland, Edinburgh. Some Kirk Session material is to be found in the OPR records (453/5-15).

Heritors' Records (HR73-St Andrews, HR491-St Leonards) are at the National Records of Scotland, Edinburgh.

At the Special Collections Dept. of St Andrews University Library, with digital copies of the earlier volumes at the National Records of Scotland, Edinburgh:

Included in the Old Parochial Registers on microfilm and at the National Records of Scotland, Edinburgh but not online:

453/5 St Andrews Kirk Session Minutes 1638-1659
453/6 St Andrews Kirk Session Minutes 1659-1670
453/7 St Andrews Kirk Session Minutes 1670-1679
453/8 St Andrews Kirk Session Minutes 1679-1698
453/9 St Andrews Kirk Session Minutes 1698-1706
453/10 St Andrews Kirk Session Minutes 1706-1719
453/11 St Andrews Kirk Session Minutes 1719-1729
453/12 St Andrews Kirk Session Minutes 1729-1740
453/13 St Andrews Kirk Session Minutes 1740-1750
453/14 St Andrews Kirk Session Minutes 1750-1763
453/15 St Andrews Kirk Session Minutes 1763-1671

At the National Records of Scotland, Edinburgh:

Other Churches :

Records for the following churches are held by  the Special Collections Dept. of St Andrews University Library:

Hope Park (burgher, United Presbyterian, United Free, and Church of Scotland) CH3/1584
Martyrs Free Church CH3/1585
St Andrews Congregational Church  
St Andrews Episcopal Church  
Strathkinness United Free Church CH3/1566
Strathkinness Associate Session (relief, Free) CH3/291

At the Special Collections Dept. of St Andrews University Library:

The St Andrews page of the LDS Family Search Research Wiki has more information about church history and records.

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Civil Registration

Registration of Births, Marriages and Deaths began in Scotland on 1st January 1855. Full information on the main Fife page.

Registration districts covering this parish:

Registration district number start date end date
St Andrews (Fife) burgh 453/1 1855 1855
St Andrews (Fife) landward 453/2 1855 1855
St Leonards 453/3 1855 1855
St Andrews and St Leonards 453 1856 1967
St Andrews 453 1968 1971
St Andrews 413 1972 2002
Fife 413 2003  

Registration districts did not necessarily coincide exactly with parishes. In the 20th century especially, there were frequent changes in registration districts.

Court Records

At the National Records of Scotland, Edinburgh:

At the Special Collections Dept. of St Andrews University Library:

On the Records pages of the Fife Family History Society website there are indexes to St Andrews Commissariot Deeds (1700-1809) and St Andrews Burgh Register of Deeds (1692-1891).

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Description & Travel

St Andrews town centre Ordnance Survey Grid Reference GPS Post code Lat. 5620'21"N
NO 509166 56.339202
-2.795817
KY16 9LU Lon. 247'47"W

The Handbook to St Andrews, published in 1897, a detailed history and description of the city of St. Andrews, together with its people, is available on CD from Archive CD Books.

Surrounding parishes: Ceres, Cameron, Leuchars, Kemback, Dunino, Crail, Kingsbarns.

Directories

The parish entry in Pigot's National Commercial Directory for the whole of Scotland, 1837, is online at Google Books.

Westwood's Parochial Directory for the Counties of Fife and Kinross for 1862 and 1866 are online at Google Books. On the Records pages of the Fife Family History Society website there is a transcription of the 1862 edition.

Gazetteers

There is a list of places in St Andrews parish, with links to online historical and modern maps.

Several old gazetteers are available. They all contain descriptions of the parish and many are also worth searching for entries of places within the parish.

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Historical Geography

Before 1891, St Andrews and St Leonards parishes were a complicated mixture of town and country parts, intermixed with each other. St Leonards consisted of 4 separate parts: an area at Kenly at the south end of St Andrews parish, 2 parts in the burgh of St Andrews itself, and an area at Rathelpie to the west of the burgh.
On 15th May 1891 a new parish of St Leonards was created, situated entirely within the burgh of St Andrews. The country areas were transferred to St Andrews parish. The following subjects were, therefore, transferred from St Leonards parish to St Andrews parish: Upper Kenly Farm, Nether Kenly, Newmill, Rathelpie, Peekie, Peekie Mill and Mill Bank, Westerlee.
The separate parishes were united to form the Parish of St Andrews and St Leonards in 1895.

A Vision of Britain provides historical descriptions, population & housing statistics, historic boundaries and maps.

History

There is a history of the town on the VisitStAndrews website.

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Land and Property

Details of historic buildings and archaeological sites in this parish held by the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland, Edinburgh, are catalogued at ScotlandsPlaces. In the results, click RCAHMS. Unfortunately, not all entries have digital images.

At the National Records of Scotland, Edinburgh:

Maps

Historic maps: Present-day maps:
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Medical Records

Hospital records (mostly of an administrative nature) are held by the Fife Council Archive Centre. The following hospitals are included: Memorial Cottage Hospital, St Andrews 1875-1949. Patient records are closed for 100 years.

Military History

War graves can be seen at the Scottish Wargraves Project and war memorials can be seen at the Scottish War Memorials Project.

Names, Geographical

There is an index to the Ordnance Survey Object Name Books for this parish here.

Obituaries

Andrew Campbell has produced Fife Deaths from Newspapers 1822-1854 - a compilation of deaths recorded in local newspapers. Copies of this index are held by the Fife libraries and the Family History Societies.

Fife Deaths Abroad 1855-1900 - a compilation of overseas deaths recorded in Fife newspapers - has been produced by Andrew Campbell of Fife Family History Society. The Society have re-published it in their Publications Series, 29.

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Occupations

Lists of St Andrews fleshers, 1610 - 1844, St Andrews tailors, 1659 - 1866 and St Andrews weavers, 1751 - 1862, extracted from trade incorporation records held by the Special Collections Dept. of St Andrews University Library, have been published by the Fife Family History Society in Publication 14 - Trade Incorporation Records and is also available on the Records pages of the Fife Family History Society website.

Also available on the Records pages of the Fife Family History Society website are similar lists of St Andrews Weavers (1751-1862), Tailors (1659-1866) and Hammermen (1539-1792).

At the Fife Council Archive Centre is an index to the St Andrews District Criminal Register, 1888 - 1899.

The parish is included in Andrew Campbell's compilation of Fife Shopkeepers and Traders 1820-1870 taken from newspapers and directories. It is available in most Fife reference libraries, in the libraries of the family history societies, and at the Manuscript Department of the Special Collections Department of St Andrews University Library. It is also available as Fife Traders and Shopkeepers on CD from Fife Family History Society.

There is a series of articles about many Fife family businesses in Fife Family History Society's Journal, New Series 11.

St Andrews Sea Box Society

The Seafaring Society in the parishes of St Andrews and St Leonards was founded in 1643 as a Friendly Society. It seems to have lacked any formal constitution until after 1734. There were initially four classes of members: masters, mates, mariners and apprentice masters. Dues were paid as a proportion of earnings. The Society seems to have been administered by two Managers chosen from among the Shipmasters and three assistants. Later a Factor was appointed to act as clerk and treasurer. There was also an officer whose duty it was to call and attend all meetings. There was at least one meeting each year. In addition to entry fees and annual payments, the society derived income from land and bonds on property and later interest from investment of funds. The benefits paid out to members and their dependants included provision for those prevented from working by illness or disability, superannuation for those over 55 and for widow and children as well as meeting funeral expenses. Alternative names for the society included the Sea Poor Box of St Andrews (1734), the Sea Box Society of St Andrews (1863), the Poor Sea Box Society of St Andrews (1880). The Society ceased to be registered as a Friendly Society of Scotland in 1920 and the last meeting was held on 11 January 1921. Source: Articles in Three Decades of Historical Notes, ( St Andrews, 1991): C. Forrest, 'The Sea Box Papers', p. 155; and M I Smith, 'The Seafaring Society in the Parishes of St Andrews and St Leonards, 1643-1920', pp. 155-160.

At the Special Collections Dept. of St Andrews University Library:

Access by appointment with the Archivist. Access to unpublished records less than 30 years old and other records containing confidential information may be restricted. Special conditions apply to photographs. Access Conditions: Applications for permission to quote should be sent to the University Archivist. Reproduction subject to usual conditions: educational use and condition of documents. There are conditions in the terms of deposit which affect reproduction.

Politics and Government Records

St Andrews District Council

The Local Government (Scotland) Act 1929 (19 & 20 Geo. V, c.25) required county councils to draw up a scheme of district councils, to be composed partly of directly elected district councillors and partly of the county councillors from electoral divisions within the district. District councils had various responsibilities delegated to them by the county council under a scheme of delegation. These might include the letting of houses, the upkeep of cemeteries and until 1948 the poor law. District councils also administered special districts or committees responsible for certain functions such as scavenging or water supply, financed by additional rates. District councils were abolished in 1975 by the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1973 (c.65).

At the Special Collections Dept. of St Andrews University Library:

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Poorhouses, Poor Law, etc.

The relief of paupers after 1845 was carried out by the Parochial Board and later by the Parish Council. Their records are at the Fife Council Archive Centre. See Public Records below.

The workhouses.org.uk website has some information about the St Andrews almshouses (the East Poorhouse).

Population

Year St Andrews St Leonards
1755 4590 323
1801 4203 363
1851 6740 587

Parish of St Andrews & St Leonards:

Year Population
1901 9410
1951 10977

There is a page with census statistics from 1755 to 1961 here.

See also A Vision of Britain and Histpop for population statistics.

Probate Records

Probate records are 'Confirmations' in Scotland.

Prior to 1824, wills, testaments & inventories of residents of St Andrews may be found in either the St Andrews Commissariot (CC20) or the Edinburgh Commissariot (CC8) records. From 1824, commissary business has been conducted by the Sheriff Court of Fife at Cupar (SC20).

Indexes and finding aids are given on the main Fife page.

Local sources worth searching for deeds include St Andrews Commissary Court, Cupar Sheriff Court and St Andrews Burgh Register of Deeds.

Public Records

Parochial Boards and their successors, Parish Councils, administered many local functions including poor relief.

At the FifeCouncil Archive Centre, Kirkcaldy:

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Schools & the University

School Board records and / or school logbooks are held at the Fife Council Archive Centre. St Andrews records:

At the Fife Council Archive Centre, Markinch:

Entries less than 50 years old may contain sensitive personal information and are not on open access. If you are a former pupil you are entitled to see your own entry. Please contact the Archivist for further details.

At the Special Collections Dept. of St Andrews University Library:

Education statistics for Fife schools in 1891-2 list the following board schools in the parish:

School Board School Accommodation for scholars Average attendance
St Andrews (Burgh) Burgh 568 473
East End 359 178
Infant 280 253
St Andrews (Landward) Boarhills 117 65
Strathkinness 208 144

Matriculation &/or Graduation lists for St Andrews University 1413-1579 and 1747-1897 have been published and are available on CD from Archive CD Books. The 1747-1897 matriculation roll is online at the Open Library.

In the Muniment Collection in the Special Collections Dept. of St Andrews University Library:

Access by appointment with the Archivist. Access to unpublished records less than 30 years old and other records containing confidential information may be restricted.

Statistics

"Statistical accounts" giving fascinating insights into the local topography and history, social and economic conditions, and even the daily lives of people, were written by the parish ministers in the 1790s and the 1840s. For more information see the main Fife pages

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Taxation Records

The hearth tax, clock & watch tax, male servants tax, female servants tax, and farm horse tax are all on ScotlandsPlaces.

At the Special Collections Dept. of St Andrews University Library:

People of St Andrews 1600-1799 by David Dobson, drawn largely from tax lists, can be obtained from the Tay Valley Family History Society.

See also the Early Taxation Records page.

Town Records

Towns were usually referred to as Burghs in Scotland.

At the Fife Council Archive Centre, Kirkcaldy:

At the National Records of Scotland, Edinburgh:

At the Special Collections Dept. of St Andrews University Library:

On the Records pages of the Fife Family History Society website there is an index to St Andrews Burgh Register of Deeds (1692-1891).

A Burgess Roll of St Andrews 1751 - 1775 has been published by the Fife Family History Society.

Voting Registers

At the Special Collections Dept. of St Andrews University Library:

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