Miscellaneous Places, Perthshire

"ABERNCHILL CASTLE, an old mansion built in the commencement of the 17th century, in the district of Middle Perth, in the county of Perth, Scotland, situated on a beautiful spot near the falls of the river Earn, renowned in story for the conflicts of the Campbells and Macgregors."

"ALLAN WATER, a small river which rises at Gleneagles, near Blackford, among the Ochil hills, in the county of Perth, Scotland. It takes a south-westerly course through the beautiful valley called after the stream Strathallan, receiving several streamlets, and joining the Forth after a course of 14 miles at the Bridge of Allan, and 2 miles above Stirling. It flows past the ancient city of Dumblane. Its name is Celtic, and signifies river. It abounds in good trout."

"ALMOND, a stream, called also Union River, rises in the county of Perth, in a glen among the Grampian hills between Loch Tay and Loch Earn, passes through the parishes of Monzie and Foulis, and falls into the Tay about two miles above Perth, Scotland. It is a very rapid river, with many waterfalls and several tributary streams. Its whole length is about eighteen miles. The upper part of its course lies through a glen named after it, Glenalmond, abounding in exceedingly fine scenery, the rocks in several parts approaching each other very closely, and rising to the height of 1000 to 1200 feet. This is the traditional burial-place of Ossian, and has furnished the theme of a graceful poem by Wordsworth. On one of the highest hills are ruins of a Celtic fort, and on the opposite hill is a cairn. The river abounds in fine white trout. It flows past Lynedoch House, the seat of Lord Lynedoch, and past the woods of Methven Castle. It is crossed by three bridges. One, the old bridge of Almond, a single arch, erected in 1619; another, a little below that, of three arches, erected in 1827; and a third, a little above the old bridge, a semicircular arch of eighty feet span, erected at the cost of Lord Lynedoch. The foundation was laid in 1832. This bridge is at Dalcruive, on the Dunkeld road."

"ARD-LOCH, (or Ard) a small lake in the valley of Aberfoile, in the county of Perth, Scotland, a little to the W. of the village of Aberfoile, and 30 miles from Glasgow. It is not more than three miles long and one mile broad, but its situation and surrounding scenery make it one of the most beautiful and picturesque lakes in Scotland. Loch Katrine, Ben Lomond, and the Trosachs lie within a few miles of it on the west and north. Its waters are discharged at its eastern end in a fall of thirty feet over the rocks, and form thence the river Forth."

"ATHOLE, (or Atholl), an extensive tract of country in the northern part of the county of Perth, Scotland, being one of the eight ancient divisions, or Stewartries, of the county It is bounded on the N. by the Grampian range, branches of which also intersect it. It is almost wholly mountainous, with romantic glens, and a large extent of woodland. The forest of Athole, which covers an area of 100,000 acres, and is a famous hunting-ground abounding in red deer and other game, occupies the western part of the district. The highest points are at Cairn Gower and Scarsoch, the former rising to the height of 3,725 feet, the latter 3,390 feet. The approach from the south is by the pass of Killiecrankie, a wild narrow chasm, through which the river Garry runs, and which was the scene of the battle between General Mackay and Claverhouse (Viscount Dundee), in July, 1689, in which the latter was victorious, but fell on the field. The principal lakes in the district are Loch Ericht and Loch Rannoch; and it is watered by the rivers Tummel, Garry, Bruar, and Tilt. Athole House is the seat of the Duke of Athole, who takes his title from this district, and who is proprietor of nearly the whole of it. Here, in 1844, he had the honour of receiving her Majesty the Queen as a guest. The district of Athole comprises an area of about 450 square miles."

"BEN ACHALLY, a mountain in the N. of Stormont, Perthshire, Scotland, rising 1,800 feet above the sea. On its northern side is a lake, and on its eastern face is a large cavern, called the Drop, from the roof of which there is a continual dropping of water."

"BEN CHONZIE, a mountain of Perthshire, Scotland, between the parishes of Comrie and Monivard, 2,923 feet high."

"BEN GLOE, (or Ben-y-gloe), a mountain range in Atholl, Perthshire, Scotland. The highest summit is 3,725 feet above the sea."

"BEN LAOIDH, (or Benloy), a mountain between the counties of Perth and Argyle, Scotland. It is remarkable for its elegance of form, and was formerly clothed and adorned with wood."

"BEN LAWERS, a mountain in the Highlands of Scotland, situated in the Breadalbane district of the county of Perth, on the N.W. shore of Loch Tay. It is the loftiest mountain in Perthshire, and one of the loftiest in Scotland. Its form is pyramidal, and the inclination of its sides is so gradual that it is easy to make the ascent on horseback. It consists of mica-slate mixed with quartz, and hornblende-slate. Chlorite-slate is also found in it. This mountain has an elevation of 3,948 feet; and as it rises 1,000 feet higher than any other mountain in its vicinity, the view from its summit is very extensive, even more so than that from Ben Nevis, which is nearly 500 feet higher. A variety of Alpine plants are found growing on the top of Ben Lawers, among which are the small gentian and the round-headed cotton-grass. This mountain was a chief station of the trigonometrical survey of Great Britain."

"BEN LEDI, a mountain in the Highlands of Scotland, situated in the county of Perth, between Loch Katrine on the south-west, and Loch Lubnaig on the north-east. Its name signifies "Hill of God," and is supposed to have been derived from the circumstance that in the earliest ages a temple existed on its summit, to which the people resorted once a year for religious worship. It has an elevation of 2,863 feet, and commands a very wide and striking prospect. The Frith of Forth is seen on the east, the Frith of Clyde and the Isle of Arran on the south-west, while the view northward and westward is bounded by the Grampian ranges. Towering far above all the neighbouring hills. Ben Ledi forms a conspicuous and magnificent object in the scenery for many miles round. There is a small lake on its summit."

"BEN VRACKY, a mountain in Perthshire, Scotland, between the vale of Athole and the strath of Garry, 2,750 feet above the sea, and commanding a most extensive and beautiful view."

"BREADALBANE DISTRICT, one of the nine ancient divisions or stewartries of the county of Perth, Scotland, situated in the western part of the county, and extending about 33 miles in length and 31 miles in breadth. Lochaber and Atholl form its northern boundary; Strathearn and Menteith its southern. It lies in the heart of the Grampian Mountains, contains no towns, and only two or three villages of any importance. Sheep are pastured on the hills, and some of the valleys are under cultivation. Lochs Tay and Lyon are included in the district. Limestone and granite are found in abundance, with small quantities of copper, lead, talc, and other minerals. Peat, the chief fuel of the country, is found in abundance. It gives the title of marquis to a branch of the family of Campbell, to which the district almost entirely belongs, and whose chief seat is Taymouth Castle, near the northern extremity of Loch Tay. The name is sometimes written Brafdalbainn, and signifies a "hill country." Since the pacification of the country 100 years ago, and the stop then put to the warlike incursions of troublesome neighbours, the inhabitants have acquired habits of industry, and have greatly improved the land and their own condition. Hugh Cameron, a humble millwright, benefited this part of the country, as well as the Highlands generally, by first constructing mills for spinning flax and wool. He was a man of uncommon genius and integrity, and died in 1817 at the great age of 112 years."

"COILANTANGLE, a ford on Loch Vennachar, in the county of Perth, Scotland, 2 miles S.W. of Callander."

"CRAIGEND, three villages of this name, severally in the counties of Lanark, Perth, and Stirling, Scotland."

"DALMEAN, a place near Dalnacardoch, in the county of Perth, Scotland, at the junction of the rivers Ender and Garry."

"DEVON, a river in the counties of Perth, Kinross, and Clackmannan, Scotland. It rises S. of the Ochill hills, a little to the E. of Sheriffmuir, and runs past Forsaway, through Rumbling Brig, over the Three Cauldron Linn Falls, past the Tillbody and Devon Iron-works to the Forth above Alloa. There is another river of the same name, distinguished as the South or Black Devon, in the county of Fife, Scotland. It rises near Saline, and runs parallel to the preceding river, below Alloa."

"DOCHART, a lake, a river, and a glen, in the N.W. corner of the county of Perth, Scotland. The lake is about 3 miles in length, and the river, after leaving it and traversing the glen for 10 miles, passes an old castle of the Campbells, and falls into the W. end of Loch Tay."

"DRUMMELLIE, a loch near Kinloch, in the county of Perth, Scotland. It abounds in fine trout."

"DUNKELD, a city, royal burgh, and market town, in the district and county of Eastern Perth, Scotland, 15 miles from Perth by the Perth and Dunkeld branch of the Scottish North-Eastern railway, of which it is the terminus. The town consists of two streets; one opening on to the magnificent bridge which here crosses the river Tay. The great object of interest is the cathedral, standing at the upper end of the old street. It was erected about 1230. Dunkeld is a burgh of barony under the Duke of Athol, and received its charter constituting it a royal borough from Queen Anne in 1704. It is the capital of a judicial district of the county. Its trade and manufactures are unimportant. It is, however, a place of considerable transit, and greatly resorted to by summer visitors. The Duke of Athol is the chief landed proprietor. Dunkeld is famous for its woods, which are dense, and its trees luxuriant. Fairs are held four times a year."

"EARN, a loch and river, county Perth, Scotland, 3 miles W. of Comrie. It stretches from the base of Glen-Ogle about 7 miles into the parish of Comrie; its width varies between 1 mile to la mile, and its greatest depth is 100 fathoms. Earn derives its name from Erinn, "west," and though small, is one of the most attractive lochs of Scotland. Ben Voirlich rises 3,048 feet above the sea level. Near the village of Lochearnhead lies the island of Neish, so called from the family who once occupied it, and who, after a long series of skirmishes, were exterminated to a man by their neighbouring enemies, the McNabs. The ruins of a castle are still standing on the island. Among the residences are Ardvoirlich, near the Ben; 2 miles distant is Edinample, belonging to Lord Breadalbane, with ruins of a chapel in the vicinity. Opposite to Ardvoirlich is a limestone quarry of some extent. About 1½ mile from St. Fillian's is the Glentarkin stone, a huge mass of rock, curiously balanced by nature upon a pedestal, which, in comparison with the bulk of the rock, may be called slender. The most imposing views are obtained at either end of the loch, and from the S. road. The river Earn commences at the foot of the loch, and empties itself into the Tay, near Abernethy, at a distance of 40 miles from its source. In its course it passes through Strathearn (which see) and Dunbarney; on its banks stand Monivaird, Crieff, where it accepts the tributary of the Turret; at Cowrie of the Ruchil and Lednach; at Gask the Peffray and Machany; at Aberruthven the Ruthven; at Dunning the Dunning Water; and at Forteviot the May. Other places on its banks are Aberdalgie, Rhynd, Strowan, Muthill, Blackford, Forgandenny, and Aucterarder. Near the source of the river is the scene of Hogg's "Kilmeny." The Earn abounds with fish."

"EAST FINDOCH, at the mouth of Glen Almond, county Perth, Scotland, has a Roman camp of about 112 acres."

"EDENDON WATER, a stream rising in Athol Forest, county Perth, Scotland. It joins the Garry near Dalnacardoch."

"ERICHT, a river in county Perth, Scotland. The Airdlo and Shee take this name after their confluence in the parish of Blairgowrie. The united stream falls into the Islay near Cupar Angus. It has a fall at Keith, and fine scenery at Blairgowrie."

"ERRACK LOCH, in county Perth, Scotland. It is situated in Glen Lyon."

"FOSSCHAPLE, a quondam parish now united with Dull, county Perth, Scotland."

"FREUCHIE, a loch in the county Perth, Scotland, situated at the head of the river Bran, about 5 miles S.E. of Kenmore."

"GARRY LOCH, a loch lying between the parishes of Fortingall and Blair-Atholl, county Perth, Scotland. It is surrounded by a wild and solitary mountainous district, and is about 4 miles long by half a mile broad. The river Garry issues from the Manbane Mountain on the borders of Fortingall, and opens into Garry Loch, resuming its course at the north-eastern extremity of that lake. After, a course of 30 miles, in which it receives the waters of several mountain streams, it joins the Tummell near Killiecrankie. The whole valley through which it flows is named Glengarry."

"GLENALMOND, the beautiful valley of the river Almond's head-water, county Perth, Scotland. On the Carnies estate, beneath the Grampians, stands Trinity Theological College and Scottish Episcopal chapel. They are very elegant structures, respectively in the Elizabethan and Gothic styles, and were completed in 1851. Glenalmond gives title of viscount to the Duke of Athol."

"GOWRIE, a fertile district or carse on the river Tay, county Perth, Scotland. It formerly belonged to the Ruthvens, who took from this place the title of earl, but was forfeited in 1600 by reason of the "Gowrie Plot," which was concerted at Gowrie House, where now stands the County Hall."

"GREAT and LITTLE SKIACH, two small lochs in the county of Perth, Scotland, 5 miles N.W. of Dunkeld. They abound in trout."

"HUNTINGTOWER, a castle in county Perth, Scotland, near Tibbermuir. It was here that Earl Gowrie confined James VI. in 1600, at the raid of Ruthven, but it now belongs to the Duke of Atholl, and is used for calico printing. Earl Dysart takes from it the title of baron."

"INCH-IRA and INCH-MARTIN, several small islands in the county of Perth, Scotland, near the embouchure of the rivers Tay and Earn."

"KEITH-FALL, a cascade on the river Ericht, county Perth, Scotland, below Blair Gowrie."

"KEITHICK, a demesne in the county Perth, Scotland, near Cupar Angus."

"KILLIECRANKIE, a deep pass on the river Garry, county Perth, Scotland, leading to the Highlands. It is 32½ miles from Perth by the Inverness and Perth and Inverness and Aberdeen Junction line of railway, which has a station here. The pass is famous in history as being the spot where Claverhouse fell on the 17th July, 1689, after defeating Mackay."

"KNAIK, a trout stream of county Perth, Scotland, falling into the Allan."

"LAIGHWOOD, a demesne in county Perth, Scotland, near Cluny. It is situated on the river Lunan, and belongs to the Duke of Athol. There are remains of Sinclair's Castle, and of a church."

"LANRICK, a castle in county Perth, Scotland, 4 miles W. of Callandar. It is situated on Loch Vennacher, and was formerly the seat of the McGregors."

"LAWERS, a demesne in Strathearn, county Perth, Scotland, 5 miles W. of Crieff. It was late the seat of Lord Balgray."

"LEDNOCK, a stream rising in Glenlednock, county Perth, Scotland; it joins the Earn at Comrie."

"LENNOX, an extensive district adjoining the Leven, including the whole of Dumbartonshire and parts of counties Stirling, Perth, and Renfrew, Scotland. On the Stirlingshire border are the Lennox hills, some of which attain an altitude of 1,400 or 1,500 feet."

"LENY, a demesne in county Perth, Scotland, 2 miles N.W. of Callander. It is situated near the falls of Leny Bass, at the bottom of Loch Lubnaig. It was given by Alexander II. to Alan de Lani in 1237, and now belongs to the Hamilton of Bardowie."

"LOCH KATRINE, a lake of the Highlands, in the parish of Buchanan, county Stirling, lying along the border of the parishes of Aberfoil and Callander, county Perth, Scotland. It is 10 miles long by 1 mile broad. The beautiful scenery of this district has been described to the world by Sir Walter Scott in "The Lady of the Lake.""

"LOCHY, two streams of this name: one has its source in Loch Lochy, as above, and runs to Inverlochy, near Fort Augustus, on Loch Eil; the other rises near Kenmore, in county Perth, and joins the river Dochart, near Loch Tay."

"LORNTY BURN, a stream rising in Loch Benachally, county Perth, Scotland, and joining the Ericht at Blairgowrie."

"LOWS, a small loch in county Perth, Scotland, 2 miles N.E. of Dunkeld."

"LUNAN WATER, a stream, rising near Loch Lows, in county Perth, Scotland, which, after a course of 8 miles, joins the Isla, near Cupar Angus."

"LYDOCH, a loch in the Muir of Rannoch, on the borders of counties Perth and Argyle, Scotland. It is about 12 miles in length by 1 mile broad, and is connected with lochs Ericht and Rannoch by the river Gauer."

"LYON, a river of county Perth, Scotland, flows through Glenlyon, to which it gives name, and joins the river Tay at Taymouth Castle."

"MACHAIG, a loch in county Perth, Scotland. It lies under Uaighmore Rill, and is about 2½ miles in circumference."

"MACHANY WATER, a trout stream joining the river Earn at Kinkel Bridge, county Perth, Scotland."

"MARLIE, a small loch in county Perth, Scotland, near Kinloch."

"MAY, a small river rising under the Ochills, county Perth, Scotland. From thence it runs 10 miles N.E. by N., and, passing "the Birks of Invermay," forms the Falls of Muckarsie and "Humble-Bumble," and finally falls into the Earn, opposite Dupplin Castle."

"MEGINCH CASTLE, in county Perth, Scotland, 7 miles E. of Perth. It is situated on the river Tay."

"MONCRIEFF, (or Mordun), a hill in the parish and county of Perth, Scotland, 2½ miles S. of Perth. It is situated N. of the Bridge-of-Earn, and rises to an altitude of 756 feet above sea-level. A large portion of the hill is in a good state of cultivation, and its heights are richly wooded. Near it is Moncrieff House, which belonged to the Moncrieffs of Tullibole, who have held it from the reign of Alexander II."

"MONESS FALLS, a cascade formed by a branch of the river Tay, county Perth, Scotland, 1 mile S. of Aberfeldy. It is in three falls, one of 100 feet, and adds greatly to the other attractions of the "Birks of Aberfeldy.""

"MONIVAIRD AND STROWAN, are united parishes in the district of East Perth, county Perth, Scotland. This united parish is bounded on the N. by Comrie and Monzie, by the former also on the W., by Muthill on the S., and by Crieff on the E. The river Earn, which formerly formed the boundary between for 3 miles, has greatly deviated in its course. The parish of Monivaird extends 8 miles from N. to S. in length, with an extreme breadth of 6 miles. The parish of Strowan, which joins Monivaird on the S. side of the Earn's valley, extends 6 miles in length from E. to W., with an extreme breadth of 3 miles. The united parish also includes several sections which are entirely isolated. The surface is hilly, and even mountainous in parts, abounding in sheepwalks. The highest hills are, Benchonzie, which, standing on the boundary, attains an altitude of 2,922 feet above sea-level, and Torlum Hill, at the southern extremity of Strowan, which rises 1,400 feet. The district is also varied by numerous lakes, the principal of which are Loch Turret and Loch Monivaird, which last has an old castle with an echo. The soil among the hills is chiefly of a moorish nature, while in the low grounds it is generally light, gravelly, and fertile. The larger portion of the land is in hilly pasture, with about 3,000 acres under cultivation, and the same quantity in wood. The prevailing rocks are greywacke and red sandstone in the hills, which, including slate, are quarried to a considerable extent. The principal part of this united parish is traversed by two roads along Strathearn, the detached sections being separated by the road betwixt Comrie and Callander. The village is distant 2 miles N.W. of Crieff, its post town, and is situated on the river Earn, under Benchonzie and other hills. It was given by the earls of Strathern to Inchaffrey Abbey in the beginning of the 13th century, at which period its name was Moivard. In 1511 this parish was the scene of the massacre of the clan Murray by the clan Drummond. The latter, being the most powerful, collected the men, women, and children belonging to the Murray clan into the old parish church, and set fire to it, when every soul, save one, was burned. Under Benchonzie Hill are Druidical stones, cairns, Cam Chainichin, or Kenneth's barrow, with some conical heaps, also Tom-a-hastle fort; but many of the cairns have recently been removed, and used as material for stone fences. This parish is in the presbytery of Auchterarder, and synod of Perth and Stirling, and in the patronage of the crown and the Earl of Kinnoul alternately. The minister has a stipend of £261. The united parish church was erected in 1804, up to which period there were formerly two parish churches. There is a parochial school. There are several residences in the neighbourhood, among which may be mentioned Lawers and Ochtertyre, near which latter is a Roman camp. Colonel Dow, author of the "History of Hindoostan," was a native of this parish, besides several other distinguished men."

"MONTEITH, (or Menteith), a district in the S.W. of county Perth, Scotland. It comprehends the greater part of the vale of Teith, with parts of the upper vale of the Forth, and the lower part of the vale of the Allan, lying W. of the Ochill hills in Perthshire. Previous to the abolition of hereditary jurisdictions, it formed a separate stewartry, and was chiefly possessed by the family of Graham, as earls of Monteith, which title is now extinct. It comprehends the parishes of Aberfoyle, Callander, Kilmadock, Kincardine, Lecropt, and Port-of-Monteith, with parts of Dunblane, Kippen, and Logie, and the lochs of Ard and Chon, Aberfoyle, and Monteith. This last is 7 miles in circumference, and contains three islands, two of which, Inchmachome and Talla, are wooded. The former has ruins of a priory founded by the Cummings and Stuarts in 1238, where Queen Mary took shelter in 1547, and the latter some traces of the baronial castle of the Grahams, earls of Monteith, who had an extensive park on the northern shore of the lake, still adorned with oak, Spanish chestnut, and plane trees of ancient growth."

"OCHILLS, a range of hills extending between Dunblane and the Frith of Tay, county Perth, Scotland. They attain an elevation of 2,300 feet at Bencleugh, or the Hill of Alva, which is covered with snow, except two months in the year, and at Craigleith falcons are occasionally met with. The subsoil consists chiefly of slaty rock and greenstone, abounding with coal, copper, lead, silver, cobalt, arsenic, and various minerals, which are partially worked. The slopes of the hills afford good pasture, and some of the more fertile spots are under cultivation."

"OCHTERTYRE, a demesne in the county of Perth, Scotland, 3 miles N.E. of Comrie. It is situated in the vale of Glen Turret, celebrated by Burns, and belongs to Murray, Bart. There is also another seat of this name in the same county on the river Teith, and about 3 miles N.W. of Stirling."

"ORDIE, a trout stream of county Perth, Scotland. It rises in the parish of Aughtergaven, and joins the Tay at Luncarty."

"PERTH, contains the parishes of Middle church, St. Paul's, and West church, and parts of the parishes of East church, Kinnoul, Scone, and Tibbermore; it is a post and market town, bonding port, a royal and parliamentary burgh, and the county town of county Perth, Scotland, 22 miles W.S.W. of Dundee, 39 N.N.W. of Edinburgh, or 45 by railway, and 61 N.E. of Glasgow. It is the junction station or termini of the Dundee and Perth, the Edinburgh, Perth, and Dundee, the Scottish Central, and the Scottish Midland Junction, or North-Eastern railways. This ancient city, once the capital of Scotland, is supposed to have been in existence at the time when the Romans extended their arms to the banks of the Tay; who at the first sight of this river, with its grassy lawns and wooded banks, are related by tradition to have exclaimed "Ecce Tiber! Ecce Campus Martins!" From the "Itinerary" of Richard of Cirencester there appears to have been three Roman towns in the neighbourhood, called Mauna, Lindum, and Victoria, the last of which was built by Agricola on the river Tay, 28 miles from the exit of that river into the German Ocean, and was probably the same as the Bertha of the Romans, which was swept away by a flood in 1210. The Picts, after their conversion to Christianity, consecrated the church which they built here to St. John the Baptist, from which circumstance it was frequently called St. John's Town, and subsequently Pert, when it became the capital of the kingdom of Scotland, for which its central locality made it admirably adapted, and so continued till the murder of James I. in 1437. In early times it was a place of great trade, and carried on a considerable foreign commerce with the Flemings and Germans, many of-whom settled here towards the close of the 13th century, and introduced the woollen and linen manufactures. Its earliest known charter is dated 1106, but it was first erected into a royal burgh in 1210 by William the Lion, and was the usual residence of the Scottish monarchs prior to the accession of the Stuart family. In it 14 parliaments and 16 church councils were held, and as the capital of the kingdom it necessarily became the scene of some of the most remarkable events in Scottish history. Among others may be mentioned its capture by Edward I. of England immediately after the defeat of Wallace at Falkirk in 1298, when the English king carried off its records; its fortification and adoption as the residence of the English king's deputies till 1311, when it was surprised by Robert Bruce and the fortifications levelled; its capture by Baliol after the battle of Duplin in 1332; its recapture by David Bruce, and recovery by the party of Baliol in 1335, at which last date it was re-fortified by Edward III. of England; its storming by the Scots under Robert, High Steward of Scotland, afterwards Robert II., assisted by the French and the Earl of Liddesdale, in 1339, when the party of Baliol was crushed; its being the scene of the assassination of James I. in the Dominican monastery in 1437, after which event Edinburgh became the seat of government, though Perth continued to be nominally the capital till 1482; its connection with the events of the Reformation, being the place where the six martyrs were hung in 1544 by Cardinal Beaton, and where Knox preached his famous sermon in 1559; its devastation by the plague in the 16th and 17th centuries; its occupation by the Queen-regent Mary, who attempted to restore the Roman Catholic ceremonials; its capture by Argyll and Ruthven; its being the scene of the "Gowrie" conspiracy against James VI., otherwise known as the Raid of Ruthven, in 1600; its reception of Charles I. in 1632; its capture by Montrose in 1644 after his victory at Tibbermuir; its capitulation to Cromwell in 1651, who built a fort on the North Inch commanding the navigation of the Tay; its selection as a place of residence by many of the officers and soldiers of Cromwell's army, who taught the citizens of Perth to improve their modes of life by the English arts, and excited among them a spirit of industry; its occupation by Viscount Dundee in 1689, immediately before the battle of Killiecrankie, and by the Highlanders in 1715 and 1745. From this last date the town began to improve very rapidly in wealth and population, owing to the greater security of life and property, the government of this part of Great Britain having never before been properly settled. It is now one of the handsomest edificed towns in Scotland, presenting, from whatever quarter it is approached, a striking and attractive appearance. The substantial character of its houses, built of freestone, its noble river lined with quays, and here crossed by a bridge of nine arches, 880 feet long by 22 wide; its spacious promenades or meadows called "Inches," situated to the N. and S. of the town, and the back-ground of hills, including Moncrieff and Kinnoul hills, all combine to heighten the effect produced upon the traveller. The North Inch, the scene of the fight between the clans Chattan and Kay, as told in the "Fair Maid of Perth," comprises about 98 acres skirting the margin of the river, and is partly occupied by a curved racecourse of 950 yards. The South Inch is surrounded with avenues of trees on three of its sides, and on the fourth is lined with villas called St. Leonard's Bank, and the buildings of the railway termini. The Inch is intersected throughout its extent by the line of the Edinburgh road, which is likewise shaded with avenues of trees. The bridge of the Dundee and Perth railway crosses the river a little below the town, but so constructed as not to impede the navigation. Great exertions have been made to improve the harbour, which, however, only admits vessels of small burden. Of the massive walls flanked with towers which once surrounded the town no vestiges now remain, the whole having been modernised, and the streets laid out with considerable regularity. The principal thoroughfares of the old part of the city run at right angles to the river, and are called Mill, Hill, South, and Canal streets, intersected by other lines of street running parallel to the river. This part of the town was formerly frequently inundated by the freshets of the Tay, but the level of the ground has been raised by the accumulations of time. The streets are in general straight, convenient, well paved, and lighted with gas. The houses are substantial, and new lines of shops have now almost entirely superseded the hideous and crazy edifices which occupied the same ground less than a century ago. To the S. of the old town, and adjoining the South Inch, lies a new town wholly built since 1801, and arranged somewhat after the fashion of the new town of Edinburgh, with terraces and wide streets, as King's-place, Marshall-place, James-street, Nelson-street, and Scott-street, occupying what was formerly known as the Spey Gardens and Tay-street, extending along the margin of the river from the bridge to the South Inch. A large extension has also recently taken place in a northerly and westerly direction, the former comprising Athole-place, Athole-street, North-crescent, Melville-street, and Barossa-place, adjoining the North Inch, where an ex tension of building was projected in 1853. On the opposite side of the river is the suburb of Bridge end of Kinnoul. The principal public edifices are the County Buildings, erected in 1819 on the site of Gowrie House, in Tay-street, at a cost of £32,000, after designs by Smirke. The structure is of polished sandstone, with Grecian portico supported by twelve massive fluted columns; it comprises a justiciary hall 66 feet by 43, surmounted by a gallery able to accommodate 1,000 persons; the county hall, 68 feet by 40, occupying the S. wing, and containing portraits of the Duke of Athole and Lord Lynedoch, by Sir Thomas Lawrence, Sir G. Murray, by Pickersgill; also a committee room 30 feet square, and in the upper story a card room 44 feet by 30, with a portrait of the celebrated Neil Gow, by Raeburn. Behind these county buildings towards Speygate, are the city and county prisons, erected in 1819 and surrounded by a high wall. At some distance farther to the S., on the S. side of the avenue of the South Inch, stands the government prison, being the only justiciary prison in Scotland. It was originally erected in 1812, at a cost of £130,000, as a depôt for French prisoners of war, but was remodelled on the solitary system in 1841, at a cost of £28,000, and is now capable of containing 535 convicts, besides criminal lunatics and 52 juveniles. The other public buildings are the guildhall in High-street; the city council-room; the police-office, formerly the chapel of the Blessed Virgin Mary; the Freemasons' Hall, erected on the site of the old parliament house, removed in 1818; a theatre built in 1820; lunatic asylum; spacious suite of barracks, built in 1793, at the head of Athole-street; and the Marshall Institution in George-street, near the bridge. This last is a Grecian structure surmounted by a dome; it contains halls for the public library and for the Museum of the Literary and Antiquarian Society of Perthshire. There are also monuments to Sir Walter Scott, who wrote the "Fair Maid of Perth," and to the poet Burns; the latter, erected in 1854, was sculptured by Anderson. The gas-works, which were constructed in 1824 at a cost of £20,000, are situated in Canal street. The water reservoir, constructed in 1830, is situated at the foot of Marshall Place; but the filtering bed, 300 feet in length, is formed in the upper end of Moncrieff Island, in the Tay. The buildings of the central railway termini mentioned above, near the South Inch, add greatly to the architectural adornment of the town. Here are also the "George Inn," where Queen Victoria stopped for several days in the years 1848 and 1849; the head-office of the Central Bank of Scotland, a Grecian structure, designed by D. Rhind; the head-office of the Perth Banking Company; and branches of the Bank of Scotland, Commercial, National, City of Glasgow, Royal, and British Linen Company's banks. The boundaries of Perth as a parliamentary burgh include Middle, St. Paul's, and West church parishes; also parts of East, Kinnoul, Scone, and Tibbermore parishes, and had in 1851, 1,991 houses, inhabited by a population of 23,835, which in 1861 had increased to 2,089 houses, inhabited by 25,250 persons. It returns one member to Parliament, and had in 1860 a constituency of 1,038. The municipal limits are not equally extensive, and comprised in 1851 only 1,170 houses, inhabited by 14,681 persons; but a new Act was obtained in 1856, extending the municipal police boundaries. The revenue of the borough in 1859-60 was £8,193. It was first chartered by William the Lion, and is divided into seven wards. Under the new Act, it is governed by a provost, who is sheriff and coroner, four bailies, a dean of guild, a treasurer, and twenty-six councillors. The trades incorporations, comprising the hammermen, bakers, fleshers, tailors, shoemakers, glovers, wrights, and weavers, formerly exercised many important and exclusive privileges. The principal manufactures now carried on are muslins, ginghams, imitation India shawls and scarfs, unions, or fabrics of mixed cotton and wool, checks and similar cotton fabrics, and flax-yarns, also boots and shoes, which last industry seems to have taken the place of the glove manufacture, for which this town was anciently famed; ship-building has been carried on to a considerable extent in several yards for upwards of twenty years, and Perth had the honour of turning out the first iron steam-vessel launched on the eastern side of Scotland. Many of the inhabitants are also engaged in the iron-foundries, bleach-works, dye-works, distilleries, breweries, sawmills, flour-mills, rope-walks, and in coachbuilding, tanning, and in the salmon-fishery of the Tay, which last is still very considerable; though salmon are becoming scarcer than formerly. The authorities of the town have from time to time made great exertions for improving the navigation of the river Tay, which is much obstructed by sand-banks, even below the bridge, and obtained an Act in 1834 for constructing a harbour and wet dock, and enlarging the quays, which Act was further extended in 1856. In 1840 Perth was made an independent port, with Newport, Port-Allen, Carpour, Pitfour, and Powgavie, as its creeks or supports, and has belonging to it about fifty sailing vessels, of aggregately 4,000 tons, and five steam-vessels. The chief imports are coal, lime, salt, and manure; and from the Baltic, timber, flax, linseed, corn, bark, hides, and madder. The exports are chiefly potatoes, corn, timber, and slates. Perth likewise forms a separate excise collection, and is the headquarters of the county militia. The sheriff's court of the county and the justice court for the district are held in the town. Perth is the seat of a presbytery in the synod of Perth and Stirling. The four parishes of East Kirk, Middle Kirk, West Kirk, and St. Paul's, are all in the patronage of the town council of Perth. The ministers' stipends average between £250 and £300. The churches of the East, Middle, and West parishes are parts of a very ancient structure, originally called "The Kirk of the Holy Cross of St. John the Baptist," in which Edward III. of England killed his brother John Earl of Cornwall, for devastating the W. parts of Scotland, and in which Knox preached his celebrated sermon, which was followed by the demolition of the monasteries. The building is 207 feet long, with an ancient square tower, surmounted by a pyramidal spire, or belfry, of later date, 155 feet high. The East Kirk has a Gothic window of stained glass, and contains the tomb of James I. and his queen; the Middle Kirk occupies the space beneath the tower, which is supported by four massive pillars; while the West Kirk was almost entirely rebuilt in 1828, after designs by Gillespie. Four other churches of the Established Kirk are situated within the borough; St. Paul's, with a spire, at the W. end of High Street, St. Leonard's, in King Street, in the patronage of the heads of families; St. Stephen's, or the Gaelic church, and Kinnoul-street Kirk-the two last in the patronage of the male communicants. There are four places of worship belonging to the Free Kirk, besides one in which the service is conducted in the Gaelic language; three to the United Presbyterians, two to the Independents, and one to the Original Seceders-this last being considered very venerable as one of the four structures belonging to the fathers of the secession. The Scotch Episcopalians have two churches in the town, viz:: St. John's, in Princes-street, rebuilt in 1851 upon the site of the old chapel; and St. Ninian's, incomplete, comprising as yet only the choir, transepts, and one bay of the nave, but forming a portion of a cruciform Gothic structure, intended to serve as the cathedral of the diocese of St. Andrew's, and also as a collegiate church and scholastic institution. The public schools include the academy, instituted in 1760, a grammar school, endowed trades' school, girls' school, with an income from endowment of £50; infant school, with an endowment of £75 per annum; school of industry for destitute boys; school of industry for females, and a ragged school farm, besides numerous other educational establishments for which Perth has long been famed. The charitable institutions include an infirmary, a dispensary, James VI.'s hospital, destroyed by Cromwell, but rebuilt in 1750 on the site of the Carthusian monastery, with an income of £700; hospital for the destitute sick, with an income from endowment of £75; clothing charity, with an income of £70; old men's charity, with an endowment of £120, besides numerous other charities. Four weekly newspapers, the Perthshire Advertiser, Constitutional, Courier, and the Northern Warden, are published in the town; also an annual periodical called the Perthshire Register. From this place the Drummonds take the title of earl, and formerly took that of duke. The antiquities include Roman coins, urns, antique armour, remains of a temple which once stood on the "site of the House of the Green," and the church of St. John, originally founded in the 5th century; but many of the most interesting antiquities of Perth have recently been removed, including the city walls and fosse, the royal castle, or Cromwell's citadel, the parliament house, where the early parliaments of Scotland were held; Earl Gowrie's palace, erected in 1520 by the Countess of Huntley, and known in the days of the city's pride as the Whitehall of Perth; Spey tower, one of the mural fortresses, near Speygate, long used as a prison, and memorable in history as the place where the six Protestant martyrs were confined, and from the windows of which Cardinal Bethune witnessed their execution; the city cross, bearing the royal and city arms, erected in 1668, in place of the original one, destroyed by Cromwell to furnish material for his citadel; this cross, which was 12 feet high and terminated in a spacious terrace, is said to have been of remarkably elegant design, embellished with statuary, but was unfortunately sold by the city authorities for £5 as a mere worthless obstruction to the thoroughfare of the High-street. The monasteries and monastic churches of Perth were both numerous and wealthy, as the Blackfriars, or Dominican convent founded in 1231 by Alexander II., and in which James I. was killed; the Carthusian monastery or charterhouse, founded in 1429 by James I.; the Whitefriars, or Carmelite convent, a little to the W. of the town; the Greyfriars, founded in 1460 by Lord Oliphant, the site of which was converted into the city cemetery in 1580; besides about nine other nunneries and chapels, of which but slight, if any traces are now remaining, most having been more or less demolished at the first outburst of the Reformation. Besides the Perth races and hunt, which take place in October on a flat course of two miles on the North Inch, there are clubs for golfing, curling, and cricket, and the Perth Highland friendly society. Market days are Wednesday and Friday. Fairs are held on the first Fridays in March April, July, and September, and on the second Friday in December for cattle and horses; on the third Friday in October for cattle, butter, and cheese; and on the first Tuesday in July after Inverness fair for sheep and wool."

"ROSEMOUNT, a station on the Perth, Blairgowrie, and Aberdeen section of the Scottish North-Eastern railway, in the county of Perth, 2 miles S.E. of Blairgowrie."

"RUCHIL, a stream of the county of Perth, Scotland, flowing through Glenartney to the Earn at Comrie."

"RUTHVEN, a stream of the county of Perth, Scotland, rises under the Ochil hills, and joins the Earn near Auchterarder."

"SCARSCOCH, a mountain of the Grampian chain on the borders of counties Aberdeen and Perth, Scotland. It is situated nearly in the centre of Scotland, and is 3,390 feet above sea-level."

"SHAGGIE WATER, a stream of the county of Perth, Scotland, rises near Monzie, and joins the Turret near Crieff."

"SHEE, a stream, county Perth, Scotland, rises near Spittal of Glenshee, and flows through Glen Shee to the river Ericht, 3 miles above its junction with the Airdle."

"STORMONT, a district in the county of Perth, Scotland. It contains the parishes of Blairgowrie, Caputh, Cluny, Dunkeld, Kinloch, Lethendy, and part of Bendochy, with Stormont Loch and ten other lochs. It extends in length about 14 miles from E. to W., with a mean breadth of 7 miles. It gives title of viscount to the Earl of Mansfield."

"STRATHMORE, (or The Great Valley), this valley extends through the counties of Perth and Forfar, Scotland, from Methven to Brechin."

"STROWAN, two ancient parishes in county Perth, Scotland, the one is now joined to Monivaird, and the other to Blair Atholl."

"TALLA, an islet in Loch Menteith, county Perth, Scotland. It has ruins of the stronghold of the Grahams, lairds of Menteith."

"TAY, a river of county Perth, Scotland, rises in Loch Tay, in the district of Breadalbane, and after a circuitous course of about 50 miles, in which it receives the tributary streams of the Lyon, Tummel, Brand, Isla, Slochie, Almond, and Earne, falls into the Firth of Tay at Newburgh, being navigable as far as Perth."

"TAYMOUTH CASTLE, the seat of the Marquis Breadalbane, county Perth, Scotland. It is situated near Kenmore, at the mouth of Loch Tay, and commands a view of the vale of the Tay from the terrace, which is 3 miles long. It includes the Baron's Hall, Chinese Room, and a gallery of paintings, and is surrounded by a richly-timbered deer park, containing moose-deer, buffaloes, &c."

"TEITH, a river of county Perth, Scotland, rises near Loch Lomond in two head waters, which, uniting at Callander, flow through scenery celebrated in "The Lady of the Lake" to the Forth at Drip Bridge, near Stirling. There are salmon and trout."

"TENANTRY, a quoad sacra parish in the district of Athole, county Perth, Scotland. It contains portions of the quoad civilia parishes of Blair Athole, Moulin, and Dull. It is in the presbytery of Dunkeld. The church was erected in 1836."

"TILT, a stream county Perth, Scotland, rises in Loch Tilt, and joins the Garry, near Blair Atholl."

"TULLA, an islet in Loch Menteith, county Perth, Scotland."

"TUMMEL, a river and small loch, county Perth, Scotland, rises in Loch Rannoch, and joins the Gay at Logierait."

"VENNACHAR, a loch in county Perth, Scotland, 2 miles W. of Callander. It is situated near Coilantangle ford, under Ben Ledi, and is formed by a reach of the river Teith. The loch is about 3 miles in length by 1½ mile broad, with well-wooded banks."

"WICKS OF BAIGLIE, a commanding spot near Perth, county Perth, Scotland."

[Description(s) from The National Gazetteer of Great Britain and Ireland (1868)
Transcribed by Colin Hinson ©2003]

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