LLANRUG, or LLANVIHANGEL YN RUG, a parish in the hundred of ISGORVAI, county of CARNARVON, NORTH WALES, 3 1/2 miles (E.) from Carnarvon, on the new line of road to Capel Curig, containing 1204 inhabitants. This parish is separated from that of Llandeiniolen by the river Seiont, which forms its northern boundary. It contains no village, and the church, which is far detached from any dwelling, is situated on a beautiful eminence, commanding extensive prospects of the sea and the country adjacent, embracing the Snowdon range of mountains on the east, and the bay of Carnarvon on the west ; and in certain states of the atmosphere even the Irish hills are distinctly visible from this place. There are several good mansions in detached situations, inhabited by opulent families, among which are the beautiful small villa of Glangwnna, deeply embosomed in woods on the sloping bank of the river Seiont, the property of the daughters of the late Thomas Lloyd, Esq., of Shrewsbury ; Plas Tirion, the seat of John Rowland, Esq. ; Ty'n y Coed, the residence of Major Jones ; and Plas Gwynn, the seat of Major Creighton, about to be occupied by Mr. Swainson, of Liverpool, who, with other gentlemen, has taken the slate quarry on the farm of Ty-Du, in the parish of Llanberis. The land is for the greater part enclosed and in a state of good cultivation : an act of parliament for enclosing the waste lands was obtained about the year 1809. The farms are small, the largest seldom comprising more than a hundred acres; and such of the inhabitants as are not engaged in agriculture are employed in the quarries and in the neighbouring mines. The parish abounds with slate of a reddish hue, or of a brown colour, of a very durable substance, and not apt to open or crack when exposed to the weather. There are quarries both on the mountain called Cevn Du. and on a farm called Glynn Rhonwy, in this parish, belonging to Lord Newborough: on the latter they are numerous, and are worked to a considerable extent under the superintendence of Mr. Roberts of Carnarvon, who rents them under his lordship. These quarries afford employment to more than two hundred men, and the slates are brought down the Llanberis lakes in boats, and thence conveyed by carts to Carnarvon. There are indications of copper-ore on Gaer Cwm y Glo, and also on a mountainous rocky farm called Llwyncoed : some small veins have been actually laid open; and in a rock near the lake, close to the new road, and on the same farm, a vein of asbestos, or amianthus, has been found. At a short distance higher up, and near the boundary of the farms called Llwyncoed and Glynn Rhonwy, is a vein of white soapy clay, resembling fullers' earth, which dips into the lake and may be taken up from a boat. Numerous curious specimens of fossils, minerals, and crystals, are found in the mountainous district of this parish.
The living is a rectory, in the archdeaconry and diocese of Bangor, rated in the king's books at £5.12.6., and in the patronage of the Bishop of Bangor. The church, dedicated to St. Michael, is a small but venerable cruciform structure, in the later style of English architecture, without tower or steeple, but having at the west end a pointed arch, rising above the roof and surmounted by a small cross, under which a bell is suspended : from its elevated situation it is seen from a great distance in every direction, and it has been rendered more conspicuous by being whitewashed all over, not even excepting the roof. There are two places of worship for Calvinistic, and one for Wesleyan, Methodists; and a dwelling-house has been recently converted to the use of a congregation of Presbyterians. Two school-houses have been erected by the Calvinistic Methodists, where Sunday schools are held, as also in each of their places of worship. Mr. John Morris, in 1710, bequeathed two tenements in this parish, called Drws-Dangoed and Caer Weddus, for apprenticing poor boys of this parish and that of Llanbeblig : two or three boys are annually placed out according to the will of the testator, and the benefit is enjoyed by both parishes alternately. In several parts of the parish are numerous remains of cottages, or huts, probably the residences of the aboriginal inhabitants at some period of very remote antiquity : they are generally in clusters of eight or ten each, and appear to have formed distinct villages. They are called Cyttiau 'r Gwyddelod, or "the Irishmen's huts," and are generally circular in form : two stones on one side of each seem to mark out the entrance, and a large upright stone probably points out the fire-place : the walls, which are about two feet high, and three in thickness, are composed of small stones without mortar. Near these huts are frequently found remains of the "quern," or stone handmill, consisting of two stones, one concave and the other convex, with a place for an iron handle ; and stone and brass celts have also been found in the vicinity of these ancient habitations, which are generally distributed through the parish, and of which the number of circular foundations exceeds three hundred. Davydd Thomas, the celebrated Welsh bard, better known as " Davydd Ddu o Eryri," was interred at this place; and Dr. Edwards, who accompanied Commodore Anson in his voyage round the world, and held the office of surgeon on board the Tamer frigate, was a native of this parish, and son of one of its rectors : he also lies buried in the churchyard. The average annual expenditure for the support of the poor is £211. 15. ( A Topographical Dictionary of Wales by Samuel Lewis, 1833)