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"BARDSEY ISLAND, an island in St. George's Channel, off the coast of Carnarvonshire, North Wales. It is an extra-parochial place in the hundred of Commitmaen, and county of Carnarvon, situated near the extremity of the peninsula which forms the north boundary of Cardigan Bay. It is between 2 and 3 miles in length, and 1 mile in breadth, comprising an area of about 370 acres, and is separated from the mainland by a channel about 3 miles broad. This channel, from the rapidity of the current through it at times, is called Bardsey Race. From the same circumstance the island received the name of Inys Enlli, or "isle of the current."
From a very remote period it was a favourite resort of such as desired religious retirement. The Culdees are said to have had an establishment here before the 6th century; and in 516, after the massacre of the monks of Bangoris-y-coed, Dubricius, Archbishop of Caerleon, resigned his see and took up his abode in this lonely island. It thus acquired the designation of the "Isle of Saints." Its present name is of Saxon origin, and denotes that it was a retreat of the bards. An abbey was founded here at an early period, probably by St. Dubricius, which flourished till the Dissolution, under Henry VIII., when its revenue was £58. There are no remains of the building, but near its site graves have been discovered lined with stone or tile.
Ruins of an ancient oratory exist in the island, consisting of an apartment with a atone altar, in which religious services are occasionally performed. The north-east part of the island is mountainous, with perpendicular cliffs, which bold climbers explore for the eggs of sea-fowl deposited among them. The natives are chiefly employed in fishing, and their boats are secured in a small harbour on the south-east side of the island-the only side accessible from the sea. A lighthouse was erected in 1821; it is 146 feet high, and the light is visible at the distance of 15 miles."
"CEGID RIVER, passes under the viaduct, 600 feet long, on the Holyhead and Chester railway, and falls into the sea at Port Penrhyn, in the county of Carnarvon."
"COMMITMAEN, a hundred in the south-western part of the county of Carnarvon; contains Bardsey-Isle, Llandegwning, Rhiw, Aberdaron, Bodferin, Pen-llech, Llanengan, Myllteyrn, Bryncroes, Llan-faelrhys, and Llangwnadle."
"CREUDDYN, a hundred in the county of Carnarvon, contains the parishes of Llandudno, Eglwys-Rhos, Llangwstennin, Llys-faen, and part of Llandrillo-yn-Rhos."
"DINLAEN, a hundred in the county of Carnarvon, contains the borough of Nevin, and the parishes of Bodvean, Aber-Erch; Ceidio, Llandwdwen, Edeyrn, Pistil, Llaniestyn, Tydweiliog, and part of Llamnor."
"EVIONYDD HUNDRED, one of the subdivisions of county Carnarvon. It is situated in the southern part of the county, and contains the parishes of Beddgelert, Criccieth, Dol-ben-maen with Penmorfa, Llanarmon with Llangybi, Llanfihangel-y-Pennant, Llangybi, Llanystyn-dwy, Penmorfa, Tref-llys, and Ynys-cynhaiarn with Criccieth. It gives name to a deanery in the archdeaconry of Merioneth and diocese of Bangor."
"GAFFLOGIAN HUNDRED, one of the subdivisions of Carnarvonshire, North Wales. It is situated in the south-western part of the county, and contains the borough of Pwllheli, and the parishes of Bottwnog, Garn-giwch, Denio, Llan-bedrog, Llanfihangel-Bachellaeth, Llangian, Penrhos, and part of Llannor."
"GWRFAI, a small river, county Carnarvon. It rises under Snowdon, and falls into the Menai Straits, near Llanfaglan."
"IS-GORFAI, a hundred in the county Carnarvon, contains the county town of Carnarvon, and the parishes of Bettws-Garmon, Llanbeblig, Llanberis, Llan-ddeiniolen, Llanfaglan, Llanfair-is-Gaer, Llanrug, and part of Beddgelert."
"ISAF, a hundred in the county Carnarvon, contains the parishes of Caerhun, Conway, Gyffin, Llanbedr-y-Cennin, Llangelynin, and part of Eglwys-Fach."
"LAVAN SANDS, in Beaumaris Bay, county Caernarvon. They extend for above 5 miles along the coast from Bangor towards the N.E., and are 4 miles over at the Aber ferry to Anglesey, being dry at low water."
"LEDAN, a river rising under Snowdon, county Carnarvon, and joins the Conway at Waterloo Bridge."
"LLEDER, a stream rising under Mount Shabod, in county Carnarvon, and falling into the Conway."
"LLEYN, an ancient district in the south-western part of county Carnarvon. It gives name to a deanery in the archdeaconry of Merioneth, and diocese of Bangor."
"LLYDER VAWR, a ridge of Snowdonia in county Carnarvon, near Llanberis, attaining an altitude of near 3,000 feet."
"LLYFNANT, a stream rising on the borders of county Carnarvon and Montgomery, under Llyn Penrhiadr, and forms the cascade of Pistyll-y-Llynn."
"MACHNO, a feeder of the river Conway, rising in county Carnarvon."
"NANT CONWAY, a hundred in the county of Carnarvon, contains the parishes of Bettws-y-Coed, Dolwyddelan, Llan-Rhychwyn, Penmachno, Trefriw, and parts of Llanrwst and Yspytty."
"NANT-GWRTHEYRN, a dell under Yr Eifl Mountain, in county Carnarvon, 3 miles N.E. of Nevern, supposed to be the burial-place of the British chieftain Vortigern, who died here of his wounds in 465."
"NANTLLE, a small lake in county Carnarvon, 5 miles S. of Carnarvon. It is situated under Mynydd Mawr, and forms the source of the river Llyfni."
"NANTPERIS, a pass near Llanberris, county Caernarvonshire. It lies between Snowdon and Glider Fawr."
"OGWEN, a small lake and river of the county of Carnarvon, rises near Capel Curig, and falls into the sea near Bangor."
"PARWYD, a cove in Aberdaron Bay, county Carnarvon. It is celebrated for its steep cliffs, which in many places rise 600 feet above the sea."
"RIVEL, (or Yr Eifl), a lofty summit of the Clynnog range, county Carnarvon, 5 miles N.E. of Nevin. It attains an elevation of 1,866 feet above sea-level."
"TRAETH MAUR, a creek in Cardigan Bay, county Carnarvon, near Tremadoc."
"UCHAF, a hundred, county Carnarvon, contains the parishes of Aber, Dwygyfylchi, Llanllechid, Llandegni, and Llanfair-fechan, and is the property of the crown."
"UWCH GORFAI, a hundred, county Carnarvon, contains the parishes of Clynnog, Llanaelhaiarn, Llandwrog, Llanllyfni, and Llanwnda." [From The National Gazetteer of Great Britain and Ireland (1868) - Transcribed by Colin Hinson ©2003]
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