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[Description(s) from The National Gazetteer (1868)]
"ABER BIGA, a small place under Plinlimmon, in the county of Montgomery, 5 miles N.W. of Llanidloes, and 15 S.W. from Montgomery, situated on the river Cywedog."

"CAWRSE, a hundred in the eastern portion of the county of Montgomery, North Wales; contains the parish of Forden, and parts of Church Stoke, Pool, Alberbury, Worthen, and Castle-Caereinion."

"DEYTHUR, a hundred in the county of Montgomery, contains the parishes of Llandrinio, Llandysilio, and parts of Llansaintffraid, Llanymynech, Alberbury, and Meifod."

"DOVY, (or Dyfi), a river which rises under Arran Fowddy, in the county of Merioneth, and, after flowing through Montgomeryshire, falls into Cardigan Bay at Aberdovey.

"LLANFYLLIN, a hundred, one of the subdivisions of the county Montgomery, North Wales, situated in the northern part of the county. It includes the parishes of Hirnant, Llanfihangel, Llanfyllin, Llangynog, Llanwddyn, Meifod, Pennant, and a portion of Llanrhaiadr-yn-MoChnant."

"LLANIDLOES, a hundred or subdivision of county Montgomery, situated in the southern part of the county. It includes the parishes of Carno, Llandinam, Llangirrig, Llanidloes, Llanwnog, Penstrowed, and Tref Eglwys."

"MACHYNLLETH, a hundred in county Montgomery. It is situated in the western part of the county, and includes the parishes of Cemmes, Darowen, Llanbrynmair, Llanwrin, Machynlleth, and Penegos."

"MATHRAFEL, a hundred in county Montgomery, contains the parishes of Garthbeibio, Llanerfyl, Llanfair-Caereinion, Llangadfan, Llangyniew, and parts of Castle-Caereinion and Mallwyd. It takes its name from a camp or palace of the princes of Powys situated on the river Vyrnwy, which was stormed by Llewelyn-ap-Jorwerth in 1112."

"MONTGOMERY, a hundred in the county of Montgomery, contains the borough of Montgomery, and the parishes of Kerry, Moughtrey, Snead, and parts of Church-Stoke, Hyssington, Lydham, and Mainstone."

"MULE, a rivulet of county Montgomery. It rises near Llyngarw, and joins the Severn at Abermule, near Neuadd Fraith."

"NEWTOWN, a hundred in the county of Montgomery, containing the parishes of Aberhafesp, Bettws, Llandyssil, Llanllugan, Llanllwchaiarn, Llanmerewig, Llanwyddelan, Manafon, Newtown, Tregynon, and part of Berriew."

"PLINLYMMON, a mountain ridge on the border of counties Cardigan and Montgomery, 8 miles S.E. of Machynlleth, and 9 N.W. of Llanidloes. It is a barren slaty ridge, 2,463 feet high, commanding a broken view over St. George's Channel, Cader Idris, and part of Herefordshire. Properly speaking, it consists of three summits, forming the centre of a large group of mountains spreading into subordinate chains. From near the summit spring the five rivers of the Rheidiol, the Llyffnant, a tributary of the Dyfi, the Wye, the Ystwith, and the Severn, which last has its source at "the Well". The best ascent is from Dyffryn Castell, on the Rhayader and Aberystwith road, but it should not be attempted without a guide, on account of the dangerous bogs that exist. Copper is obtained at Bryntaigh."

"POOL, a hundred in the county of Montgomery, contains the parish of Llanfechan and parts of Guilsfield, Llansaintffraid, and Meifod."

"RUE, (or Rhiw), a river of the county of Montgomery, joins the Severn at Aber-Rhiw.

"TANAT, a river of county Montgomery, rises in the Berwyn mountains, and joins the Vyrnwy at Llandysilio."

"TEME, a river of county Worcester, rises under Kerry Hill, on the borders of counties Radnor and Montgomery, and, after a course of nearly 60 miles, joins the Severn near Worcester."

"THE SEVERN, the largest and most important river in England, after the Thames, formed by the union of two small streams, the Hafren and Clywedog, which rise under Plinlimmon, in the south-western part of Montgomeryshire, near the head of the Wye, and unite at Llanidloes, forming the main stream of the Severn. It was called by the Romans Sabrina, and by the Welsh Hafren, or "queen of rivers", which the Saxons converted into Sæferne, and the moderns into Severn. Its course through Montgomeryshire is in a north-easterly direction, past the towns of Newtown and Welshpool, from which latter place it becomes navigable, and entering Shropshire, pursues an easterly course to Shrewsbury, which it nearly encircles.

A little below Shrewsbury it receives the Tern on the left bank, whence taking a circuitous course, it flows through Coalbrookdale, past the towns of Ironbridge and Bridgnorth to the N.W. borders of Worcestershire, entering which county it passes Bewdley and Stourport, whence to Gloucester it is 150 feet wide and more than 6 feet deep for troves and barges. After passing Worcester it receives the Teme on the right bank, and continues its course in a southerly direction past Upton to Tewkesbury on the Gloucestershire border, where it is joined by the Upper Avon on the left bank, and turning to the S.W. passes Gloucester.

It then makes several windings, and becomes a tidal river a little above Newnham, where it widens out into an estuary, and passing Chepstow receives the waters of the Wye on the right, and those of the lower Avon on the left, about 8 miles below Bristol. It drains upwards of 4,500 square miles, and is subject to great floods near its mouth, the banks below Gloucester being so low that destructive inundations are not unfrequent. These have been partly caused by one of the most remarkable features of the river, its bore, or eagre, which brings in the tidal wave with a loud noise, and a head of 4 to 5 feet.

The river begins to be navigable at Welshpool, about 150 miles above Gloucester, and 225 feet above sea-level; but vessels of 30 tons cannot ascend higher than Coalbrookdale, whence the fall to Gloucester is 103 feet. Vessels of 60 tons can come up to Bewdley-Bridge, of 80 tons to Worcester, and of 110 tons to Gloucester, below which point the navigation was much obstructed by shoals and windings, but has recently been improved, and a ship canal constructed from Gloucester to Berkely-pill, 80 feet wide, and from 15 to 18 feet deep, so that vessels of 350 tons can now come up to Gloucester.

The other canals in connection with the Severn are the Thames and Severn, with a Stroud water branch, bringing these two great rivers into direct communication; the Gloucester and Ledbury, the Worcester and Birmingham, the Staffordshire and Worcestershire, opening into the Birmingham and Liverpool junction; the Shropshire and the Shrewsbury. The Severn formerly abounded in salmon, lampreys, and a great many other fish, but the fisheries are now not of much importance, salmon having become scarce. The tides rise from 50 to 60 feet at Chepstow, and from 45 to 50 feet at the mouth of the Avon.

"VYRNWY, a river of county Montgomery, rises under Berwyn Mountain, and joins the Severn at Melverley."

"WYE, the Welsh Gwy, a river of the West of England, or rather South Wales, rises in the mountain of Plinlimmon, on the south-western border of Montgomeryshire, about a mile S. of the source of the Severn. The beautiful scenery begins about Rhayader, where the river Elan joins, and lower down the Wye receives a number of little tributaries called the Ython, Irvon, Edwy, Machwy or Bach-wy, and finally discharges itself into the Severn a little above the point where the latter merges into the Bristol Channel. It is navigable for small vessels to Hereford, and in winter, when there is sufficient depth of water, barges ascend within a short distance of Hay, but the vessels often have to be towed against the stream and over the shallows, generally by men. The spring tides rise to a great height at Chepstow Bridge, to which point large vessels come up, and steamers ply regularly for the conveyance of passengers between that port and Bristol. The length of the Wye is variously estimated at between 120 and 130 miles, flowing in a circuitous course between counties Radnor and Brecon, across that of Hereford, and between those of Monmouth and Gloucester, generally in a south-eastern direction, except near Glasbury, where it turns nearly N."

"YSTWYTH, a river of county Cardigan, rises on the Montgomeryshire border under Plinlimmon, and falls into the sea at Aberystwyth."

[Description(s) from The National Gazetteer of Great Britain and Ireland (1868)
Transcribed by Colin Hinson ©2003]

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