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MACHEN, Monmouthshire - Extract from National Gazetteer, 1868
The National Gazetteer
"MACHEN, a parish chiefly in the lower division of the hundred of Wentllooge, county Monmouth, but partly in the hundred of Caerphilly, county Glamorgan, 5 miles N.W. of Newport, its post town. It is situated between the Rumney and Ebbs, and includes the hamlets of Upper and Lower Machen, and Rhydgwern. Here are mines from which are obtained calamine, coal, iron, and lead. The principal seat of industry is Upper Machen, where there are extensive iron and tin works, a foundry, and the works of the Rumney Railway Company. The Monmouthshire canal, and the Rhymney and Tyrhowey railways, afford facility of conveyance to Newport.
The surface is hilly, and the soil gravel, alternating with clay. The impropriate tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £14, and the rectorial for one of £649 3s. 9d. The living is a rectory* in the diocese of Llandaff, value £351. The church is dedicated to St. Michael. The charities, including a school endowment, amount to about £16 per annum. The Baptists, Independents, Calvinistic and Wesleyan Methodists, each have chapels. There are good schools for boys and girls, and an infants' school, built by the late Sir Charles Morgan. Machen Plas is the principal residence. In the vicinity are several mineral springs and the remains of a castle."
[Description(s) from The National Gazetteer of Great Britain and Ireland (1868)
Transcribed by Colin Hinson ©2003]