GENUKI Home page up WalesContents Contents



People, Protest and Politics

Case Studies in Nineteenth Century Wales

By David Egan, Gomer Press 1987.
Welsh History Teaching Materials
A Project funded by the Welsh Office Education Department and based at University College, Swansea.

This book is an excellent primer for anyone wishing to gain a basic grounding in the subject, the articles (which are not extracted here) are of necessity brief.
Because they form a very useful (in context)  bibliography in themselves, I have created a list of Sources with descriptions, referenced S.1 etc, (P is a picture/drawing, M a map/diagram, Q a quotation/statistics).
They are shown below in the same order as in the book.
(Gareth Hicks, August 2004)



The Merthyr Rising 1831



2.Background to the Rising

The Growth of Merthyr Tydfil

From Rural Village to Industrial Town

The Growth in Population

Culture and Religion


Impressions of Merthyr

The Iron Industry and its Masters

Natural Resources and the Welsh Iron Industry

The Merthyr Works and their Markets

Transport and Coal

The Ironmasters

Aspects of Working Class Life in Merthyr



Work and Working Conditions


Public Health

The Truck System

Protest and Radicalism

Working Class Protest


3.The Rising and its Aftermath

The Immediate Background to the Rising

Economic Depression and its Effects

The Reform Campaign

Crawshay's Wage Cuts

The Union

The Rising

The First Actions: 31st May and 1 June

The Attack on the Court of Requests, 2 June

Riot outside the Castle Inn: 3 June

Ambushes and the march on Penydarren House: 4 June

The End of the Rising: 6 June

The Aftermath





Execution and Martyrdom

4. Conclusion


Return to top of page

The Rebecca Riots

1. Introduction

2.The Background to Rebecca

The Rural Society of West Wales




Freeholders and Leaseholders



Political Power


The Life of the Ordinary People

Protest and Public Opinion

The Roads and Turnpike Trusts of West Wales

The Turnpike Trusts

Gates and Tolls

The Farmers and Tolls


3.The Riots

The Arrival of Rebecca

Efailwen 1839

Rebecca Re-appears 1842

The Forces of Law and Order

Rebecca Spreads Her Wings


The Carmarthen Riot

The Attitude of the Authorities

Rebecca at its Height: The Summer of 1843

The Strengthening of Military Forces.

The Widening of Rebeccaism

Rebecca Changes her tactics

The Last Phase of the Riots

New Areas and More Violent Attacks

The Pontarddulais Attack

Rioting Continues

The End of Rebecca

4. Conclusion and Aftermath

" The people saw that their only remedy was to take the law into their own hands. The Rebecca conspiracy was organised with much skill, and carried through with much fidelity......It was never diverted from its original purpose, and the instant that purpose seem likely to be attained, that is to say the instant that an enquiry into the Welsh turnpike system was instituted by the government, the association was dissolved and no one has ever proposed its revival.The Rebecca Riots are a very creditable portion of Welsh History."
'Nassau Senior in Wales', by E Evans in NLW Journal 1951

Return to top of page

  Chartism in Wales

  1.Introduction: Background to Welsh Chartism

Politics in Early Nineteenth Century Wales

The Emergence of Chartism

The Growth of Chartism in Wales

2. Chartism in Mid-Wales

The Woollen Industry and Towns of Mid-Wales

The Woollen Industry

The Woollen Towns

Working and Social Conditions

Chartist Movement in Mid-Wales

The Development of Local Chartism

The Chartist Disturbances at Llanidloes, April 1839

Chartism in Mid-Wales after 1839


3. Chartism in Monmouthshire

The Economy and Society of Monmouthshire

Industry and Work

Social Conditions and Protest

The Growth of Chartism in Monmouthshire

Monmouthshire Politics and the Origins of Chartism

Henry Vincent and the Spread of Chartism

The Newport Rising

Preparation for a Rising

Marching to Newport

The Rising

The Aftermath of the Rising

Chartism in Monmouthshire after Newport


4. Postscript

Return to top of page

The Tithe War in North-East Wales 1886 -1892

1. Introduction

2. Background

North-East Wales in the Late Nineteenth Century

Population and Industry


Living Conditions and Social Life


Politics in North-East Wales

The Land Question



Rents and 'Improvements'

Tithes and the Tithe Campaign


The Tithe Campaign

The 'Tithe War'

The Outbreak

The 'Tithe War' Spreads

Llangwm and the Widening Outbreaks

An Overview of the 'Tithe War'

Return to top of page

InfoFind help, report problems, or contribute information.

(Gareth Hicks   6 August 2004)

Valid HTML 4.01 Transitional

Copyright GENUKI and Contributors 1996 to date
GENUKI is a registered trade mark of the
charitable trust GENUKI

Hosted by Mythic Beasts Ltd