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  1. Error: Bad value 0005 DEX1638.pdf for attribute href on element a: Illegal character in path segment: space is not allowed.

    From line 537, column 184; to line 537, column 264

    /a> (ref. <a href=" 0005 DEX1638.pdf">D/EX 1

    Syntax of URL:
    Any URL. For example: /hello, #canvas, or Characters should be represented in NFC and spaces should be escaped as %20.
  2. Error: Bad value{collection}={history} for attribute href on element a: Illegal character in query: { is not allowed.

    From line 940, column 41; to line 940, column 149

    holds the <a href=";mwsquery={collection}={history}"><em><s

    Syntax of URL:
    Any URL. For example: /hello, #canvas, or Characters should be represented in NFC and spaces should be escaped as %20.
  3. Error: Bad value{FCD55335-19B5-4DCB-9DEC-0B4AD51A211F}&amp;item=%2fabout%2fabout-history&amp;user=extranet%5cAnonymous&amp;site=DiscoverReadingcmswebprod04 for attribute href on element a: Illegal character in query: { is not allowed.

    From line 1605, column 84; to line 1605, column 281

    e <strong><a href="{FCD55335-19B5-4DCB-9DEC-0B4AD51A211F}&amp;amp;item=%2fabout%2fabout-history&amp;amp;user=extranet%5cAnonymous&amp;amp;site=DiscoverReadingcmswebprod04">Univer

    Syntax of URL:
    Any URL. For example: /hello, #canvas, or Characters should be represented in NFC and spaces should be escaped as %20.

There were errors.


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id="menu-1780-1" class="middle even sf-item-8 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/eng/DBY" title="Derbyshire" class="sf-depth-4">Derbyshire</a></li><li id="menu-3687-1" class="middle odd sf-item-9 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/eng/DEV" class="sf-depth-4">Devon</a></li><li id="menu-1781-1" class="middle even sf-item-10 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/eng/DOR" title="Dorset" class="sf-depth-4">Dorset</a></li><li id="menu-1782-1" class="middle odd sf-item-11 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/eng/DUR" title="Durham" class="sf-depth-4">Durham</a></li><li id="menu-1783-1" class="middle even sf-item-12 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/eng/ESS" title="Essex" class="sf-depth-4">Essex</a></li><li id="menu-1784-1" class="last odd sf-item-13 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/eng/GLS" title="Gloucestershire" class="sf-depth-4">Gloucestershire</a></li></ul></li><li id="menu-1892-1" class="middle even sf-item-2 sf-depth-3 sf-total-children-13 sf-parent-children-1 sf-single-children-12 menuparent"><a href="/big/eng" title="Hampshire - Nottinghamshire" class="sf-depth-3 menuparent">Hampshire - Nottinghamshire</a><ul><li id="menu-939-1" class="first odd sf-item-1 sf-depth-4 sf-total-children-1 sf-parent-children-0 sf-single-children-1 menuparent"><a href="/big/eng/HAM" class="sf-depth-4 menuparent">Hampshire</a><ul><li id="menu-1287-1" class="firstandlast odd sf-item-1 sf-depth-5 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/eng/HAM/IOW" class="sf-depth-5">Isle of Wight</a></li></ul></li><li id="menu-1785-1" class="middle even sf-item-2 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/eng/HEF" title="Herefordshire" class="sf-depth-4">Herefordshire</a></li><li id="menu-1786-1" class="middle odd sf-item-3 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/eng/HRT" title="Hertfordshire" class="sf-depth-4">Hertfordshire</a></li><li id="menu-1788-1" class="middle even sf-item-4 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/eng/KEN" title="Kent" class="sf-depth-4">Kent</a></li><li id="menu-710-1" class="middle odd sf-item-5 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/eng/LAN" title="Lancashire" class="sf-depth-4">Lancashire</a></li><li id="menu-1789-1" class="middle even sf-item-6 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/eng/LEI" title="Leicestershire" class="sf-depth-4">Leicestershire</a></li><li id="menu-1790-1" class="middle odd sf-item-7 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/eng/LIN" title="Lincolnshire" class="sf-depth-4">Lincolnshire</a></li><li id="menu-1791-1" class="middle even sf-item-8 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/eng/LND" title="City of London" class="sf-depth-4">City of London</a></li><li id="menu-1792-1" class="middle odd sf-item-9 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/eng/MDX" title="Middlesex" class="sf-depth-4">Middlesex</a></li><li id="menu-1794-1" class="middle even sf-item-10 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/eng/NTH" title="Northamptonshire" class="sf-depth-4">Northamptonshire</a></li><li id="menu-1793-1" class="middle odd sf-item-11 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/eng/NFK" title="Norfolk" class="sf-depth-4">Norfolk</a></li><li id="menu-1795-1" class="middle even sf-item-12 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/eng/NBL" title="Northumberland" class="sf-depth-4">Northumberland</a></li><li id="menu-1796-1" class="last odd sf-item-13 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/eng/NTT" title="Nottinghamshire" class="sf-depth-4">Nottinghamshire</a></li></ul></li><li id="menu-1804-1" class="last odd sf-item-3 sf-depth-3 sf-total-children-13 sf-parent-children-1 sf-single-children-12 menuparent"><a href="/big/eng" title="Oxfordshire - Yorkshire" class="sf-depth-3 menuparent">Oxfordshire - Yorkshire</a><ul><li id="menu-1797-1" class="first odd sf-item-1 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/eng/OXF" title="Oxfordshire" class="sf-depth-4">Oxfordshire</a></li><li id="menu-1798-1" class="middle even sf-item-2 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/eng/RUT" title="Rutland" class="sf-depth-4">Rutland</a></li><li id="menu-1799-1" class="middle odd sf-item-3 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/eng/SAL" title="Shropshire" class="sf-depth-4">Shropshire</a></li><li id="menu-1800-1" class="middle even sf-item-4 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/eng/SOM" title="Somerset" class="sf-depth-4">Somerset</a></li><li id="menu-1801-1" class="middle odd sf-item-5 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/eng/STS" title="Staffordshire" class="sf-depth-4">Staffordshire</a></li><li id="menu-531-1" class="middle even sf-item-6 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/eng/SFK" title="Suffolk" class="sf-depth-4">Suffolk</a></li><li id="menu-1802-1" class="middle odd sf-item-7 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/eng/SRY" title="Surrey" class="sf-depth-4">Surrey</a></li><li id="menu-1805-1" class="middle even sf-item-8 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/eng/SSX" title="Sussex" class="sf-depth-4">Sussex</a></li><li id="menu-1806-1" class="middle odd sf-item-9 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/eng/WAR" title="Warwickshire" class="sf-depth-4">Warwickshire</a></li><li id="menu-1807-1" class="middle even sf-item-10 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/eng/WES" title="Westmorland" class="sf-depth-4">Westmorland</a></li><li id="menu-946-1" class="middle odd sf-item-11 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/eng/WIL" class="sf-depth-4">Wiltshire</a></li><li id="menu-1809-1" class="middle even sf-item-12 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/eng/WOR" title="Worcestershire" class="sf-depth-4">Worcestershire</a></li><li id="menu-1810-1" class="last odd sf-item-13 sf-depth-4 sf-total-children-4 sf-parent-children-0 sf-single-children-4 menuparent"><a href="" title="" class="sf-depth-4 menuparent">Yorkshire</a><ul><li id="menu-1893-1" class="first odd sf-item-1 sf-depth-5 sf-no-children"><a href="" title="" class="sf-depth-5">Ainsty</a></li><li id="menu-1894-1" class="middle even sf-item-2 sf-depth-5 sf-no-children"><a href="" title="" class="sf-depth-5">East Riding</a></li><li id="menu-1895-1" class="middle odd sf-item-3 sf-depth-5 sf-no-children"><a href="" title="" class="sf-depth-5">North Riding</a></li><li id="menu-1896-1" class="last even sf-item-4 sf-depth-5 sf-no-children"><a href="" title="" class="sf-depth-5">West Riding</a></li></ul></li></ul></li></ul></li><li id="menu-1769-1" class="middle even sf-item-2 sf-depth-2 sf-total-children-2 sf-parent-children-2 sf-single-children-0 menuparent"><a href="/big/irl" title="Ireland" class="sf-depth-2 menuparent">Ireland</a><ul><li id="menu-1811-1" class="first odd sf-item-1 sf-depth-3 sf-total-children-15 sf-parent-children-0 sf-single-children-15 menuparent"><a href="/big/irl" title="Antrim - Kilkenny" class="sf-depth-3 menuparent">Antrim - Kilkenny</a><ul><li id="menu-1813-1" class="first odd sf-item-1 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/irl/ANT" title="Antrim" class="sf-depth-4">Antrim</a></li><li id="menu-1814-1" class="middle even sf-item-2 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/irl/ARM" title="Armagh" class="sf-depth-4">Armagh</a></li><li id="menu-1815-1" class="middle odd sf-item-3 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/irl/CAR" class="sf-depth-4">Carlow</a></li><li id="menu-1816-1" class="middle even sf-item-4 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/irl/CAV" title="Cavan" class="sf-depth-4">Cavan</a></li><li id="menu-1817-1" class="middle odd sf-item-5 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/irl/CLA" title="Clare" class="sf-depth-4">Clare</a></li><li id="menu-1818-1" class="middle even sf-item-6 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/irl/COR" title="County Cork" class="sf-depth-4">Cork</a></li><li id="menu-1819-1" class="middle odd sf-item-7 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/irl/LDY" title="Derry (Londonderry)" class="sf-depth-4">Derry (Londonderry)</a></li><li id="menu-1820-1" class="middle even sf-item-8 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/irl/DON" title="County Donegal" class="sf-depth-4">Donegal</a></li><li id="menu-1821-1" class="middle odd sf-item-9 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/irl/DOW" title="County Down" class="sf-depth-4">Down</a></li><li id="menu-1822-1" class="middle even sf-item-10 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/irl/DUB" title="County Dublin" class="sf-depth-4">Dublin</a></li><li id="menu-1823-1" class="middle odd sf-item-11 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/irl/FER" title="Fermanagh" class="sf-depth-4">Fermanagh</a></li><li id="menu-1824-1" class="middle even sf-item-12 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/irl/GAL" title="Galway" class="sf-depth-4">Galway</a></li><li id="menu-1825-1" class="middle odd sf-item-13 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/irl/KER" title="Kerry" class="sf-depth-4">Kerry</a></li><li id="menu-1826-1" class="middle even sf-item-14 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/irl/KID" title="County Kildare" class="sf-depth-4">Kildare</a></li><li id="menu-1827-1" class="last odd sf-item-15 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/irl/KIK" title="Kilkenny" class="sf-depth-4">Kilkenny</a></li></ul></li><li id="menu-1812-1" class="last even sf-item-2 sf-depth-3 sf-total-children-17 sf-parent-children-0 sf-single-children-17 menuparent"><a href="/big/irl" title="Laois - Wicklow" class="sf-depth-3 menuparent">Laois - Wicklow</a><ul><li id="menu-1828-1" class="first odd sf-item-1 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/irl/LEX" title="Laois (Queens)" class="sf-depth-4">Laois (Queens)</a></li><li id="menu-1829-1" class="middle even sf-item-2 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/irl/LET" class="sf-depth-4">Leitrim</a></li><li id="menu-1830-1" class="middle odd sf-item-3 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/irl/LIM" title="Limerick" class="sf-depth-4">Limerick</a></li><li id="menu-1831-1" class="middle even sf-item-4 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/irl/LOG" title="Longford" class="sf-depth-4">Longford</a></li><li id="menu-1832-1" class="middle odd sf-item-5 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/irl/LOU" class="sf-depth-4">Louth</a></li><li id="menu-1833-1" class="middle even sf-item-6 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/irl/MAY" title="County Mayo" class="sf-depth-4">Mayo</a></li><li id="menu-1834-1" class="middle odd sf-item-7 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/irl/MEA" title="County Meath" class="sf-depth-4">Meath</a></li><li id="menu-1835-1" class="middle even sf-item-8 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/irl/MOG" class="sf-depth-4">Monaghan</a></li><li id="menu-1836-1" class="middle odd sf-item-9 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/irl/OFF" title="County Offaly (Kings)" class="sf-depth-4">Offaly (Kings)</a></li><li id="menu-1837-1" class="middle even sf-item-10 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/irl/ROS" title="County Roscommon" class="sf-depth-4">Roscommon</a></li><li id="menu-1838-1" class="middle odd sf-item-11 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/irl/SLI" title="Sligo, Ireland" class="sf-depth-4">Sligo</a></li><li id="menu-1839-1" class="middle even sf-item-12 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/irl/TIP" title="Tipperary" class="sf-depth-4">Tipperary</a></li><li id="menu-1840-1" class="middle odd sf-item-13 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/irl/TYR" title="Tyrone" class="sf-depth-4">Tyrone</a></li><li id="menu-1841-1" class="middle even sf-item-14 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/irl/WAT" title="County Waterford" class="sf-depth-4">Waterford</a></li><li id="menu-1842-1" class="middle odd sf-item-15 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/irl/WEM" title="County Westmeath" class="sf-depth-4">Westmeath</a></li><li id="menu-1843-1" class="middle even sf-item-16 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/irl/WEX" title="Wexford" class="sf-depth-4">Wexford</a></li><li id="menu-1844-1" class="last odd sf-item-17 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/irl/WIC" class="sf-depth-4">Wicklow</a></li></ul></li></ul></li><li id="menu-683-1" class="middle odd sf-item-3 sf-depth-2 sf-total-children-2 sf-parent-children-2 sf-single-children-0 menuparent"><a href="/big/sct" title="Scotland" class="sf-depth-2 menuparent">Scotland</a><ul><li id="menu-1845-1" class="first odd sf-item-1 sf-depth-3 sf-total-children-17 sf-parent-children-0 sf-single-children-17 menuparent"><a href="/big/sct" title="Aberdeenshire - Kirkcudbrightshire" class="sf-depth-3 menuparent">Aberdeenshire - Kirkcudbrightshire</a><ul><li id="menu-1847-1" class="first odd sf-item-1 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/sct/ABD" title="Aberdeenshire" class="sf-depth-4">Aberdeenshire</a></li><li id="menu-1848-1" class="middle even sf-item-2 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/sct/ANS" title="Angus" class="sf-depth-4">Angus</a></li><li id="menu-1849-1" class="middle odd sf-item-3 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/sct/ARL" title="Argyllshire" class="sf-depth-4">Argyll</a></li><li id="menu-1850-1" class="middle even sf-item-4 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/sct/AYR" title="Ayrshire" class="sf-depth-4">Ayrshire</a></li><li id="menu-1851-1" class="middle odd sf-item-5 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/sct/BAN" title="Banffshire" class="sf-depth-4">Banffshire</a></li><li id="menu-1852-1" class="middle even sf-item-6 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/sct/BEW" title="Berwickshire" class="sf-depth-4">Berwickshire</a></li><li id="menu-1853-1" class="middle odd sf-item-7 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/sct/BUT" title="Bute" class="sf-depth-4">Bute</a></li><li id="menu-1854-1" class="middle even sf-item-8 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/sct/CAI" title="Caithness" class="sf-depth-4">Caithness</a></li><li id="menu-1855-1" class="middle odd sf-item-9 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/sct/CLK" title="Clackmannanshire" class="sf-depth-4">Clackmannanshire</a></li><li id="menu-1856-1" class="middle even sf-item-10 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/sct/DFS" title="Dumfriesshire" class="sf-depth-4">Dumfriesshire</a></li><li id="menu-1857-1" class="middle odd sf-item-11 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/sct/DNB" title="Dunbartonshire" class="sf-depth-4">Dunbartonshire</a></li><li id="menu-1858-1" class="middle even sf-item-12 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/sct/ELN" title="East Lothian" class="sf-depth-4">East Lothian</a></li><li id="menu-1859-1" class="middle odd sf-item-13 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/sct/FIF" title="Fife" class="sf-depth-4">Fife</a></li><li id="menu-1860-1" class="middle even sf-item-14 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/sct/INV" title="Inverness-shire" class="sf-depth-4">Inverness-shire</a></li><li id="menu-1861-1" class="middle odd sf-item-15 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/sct/KCD" title="Kincardineshire" class="sf-depth-4">Kincardineshire</a></li><li id="menu-1862-1" class="middle even sf-item-16 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/sct/KRS" title="Kinross-shire" class="sf-depth-4">Kinross-shire</a></li><li id="menu-1863-1" class="last odd sf-item-17 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/sct/KKD" title="Kirkcudbrightshire" class="sf-depth-4">Kirkcudbrightshire</a></li></ul></li><li id="menu-1846-1" class="last even sf-item-2 sf-depth-3 sf-total-children-16 sf-parent-children-0 sf-single-children-16 menuparent"><a href="/big/sct" title="Lanarkshire - Wigtownshire" class="sf-depth-3 menuparent">Lanarkshire - Wigtownshire</a><ul><li id="menu-1864-1" class="first odd sf-item-1 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/sct/LKS" title="Lanarkshire" class="sf-depth-4">Lanarkshire</a></li><li id="menu-1865-1" class="middle even sf-item-2 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/sct/MLN" title="Midlothian" class="sf-depth-4">Midlothian</a></li><li id="menu-1866-1" class="middle odd sf-item-3 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/sct/MOR" title="Moray" class="sf-depth-4">Moray</a></li><li id="menu-743-1" class="middle even sf-item-4 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/sct/NAI" title="County page for Nairnshire, Scotland." class="sf-depth-4">Nairnshire</a></li><li id="menu-1867-1" class="middle odd sf-item-5 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/sct/OKI" title="Orkney" class="sf-depth-4">Orkney</a></li><li id="menu-1868-1" class="middle even sf-item-6 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/sct/PEE" title="Peeblesshire" class="sf-depth-4">Peeblesshire</a></li><li id="menu-1869-1" class="middle odd sf-item-7 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/sct/PER" title="Perthshire" class="sf-depth-4">Perthshire</a></li><li id="menu-1870-1" class="middle even sf-item-8 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/sct/RFW" title="Renfrewshire" class="sf-depth-4">Renfrewshire</a></li><li id="menu-1871-1" class="middle odd sf-item-9 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/sct/ROC" title="Ross &amp; Cromarty" class="sf-depth-4">Ross &amp; Cromarty</a></li><li id="menu-1872-1" class="middle even sf-item-10 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/sct/ROX" title="Roxburghshire" class="sf-depth-4">Roxburghshire</a></li><li id="menu-1873-1" class="middle odd sf-item-11 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/sct/SEL" title="Selkirkshire" class="sf-depth-4">Selkirkshire</a></li><li id="menu-1874-1" class="middle even sf-item-12 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/sct/SHI" title="Shetland Isles" class="sf-depth-4">Shetland</a></li><li id="menu-1875-1" class="middle odd sf-item-13 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/sct/STI" title="Stirlingshire" class="sf-depth-4">Stirlingshire</a></li><li id="menu-1876-1" class="middle even sf-item-14 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/sct/SUT" title="Sutherland" class="sf-depth-4">Sutherland</a></li><li id="menu-1877-1" class="middle odd sf-item-15 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/sct/WLN" class="sf-depth-4">West Lothian</a></li><li id="menu-1878-1" class="last even sf-item-16 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/sct/WIG" title="Wigtownshire" class="sf-depth-4">Wigtownshire</a></li></ul></li></ul></li><li id="menu-1770-1" class="middle even sf-item-4 sf-depth-2 sf-total-children-13 sf-parent-children-0 sf-single-children-13 menuparent"><a href="/big/wal" title="Wales" class="sf-depth-2 menuparent">Wales</a><ul><li id="menu-1879-1" class="first odd sf-item-1 sf-depth-3 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/wal/AGY" title="Anglesey" class="sf-depth-3">Anglesey</a></li><li id="menu-1880-1" class="middle even sf-item-2 sf-depth-3 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/wal/BRE" title="Breconshire" class="sf-depth-3">Breconshire</a></li><li id="menu-1881-1" class="middle odd sf-item-3 sf-depth-3 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/wal/CAE" title="Caernarvonshire" class="sf-depth-3">Caernarvonshire</a></li><li id="menu-1882-1" class="middle even sf-item-4 sf-depth-3 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/wal/CGN" title="Cardiganshire" class="sf-depth-3">Cardiganshire</a></li><li id="menu-1883-1" class="middle odd sf-item-5 sf-depth-3 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/wal/CMN" title="Carmarthenshire" class="sf-depth-3">Carmarthenshire</a></li><li id="menu-1884-1" class="middle even sf-item-6 sf-depth-3 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/wal/DEN" title="Denbighshire" class="sf-depth-3">Denbighshire</a></li><li id="menu-1885-1" class="middle odd sf-item-7 sf-depth-3 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/wal/FLN" title="Flintshire" class="sf-depth-3">Flintshire</a></li><li id="menu-3112-1" class="middle even sf-item-8 sf-depth-3 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/wal/GLA" title="Glamorgan" class="sf-depth-3">Glamorgan</a></li><li id="menu-1886-1" class="middle odd sf-item-9 sf-depth-3 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/wal/MER" title="Merionethshire" class="sf-depth-3">Merionethshire</a></li><li id="menu-1887-1" class="middle even sf-item-10 sf-depth-3 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/wal/MON" title="Monmouthshire" class="sf-depth-3">Monmouthshire</a></li><li id="menu-1888-1" class="middle odd sf-item-11 sf-depth-3 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/wal/MGY" title="Montgomeryshire" class="sf-depth-3">Montgomeryshire</a></li><li id="menu-1889-1" class="middle even sf-item-12 sf-depth-3 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/wal/PEM" title="Pembrokeshire" class="sf-depth-3">Pembrokeshire</a></li><li id="menu-1890-1" class="last odd sf-item-13 sf-depth-3 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/wal/RAD" title="Radnorshire" class="sf-depth-3">Radnorshire</a></li></ul></li><li id="menu-1771-1" class="middle odd sf-item-5 sf-depth-2 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/CHI" class="sf-depth-2">Channel Islands</a></li><li id="menu-1772-1" class="last even sf-item-6 sf-depth-2 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/iom" title="Isle of Man" class="sf-depth-2">Isle of Man</a></li></ul></li><li id="menu-735-1" class="middle even sf-item-2 sf-depth-1 sf-no-children"><a href="/gazetteer" title="Find places by searching the gazetteer" class="sf-depth-1">Gazetteer</a></li><li id="menu-736-1" class="middle odd sf-item-3 sf-depth-1 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/churchdb" title="Search the church database" class="sf-depth-1">Churches</a></li><li id="menu-6512-1" class="middle even sf-item-4 sf-depth-1 sf-no-children"><a href="/structure" title="Structure of the web site" class="sf-depth-1">Structure</a></li><li id="menu-1664-1" class="last odd sf-item-5 sf-depth-1 sf-total-children-3 sf-parent-children-0 sf-single-children-3 menuparent"><a href="/news" title="News about the Genuki service" class="sf-depth-1 menuparent">News</a><ul><li id="menu-1665-1" class="first odd sf-item-1 sf-depth-2 sf-no-children"><a href="/news/main" title="Site conversion to use a CMS
  90. " class="sf-depth-2">Conversion to a CMS</a></li><li id="menu-1688-1" class="middle even sf-item-2 sf-depth-2 sf-no-children"><a href="/news/drupal" title="Progress in the conversion to a Drupal managed site" class="sf-depth-2">Drupal conversion diary</a></li><li id="menu-740-1" class="last odd sf-item-3 sf-depth-2 sf-no-children"><a href="" title="Genealogical events" class="sf-depth-2">Online calendar</a></li></ul></li></ul> </div>
  91. </div>
  92. </nav>
  93. </header>
  94. <div id="page">
  95. <div id="main">
  96. <div id="content" class="column" role="main">
  97. <div class="region region-highlighted">
  98. <div id="block-block-2" class="block block-block first odd">
  99. <div class="content">
  100. <p style="text-align:center"><em>We are in the process of <a href="/news/main#CMS">upgrading the site</a> to implement a content management system.</em></p> </div>
  101. </div>
  102. <div id="block-block-4" class="block block-block even">
  103. <div class="content">
  104. <a id="top"></a> </div>
  105. </div>
  106. <div id="block-webform-client-block-75525" class="block block-webform last odd">
  107. <h2 class="block__title block-title">Open a form to report problems or contribute information</h2>
  108. <div class="content">
  109. <form class="webform-client-form webform-client-form-75525" enctype="multipart/form-data" action="/big/eng/BRK" method="post" id="webform-client-form-75525" accept-charset="UTF-8"><div><div class="webform-progressbar">
  110. <div class="webform-progressbar-outer">
  111. <div class="webform-progressbar-inner" style="width: 0%">&nbsp;</div>
  112. <span class="webform-progressbar-page current" style="left: 0%">
  113. <span class="webform-progressbar-page-number">1</span>
  114. <span class="webform-progressbar-page-label">
  115. Introduction </span>
  116. </span>
  117. <span class="webform-progressbar-page" style="left: 33.33%">
  118. <span class="webform-progressbar-page-number">2</span>
  119. <span class="webform-progressbar-page-label">
  120. Message details </span>
  121. </span>
  122. <span class="webform-progressbar-page" style="left: 66.67%">
  123. <span class="webform-progressbar-page-number">3</span>
  124. <span class="webform-progressbar-page-label">
  125. Upload file </span>
  126. </span>
  127. <span class="webform-progressbar-page" style="left: 100%">
  128. <span class="webform-progressbar-page-number">4</span>
  129. <span class="webform-progressbar-page-label">
  130. Submitted </span>
  131. </span>
  132. </div>
  133. </div>
  134. <div class="form-item webform-component webform-component-markup webform-component--introducution">
  135. <h4>Help and advice for Berkshire</h4>
  136. If you have found a problem on this page then please report it on the following form. We will then do our best to fix it. If you are wanting advice then the best place to ask is on the area's specific <a href="/big/Genealogy/DiscussionGroups">email lists</a>. All the information that we have is in the web pages, so please do not ask us to supply something that is not there. We are not able to offer a research service.
  137. <p>
  138. If you wish to report a problem, or contribute information, then do use the following form to tell us about it.
  139. </p><p>
  140. </p>
  141. </div>
  142. <input type="hidden" name="details[sid]" />
  143. <input type="hidden" name="details[page_num]" value="1" />
  144. <input type="hidden" name="details[page_count]" value="3" />
  145. <input type="hidden" name="details[finished]" value="0" />
  146. <input type="hidden" name="form_build_id" value="form-MZh9c2Fc3-GV-0Ln5aFWcuD2OM3mWkUWw4H-pNiAfPY" />
  147. <input type="hidden" name="form_id" value="webform_client_form_75525" />
  148. <div class="email-to-textfield"><div class="form-item form-type-textfield form-item-email-to">
  149. <label for="edit-email-to">Leave this field blank </label>
  150. <input autocomplete="off" type="text" id="edit-email-to" name="email-to" value="" size="20" maxlength="128" class="form-text" />
  151. </div>
  152. </div><div class="form-actions"><input class="webform-next button-primary form-submit" type="submit" name="op" value="Enter message &gt;" /></div></div></form> </div>
  153. </div>
  154. </div>
  155. <a id="main-content"></a>
  156. <h1 class="page__title title" id="page-title">Berkshire</h1>
  157. <div class="region region-content">
  158. <div class="panel-display panel-3col-stacked clearfix" id="place-page">
  159. <div class="center-wrapper">
  160. <div class="panel-panel panel-col-first">
  161. <div class="inside"><div class="panel-pane pane-entity-field pane-node-field-linksl" >
  162. <div class="field field-name-field-linksl field-type-text-long field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"> <div class="gki_links gki_links"><ul><li><a href="#Archives">Archives &amp; Libraries</a></li><li><a href="#Bibliography">Bibliography</a></li><li><a href="#Business">Business &amp; Commerce</a></li><li><a href="#Cemeteries">Cemeteries</a></li><li><a href="#Census">Census</a></li><li><a href="#Charities">Charities</a></li><li><a href="#ChurchHistory">Church History</a></li><li><a href="#ChurchRecords">Church Records</a></li><li><a href="#CivilReg">Civil Registration</a></li><li><a href="#Correctional">Correctional Institutions</a></li><li><a href="#CourtRecords">Court Records</a></li><li><a href="#Description">Description &amp; Travel</a></li><li><a href="#Directories">Directories</a></li><li><a href="#Dwellings">Dwellings</a></li><li><a href="#Genealogy">Genealogy</a></li><li><a href="#Heraldry">Heraldry</a></li><li><a href="#Geography">Historical Geography</a></li><li><a href="#History">History</a></li></ul></div> </div></div></div>
  163. </div>
  164. </div>
  165. </div>
  166. <div class="panel-panel panel-col">
  167. <div class="inside"><div class="panel-pane pane-block pane-genuki-dynamic-content-genuki-location-map" >
  168. <div class="field-name-field-location-map"><img class="parishmap" src="/files/CntyGifs/BRK.gif" alt="map" /></div>
  169. </div>
  170. <div class="panel-pane pane-entity-field pane-node-field-location-active" >
  171. <div class="field field-name-field-location-active field-type-text-long field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><div class="county_list">
  172. <ul><li><a href="/big/eng/BRK/Parishes">Berkshire Towns and Parishes</a></li>
  173. </ul></div></div></div></div>
  174. </div>
  175. </div>
  176. </div>
  177. <div class="panel-panel panel-col-last">
  178. <div class="inside"><div class="panel-pane pane-entity-field pane-node-field-linksr" >
  179. <div class="field field-name-field-linksr field-type-text-long field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"> <div class="gki_linksr gki_linksr"><ul><li><a href="#Manors">Manors</a></li><li><a href="#Maps">Maps</a></li><li><a href="#MedicalRecords">Medical Records</a></li><li><a href="#MilitaryRecords">Military Records</a></li><li><a href="#NamesGeographical">Names, Geographical</a></li><li><a href="#NamesPersonal">Names, Personal</a></li><li><a href="#Newspapers">Newspapers</a></li><li><a href="#Occupations">Occupations</a></li><li><a href="#Periodicals">Periodicals</a></li><li><a href="#PoorHouses">Poor Houses, Poor Law etc.</a></li><li><a href="#Probate">Probate Records</a></li><li><a href="#Schools">Schools</a></li><li><a href="#Societies">Societies</a></li><li><a href="#Statistics">Statistics</a></li><li><a href="#Taxation">Taxation</a></li><li><a href="#TownRecords">Town Records</a></li><li><a href="#VotingRegisters">Voting Registers</a></li></ul></div> </div></div></div>
  180. </div>
  181. </div>
  182. </div>
  183. </div>
  184. <div class="panel-panel panel-col-bottom">
  185. <div class="inside"><div class="panel-pane pane-entity-field pane-node-field-quote" >
  186. <div class="field field-name-field-quote field-type-text-long field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"> <p>Berkshire, one of the inland cos. of England, lying between Hants and the river Thames, bounded on the N. by <a href="">Gloucestershire</a>, <a href="">Oxfordshire</a>, and <a href="">Bucks</a>, E. by <a href="">Surrey</a>, S. by <a href="">Hants</a>, and W. by <a href="/big/eng/WIL">Wilts</a>; greatest length, E. and W., 53 miles; greatest breadth, N. and W., 30 miles; area 462,210 ac., pop. 218,363. It is intersected in a westerly direction by a line of chalk hills, a continuation of the Chilterns, the highest elevation being White Horse Hill, alt. 893 ft. N. of this is the White Horse Vale (so called from the figure of a horse cut out on the hill-side), and to the S. lies the Vale of Kennet, watered by the Kennet stream. These tracts are well cultivated, and produce good crops of grain, &amp;c., especially in the Vale of the White Horse. Dairy farms and commons abound; much of the surface is under woods, chiefly of oak and beech. Windsor Forest, covering upwards of 50,000 ac., lies in the E. (For agricultural statistics, see Appendix.) The Thames flows along the entire N. boundary (100 miles in extent); its tributaries are the Kennet, Lambourn, Ock, and Loddon. The mfrs. are unimportant, being chiefly agricultural implements and malt. The Great Western Ry., the Thames, and 2 canals are the chief means of transit. The co. contains 20 hundreds, 193 pars. with parts of 4 others, the parl. and mun. bors. of Reading (1 member) and New Windsor (1 member), the mun. bors. of Maidenhead, Newbury, and Wallingford, and the greater part of the mun. bor. of Abingdon. It is almost entirely in the diocese of Oxford. For parliamentary purposes it is divided into 3 divisions, viz., Northern or Abingdon, Southern or Newbury, and Eastern or Wokingham, 1 member for each division.<br /><i>John Bartholomew's Gazetteer of the British Isles 1887 </i></p>
  187. </div></div></div>
  188. </div>
  189. <div class="panel-pane pane-entity-field pane-node-field-preamble" >
  190. <div class="field field-name-field-preamble field-type-text-long field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"> <p>See also general descriptions about Berkshire from <a href="">Berkshire FHS</a>,  <a href="/big/eng/BRK/Pigot1830">Pigot's 1830 Directory</a>,  <i><a href="/big/eng/BRK/Gaz1868">The National Gazetteer of Great Britain and Ireland (1868)</a></i>,  <a href="/big/eng/BRK/Cassells1899"><i>Cassell's Gazetteer of Great Britain and Ireland</i>, 1899</a> .  Other descriptions can be found from other periods in various <a href="#Directories">trade directories</a> covering Berkshire from the early 19th century onwards and from <a href="">A Vision of Britain Through Time</a>.<br /><br /><span style="font-weight:bold">What is Berkshire?</span>  The geographic extent of the county has changed over the centuries (<a href="/big/Regions/UKchanges">more about boundary changes...</a> and also see <a href="#Geography" style="font-weight:bold; font-style:italic">Historical Geography</a> below).  For the purposes of these pages, Berkshire is the pre-1974 county defined by the <a href="/big/eng/BRK/Names">Towns and Parishes</a> list and this <a href="/files/eng/BRK/Maps/BerkshireParishes.gif">map of the ecclesiastical parishes</a> of 19th century Berkshire. If in any doubt, consult the <a href="/big/Gazetteer">GENUKI Gazetteer</a> to determine on which county page your place of interest is located.  <br /><br />
  191. See <a href="">Berkshire Genealogy</a> to understand how these Berkshire pages are structured and how do we fit into the rest of GENUKI. </p>
  192. </div></div></div>
  193. </div>
  194. <div class="panel-pane pane-entity-field pane-node-field-archives" >
  195. <h2 class="pane-title"><a id="Archives">Archives and Libraries</a></h2>
  196. <div class="field field-name-field-archives field-type-text-long field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"> <ul><li><a href="/big/Archives">General information</a> about archives.</li>
  197. </ul><ul><li>The <strong><a href="">Berkshire Record Office</a> (BRO</strong>) hold most <a href="">local history records </a>and <a href="">family history records</a> for <a href="/big/eng/BRK#HistoricalGeography">historic Berkshire</a> (including some records of parts that are now in Oxfordshire).  Email: <a href=/xyxyxy/NEPU/Ernqvat.tbi/hx>arch[at][dot]uk.</a>  Note that you will require a County Archive Research Network (CARN) reader's ticket to consult any of their records (<a href="">more about visiting...</a>).   The methods available to search different parts of their holdings are:
  198. <ul><li>Catalogued holdings: use all of the following to be sure: </li>
  199. </ul><ul style="margin-left:40px"><li><a href="">Online catalogue</a> (not yet complete, but being added to).   </li>
  200. <li>Use <a href="/big/eng/BRK#The_National_Archives">TNA</a>'s <a href=";_ep=berkshire%20record%20office&amp;_dss=range&amp;_hb=oth">Discovery</a> advanced search and include "Berkshire Record Office" in the "Exact word or phrase" field, in addition to your own search term(s).  </li>
  201. <li>Use Google (or similar search engine) and include "Berkshire Records Office" (with quotes) in the search field.</li>
  202. </ul><ul><li>Un-catalogued holdings: can only be identified by contacting or visiting the BRO. Some are listed on this, and linked, pages under the relevant section (e.g. <strong><em><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Business">Business and Commerce</a>, <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Schools">Schools</a>, <a href="/big/eng/BRK#CourtRecords">Courts</a>, <a href="/big/eng/BRK/Names">Towns &amp; Parishes</a></em></strong>).</li>
  203. <li>List of their holdings of the <a href="">parish registers</a>,  <a href="">non-parochial registers</a>,  <a href="">other church records, C of E parish records, borough &amp; town records, court records</a>. </li>
  204. <li>Some holdings are featured in <a href="">online galleries</a>.</li>
  205. </ul></li>
  206. </ul><p style="margin-left:40px">Some BRO records have been indexed, transcribed and published by  <a href="/big/eng/BRK#BerksFHS">Berkshire FHS</a> (see below), the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Societies">Berkshire Record Society</a> and the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Eureka">Eureka Partnership</a></p>
  207. <ul><li><strong><a id="BerksFHS">Berkshire Family History Society</a> (Berks FHS)</strong>:
  208. <ul><li>Their <a href="">website</a> provides an extensive collection of information and resources for the whole of Berkshire (both present  and <a href="/big/eng/BRK#HistoricalGeography">historic boundaries</a>).  </li>
  209. <li>Their <a href="">Research Centre</a> in Reading is open for members and non-members, and contains information about Berkshire and elsewhere in the UK.  </li>
  210. <li><a href="">Benefits of membership</a>.  </li>
  211. <li>The <a href="">library</a> and <a href="">shop catalogue</a> are searchable online.  </li>
  212. </ul></li>
  213. </ul><ul><li><strong><a href="">Collections Gateway</a></strong> locates information on research collections held by Berkshire and Reading institutions.  </li>
  214. </ul><ul><li>The <strong>Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saint</strong>s offers a wide range of genealogical resources at its Family History Centres around the world.  For contact details, <a href="">click here</a> and search for the centre nearest you.  Reading FHC is the only centre in Berkshire.  They are best known for the IGI, see <a href="/big/eng/BRK#ChurchRecords">Church Records</a>, below.  </li>
  215. </ul><ul><li><strong><a id="Reading_Central_Library"></a><a href="">Reading Central Library</a></strong> offer the following:
  216. <ul><li>Family history and  local history sections with much useful information about Berkshire, not just Reading. </li>
  217. <li>Approximately <a href=";ENTRY_NAME=BS&amp;ENTRY_TYPE=K&amp;SEARCH_FORM=%2Fcgi-bin%2Fspydus.exe%2FMSGTRN%2FLILL%2FBSEARCH%3FHOMEPRMS%3DBSEARCHPARAMS&amp;SORTS=SQL_REL_BIB&amp;CF=LILL">8000 photographs and illustrations</a> of the Reading area to view online and also on <a href="">History Pin</a>.  </li>
  218. <li>For books about a Berkshire organisations, church, town or parish, search the library <a href="">catalogue</a>.  </li>
  219. <li>Research service, for which there is a charge.  </li>
  220. <li>Their factsheets:  <a href="/files/eng/BRK/RCLLocalFactsheet2FamilyHistory.pdf">Family history</a>,  <a href="/files/eng//BRK/RCLLocalFactsheet5ElectoralRegisters.pdf">Electoral Registers</a>,  <a href="/files/eng/BRK/RCLLocalFactsheet11AerialPhotos.pdf">Aerial photographs</a>,  <a href="/files/eng/BRK/RCLLocalFactsheet6-Maps.pdf">Historic local maps</a>,  <a href="/files/eng/BRK/RCLLocalFactsheet10Newspapers.pdf">Historic local newspapers</a>.</li>
  221. <li>See also <em><strong><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Bibliography">Bibliography</a></strong></em>. </li>
  222. </ul></li>
  223. </ul><ul><li><strong>Royal Borough of Windsor and Maidenhead (RBWM)</strong>:
  224. <ul><li><u><a href="">RBWM Libraries</a></u> have local and family history services at Maidenhead, Windsor and Ascot Libraries which cover each of their local areas. <u><a href="">This list</a></u> summarises their local studies holdings. The borough-wide <u><a href="">catalogue</a></u> is useful for local studies queries about items stocked.  The above libraries also each maintain their own substantial databases of local information.  The libraries offer a research service, for which there can be a charge.  </li>
  225. <li><a href="">Maidenhead Heritage Centre</a> is the museum for Maidenhead and the surrounding villages.</li>
  226. <li><a href="">Windsor &amp; Royal Borough Museum</a>.  </li>
  227. <li>Windsor Castle:</li>
  228. </ul><ul style="margin-left:40px"><li><a id="The_Royal_Archives"></a><a href="">The Royal Archives</a> holds documents that relate to the Royal Family, the monarchy and household staff for a period of over 250 years.  Online subscription access is available from <a href="">Find My Past</a>. </li>
  229. <li><a href="">St George's Chapel Archive and Chapter Library</a> (The Aerary).</li>
  230. </ul></li>
  231. <li>
  232. <ul></ul><p>Locations and contacts for<a href=""> other record offices and archives</a> in the UK and Ireland.</p>
  233. </li>
  234. <li>Other <a>record repositories and organisations</a> that hold Berkshire-related records or copies (others are mentioned on individual <a href="/big/eng/BRK/Names/A">parish pages</a>):
  235. <ul><li><a id="TheNA"></a><strong>The National Archives (TNA</strong>)'s <a href="">Discovery catalogue</a> allows you to search their own holdings and also the catalogues of other subscribing archives held locally in England and Wales, including most in Berkshire, from the eighth century to the present day.  Some TNA records are digitised and can be searched and downloaded.  They publish many <a href="">Research Guides</a>. </li>
  236. <li><a id="NRA"></a><a href="">National Register of Archives (NRA)</a> from <a href="/big/eng/BRK#TNA">TNA</a> is particularly useful for finding the location of the archived records of a named organisation (e.g. <a href="">The Abingdon Railway Company</a> or <a href="">Robert Adams, blacksmith</a>).  </li>
  237. <li>Similarly, the <a href="">Archives Hub</a> provides a gateway to hundreds of other archives in over 180 colleges and universities in the UK.</li>
  238. <li>And <a href="">AIM25</a>. </li>
  239. <li><a href="">Family Search</a> provided by the Church of Latter-day Saints or Mormons (Genealogical Society of Utah).  They also offer an incomplete <a href="">Research Wiki</a> for Berkshire.</li>
  240. <li><a href="">Bracknell Library</a> and their <a href="">archive photographs</a> on Flickr.  </li>
  241. <li><a href="">Bodleian Library</a>, Oxford. </li>
  242. <li><a id="MERL"></a><a href="">Museum of English Rural Life</a> (MERL) of University of Reading (previously the <a href="">Rural History Centre</a>, see description from <a href="">Berkshire FHS</a>) is a specialist museum of farming and rural life in England.  </li>
  243. <li><a href="">Museum of Berkshire Aviation</a>. </li>
  244. <li><a href="">Newbury Library</a> has local and family history information and the West Berkshire Museum (look under Arts and Heritage).</li>
  245. <li><a id="Oxfordshire_History_Centre"></a><a href="">Oxfordshire History Centre</a> (combining the Oxfordshire Record Office (ORO), Oxfordshire Studies and Oxfordshire Health Archives).</li>
  246. <li><a id="OFHS"></a><a href="">Oxfordshire Family History Society (OFHS)</a> publish data for parishes that were in <a href="/big/eng/BRK#HistoricalGeography">historic Berkshire</a> and are now in present day Oxfordshire.</li>
  247. <li><a id="Reading_Museum"></a><a href="">Reading Museum</a> has a number of <a href="">online collections</a>. </li>
  248. <li><a href="">Society of Genealogists</a> (SoG). </li>
  249. <li>Swindon Library's <a href="">Swindon Collection</a> offers local studies and family history material, some specific to Berkshire.  They have published some historic photographs on <a href="">Flickr</a>.  </li>
  250. <li><a href="">Thames Pilot</a> – a collection of documents and images charting the history of the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#NamesGeographical">River Thames</a>. </li>
  251. <li>University of Reading's <a href="">Special Collections</a>. </li>
  252. <li><a id="Vale_and_Downland_Museum"></a><a href="">Vale and Downland Museum</a> in Wantage has a particularly good set of articles on <a href="">local history</a>.  </li>
  253. <li><a href="">Wiltshire and Swindon Archives</a> holds Bishop's Transcripts for Berkshire (to 1835/1836), wills and probate documents from the Diocesan Court, and some Berkshire family and estate records.</li>
  254. <li><a href="">Wokingham libraries</a>. 
  255. <ul></ul></li>
  256. </ul></li>
  257. </ul></div></div></div>
  258. </div>
  259. <div class="panel-pane pane-entity-field pane-node-field-bibliography" >
  260. <h2 class="pane-title"><a id="Bibliography">Bibliography</a></h2>
  261. <div class="field field-name-field-bibliography field-type-text-long field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"> <ul><li><a href="/big/Bibliography">General information</a> about bibliography.</li>
  262. </ul><ul><li><strong><a href="#Reading_Central_Library">Reading Central Library</a></strong> has a particularly good selection of Berkshire-related books and, even if you cannot visit, their catalogue can still be used to identify titles that can then be sourced elsewhere (see below).  </li>
  263. </ul><ul><li><strong><a href="#BerksFHS">Berkshire FHS</a></strong> library &amp; shop catalogues.</li>
  264. </ul><ul><li>The <a id="Eureka"></a><a href=""><strong>Eureka Partnership</strong></a> publish printed transcriptions of a number of <a href="">Berkshire records</a>.  </li>
  265. </ul><ul><li><a id="OnlineBooks"></a><strong><a href="/big/Bibliography">Online books</a></strong> are available from various websites that provide free digitised copies of out-of-copyright books that can be downloaded or read online, some relating to Berkshire history. When searching, beware of hits relating to Berkshire in the USA. They are particularly useful to find local history written in the 17th, 18th and early 20th centuries, magazines, professional &amp; army listings.  Because they are fully text searchable, they are useful for finding passing reference to events, people and places without having to know the title of the book.  Be aware that these files can be large.  See article about Google Book Search in <em><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Periodicals">Berkshire Family Historian</a></em>, Jun 2009, Vol 32, page 10.   Examples of books about Berkshire include:
  266. <ul><li><em><a href=""><span>Bygone Berkshire</span></a></em>, 1896, P. H. Ditchfield.</li>
  267. <li><em><a href=""><span>Ballad of Reading Gaol</span></a> </em>by Oscar Wilde (about his time locked up there, see <a href="#Correctional"><em><strong>Correctional Institutions</strong></em></a>).</li>
  268. <li><em><a href=""><span>The War Service of the 1/4 Royal Berkshire Regiment (T. F.)</span></a> </em> (in WW1) by CRMF Cruttwell.</li>
  269. <li><em><span>Berkshire Parish Registers</span></em>, 1908, <a href="">Volume 1</a> and <a href="">Volume 2</a>.</li>
  270. <li><em><a href=";amp;pg=PA1&amp;amp;dq=berkshire+subject:%22history%22&amp;amp;hl=en&amp;amp;ei=4MAQTYqlIcHQhAeCpqG3Dg&amp;amp;sa=X&amp;amp;oi=book_result&amp;amp;ct=result"><span>The Journey Book of Berkshire</span></a></em>, 1840, Charles Knight.  </li>
  271. </ul></li>
  272. </ul><ul><li>Online sources of <strong><span>new and secondhand books</span></strong> for purchase: 
  273. <ul><li><a href="">General information</a> about secondhand books.</li>
  274. <li><a href="">John Townsend</a> deals in second-hand genealogy books.</li>
  275. <li><a href="">Francis Frith</a> sells new books about the history of Berkshire places.</li>
  276. <li><a href="">Bookfinder</a>.  </li>
  277. <li><a href="">Amazon</a>.</li>
  278. </ul></li>
  279. </ul></div></div></div>
  280. </div>
  281. <div class="panel-pane pane-entity-field pane-node-field-business" >
  282. <h2 class="pane-title"><a id="Business">Business and Commerce Records</a></h2>
  283. <div class="field field-name-field-business field-type-text-long field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"> <ul><li><a href="">General information</a> about Business and Commerce.</li>
  284. <li>
  285. <p>For books about companies and industries, see <em><strong><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Bibliography">Bibliography</a></strong></em>. </p>
  286. </li>
  287. </ul><ul><li><em>Biscuits. Beer &amp; Bulbs - Reading's old company records</em>, <a href="">article</a> from the <em><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Periodicals">Berkshire Family Historian</a></em>, Dec 1999.  </li>
  288. </ul><ul><li>Many records are held by the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a> but some are un-catalogued.  For catalogued records, use <a href="/big/eng/BRK#The_National_Archives">TNA</a>'s <a href=";_ep=berkshire%20record%20office&amp;_dss=range&amp;_hb=oth">Discovery</a> advanced search and include "Berkshire Record Office" in the "Exact word or phrase" field, in addition to your own search term(s).   Some un-catalogued records appear on <a href="">this list</a> and others are listed below:</li>
  289. </ul><blockquote><a href="">Berkshire Printing Company,</a> Reading, 1900-2001 (D/EX1667);  Blatch’s Brewery, Theale, 1763-1972 (D/EX 1639);  S &amp; E Collier Ltd of Reading, brick and tile makers, 1902-1964 (R/D 130);  Henry Bird &amp; Sons, brewers of Reading, 1738-1867 (D/EX 1668);  S H Higgs Ltd, brewers of  Reading, 1937-1960s (D/EX 1668);  John Hooper of Reading, pill manufacturer 1787-1849 (D/EX 1830), see also Vol 26 2004 page 3 of the <em><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Periodicals">Berkshire Echo</a></em>;  Strange &amp; Sons, brewers of Aldermaston, 1818-1999 (D/EX 1668);   Thomas Wethered &amp; Sons, brewers of Marlow, Buckinghamshire, 1580-1983 (D/EX 1668);  Heelas &amp; Co of Wokingham, department store 1798-1919 (D/EHS);  Maidenhead Waterworks Company, 1874-1957, and Wokingham District Water Company, 1926-1934 (D/EX 1913).</blockquote>
  290. <p style="margin-left:40px">Check also the links below.</p>
  291. <ul><li><a href="">Berkshire Industrial Archeology Group</a> (BIAG)  aims to encourage a wider appreciation of industrial archeology and the area's industrial heritage.</li>
  292. </ul><ul><li><a href="">Agricultural business records</a> of farms and Berkshire firms in agricultural engineering, processing, and farm and garden seed production are held by <a href="/big/eng/BRK#MERL">MERL</a> (part of University of Reading), including: Gascoignes, Reading; Goodenoughs, Reading; Nalder &amp; Nalder Ltd, Wantage;  Suttons Seeds, Reading (see also below); Wantage Engineering Company; Thomas Baker of Newbury;  John Wilder of Reading.</li>
  293. </ul><ul><li><strong>Bus Companies</strong> - <a href="">Paul Lacey</a> has published several illustrated books about Berkshire (and other) bus companies.</li>
  294. </ul><ul><li><strong>Canals</strong>:
  295. <ul><li>The <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a> have archives of the Kennet and Avon canal and Reading Borough’s register of canal boats, 1879-1921 (see the <em><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Periodicals">Berkshire Echo</a></em> Vol 60, 2012, page 4).</li>
  296. <li><a href="">Railway &amp; Canal Historical Society</a>. </li>
  297. <li>Kennet &amp; Avon Canal:
  298. <ul><li><a href="">Kennet &amp; Avon Canal Trust</a>'s museum describes the way the canal was planned, built and worked during its 200 year history. </li>
  299. </ul><ul><li><a href="">Wikipedia</a>. </li>
  300. </ul><ul><li><a href="">Canal and River Trust</a>.  </li>
  301. </ul></li>
  302. <li><em><a href="">Barge People of the River Thames</a></em>, published by <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Eureka">The Eureka Partnership</a>, 2007, A5, 56pp.</li>
  303. <li>The novel <em>The Cry Of The Heron</em> by Dick Allan (ISBN 0-9533291-2-7) has a background on the River Wey and Basingstoke Canal in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, available from <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Reading_Central_Library">Reading Central Library</a>. </li>
  304. </ul></li>
  305. </ul><ul><li><a href=""><strong>Clifford's Dairy</strong></a> of Bracknell - archives are held by the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a>  (see the <em><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Periodicals">Berkshire Echo</a></em> Vol 64, 2013, page 4).  </li>
  306. <li>
  307. <p><strong>H Dolton &amp; Sons</strong>, grain dealers in Newbury 1840s to 1910s, see article in<em> <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Periodicals">Berkshire Family Historian</a></em>, June 2016, Vol 39, page 22.</p>
  308. </li>
  309. </ul><ul><li><a href=""><strong>Cookham Bridge Company</strong></a> operated a private toll bridge over the Thames at Cookham until 1947, when it was nationalised.  Their archives are held by the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a>  (see the <em><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Periodicals">Berkshire Echo</a></em> Vol 60, 2012, page 4).</li>
  310. </ul><ul><li><strong>Huntley &amp; Palmer</strong> (biscuit manufacturers, Reading):
  311. <ul><li><a href="">Reading Museum collection</a>. </li>
  312. <li><a href="">University of Reading archive</a>. </li>
  313. <li><a href="">Wikipedia</a>. </li>
  314. <li><em><a href="">Bats, Balls and Biscuits</a></em>, a brief history of cricket at Huntley and Palmers.  </li>
  315. <li>Fire maps of the factory 1929-1941 are held by the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a> (D/EX2116) and records of their football club 1946-1992.</li>
  316. <li><em>Quaker Enterprise in Biscuits: Huntley and Palmers of Reading</em>, TAB Corley, London, Hutchinson, 1972 is available from <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Reading_Central_Library">Reading Central Library</a>. </li>
  317. <li>Their sister company <strong>Huntley, Boorne &amp; Stevens</strong> of Reading made the tin boxes.  Records 1878-1959 are held by the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a> (D/EX 1745). </li>
  318. </ul></li>
  319. </ul><ul><li><strong>Peek Frean</strong> (biscuit manufacturers) archives are in the <a href="">University of Reading archive</a>.</li>
  320. </ul><ul><li><strong>Plenty </strong>of Newbury (lifeboats, marine steam engines, and latterly, pumps), 1746-1997 records are held by the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a> (D/EX1739, 1771, 2097, 2240).  See article in<em> <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Periodicals">Berkshire Family Historian</a></em>, Dec 2012, Vol 36, page 12, and <a href="">BRO website</a>. </li>
  321. </ul><ul><li><strong>Railways</strong>:
  322. <ul><li>Most railway records are held by <a href="/big/eng/BRK#The_National_Archives">TNA</a>.</li>
  323. <li> </li>
  324. <li> hold only limited records, including: 
  325. <ul><li>Some 19th and 20th century photographs and papers relating to Reading and Twyford stations (D/EX 1680). </li>
  326. <li>East Berkshire railways, 1845-1884 (D/EX 1705), including material on the opposition in 1846 to a proposed line (never built) Windsor Slough and Staines Atmospheric Railway.   </li>
  327. <li>Also use <a href="/big/eng/BRK#The_National_Archives">TNA</a>'s <a href=";_ep=berkshire%20record%20office&amp;_dss=range&amp;_hb=oth">Discovery</a> advanced search and include "Berkshire Record Office" in the "Exact word or phrase" field, in addition to your own search term(s).  </li>
  328. <li>They hold some books about railways for reference, including some specific to Berkshire.</li>
  329. </ul></li>
  330. <li><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Reading_Central_Library">Reading Central Library</a> hold many books about local railway companies and lines.</li>
  331. <li><em>British Railways Pre-Grouping Atlas and Gazetteer</em>, Ian Allan, has maps of the routes served by the railway companies before they were amalgamated, available in <a href="/big/eng/BRK#BerksFHS">Berkshire FHS</a> library.</li>
  332. <li><em>Brunel:  An Engineering Biography</em> by Adrian Vaughan, 2006, ISBN (10) 0 7110 3078 2 and (13) 978 0 7110 3078 7. Provides some detail of the engineering of the Great Western Railway, with drawings and photographs.  Available from <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Reading_Central_Library">Reading Central Library</a>. </li>
  333. <li><em><a href="">My Ancestor was a Railway Worker</a></em>, Frank Hardy, Society of Genealogists, 2009, A5, 110pp, ISBN 9781907199028, available from <a href="/big/eng/BRK#BerksFHS">Berkshire FHS</a>.  </li>
  334. <li><a href="">Railway &amp; Canal Historical Society</a>. </li>
  335. <li><a href="">Disused Railway Stations</a> has a number of Berkshire railway stations. </li>
  336. <li><a href="">Didcot Railway Centre and the Great Western Society</a>. </li>
  337. <li><a href="">Museum of the Great Western Railway</a>, including <a href="">online photographs</a>.  GWR staff records and accident reports are held by <a href="/big/eng/BRK#The_National_Archives">TNA</a>, see above.  </li>
  338. <li>Great Western Hotel, Reading (now Malmaison Hotel): designed by Brunel, built in 1844, probably the oldest railway hotel in the world still operating, was used as offices by the Ministry of Supply in WW2, see <a href=",_Reading">Wikipedia</a> and <a href="">Pub History</a> entries.</li>
  339. <li><a href="">Lambourn Valley Railway</a>. 
  340. <ul></ul></li>
  341. </ul></li>
  342. </ul><ul><li><a href=""><strong>Reading Football Club</strong></a>
  343. <ul><li>Some records held by the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO. </a></li>
  344. <li><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Reading_Central_Library">Reading Central Library</a> hold many books. </li>
  345. <li><a href="">Wikipedia</a>.  </li>
  346. <li><a href="">English National Football Archive</a> provides subscription access to the team and player statistics from the 1888/89 season.</li>
  347. </ul></li>
  348. </ul><ul><li><strong>Reading Gas Company</strong> and <strong>Reading Gas Work</strong>
  349. <ul><li>Records 1899-1965 are held by the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a> (D/SG 8 &amp; D/EX 1593). </li>
  350. </ul><ul><li><em>Reading Gas Company 1862 -1912</em>, Douglas H Helps, 1912  available from <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Reading_Central_Library">Reading Central Library</a> and <a href="/big/eng/BRK#BerksFHS">Berkshire FHS</a> library.</li>
  351. <li><em>Gasworker Ancestors: How to Find Out More About Them</em>, a guide to genealogical sources for the British gas industry, A4 booklet available in <a href="/big/eng/BRK#BerksFHS">Berkshire FHS</a> library.</li>
  352. </ul></li>
  353. </ul><ul><li><strong>Reading Iron Works</strong> - <em>Barrett, Exall &amp; Andrews' Reading Iron Works</em>, an article in <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Periodicals">Berkshire Family Historian</a>, Dec 2010, Vol 34, page 19 describes the life of this agricultural equipment manufacturer 1858 - 1872.</li>
  354. </ul><ul><li><strong><a href="">Simond's Brewery</a></strong>, Reading, with downloadable booklet about the company, and <a href="">Wikipedia</a> entry.</li>
  355. </ul><ul><li><strong>Snares of Minster Street</strong>, printers in 19C Reading.  <em><a href="">The Snares of Minster Street, the Printer and the Picture</a></em>, Diana R Mackarill, booklet available from <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Reading_Central_Library">Reading Central Library</a> and <a href="/big/eng/BRK#BerksFHS">Berkshire FHS</a>.  </li>
  356. </ul><ul><li><strong>Suttons Seeds</strong> was formed in 1806 to sell corn, moved to Market Place, Reading in 1832.  The Market Place site was vacated in the early 1960s and the company moved to Torquay in 1976. At present, it is part of a large multi-national conglomerate.
  357. <ul><li>Their <a href="">website</a> provides a brief history.  </li>
  358. <li><em>Sutton's Seeds - The History 1806-2006</em>, Earley Local History Group, 48 Harcourt Dr, Earley, Reading RG6 5TJ,   ISBN 0954004124 (available from <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Reading_Central_Library">Reading Central Library</a> and <a href="/big/eng/BRK#BerksFHS">Berkshire FHS</a>).  </li>
  359. <li>Records 1860s-1940s are held by the <a href="">The Rural History Centre</a> of University of Reading.</li>
  360. <li><a href="/big/eng/BRK#MERL">MERL</a> hold company records and family trees of the Sutton families.  </li>
  361. </ul></li>
  362. </ul><ul><li><strong>Taylowe </strong>(printers) founded in Slough in the 1930s and moved to Maidenhead in the 1950s - records are held by the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a> (D/EX2012).</li>
  363. </ul><ul><li><strong><a href="/big/eng/BRK#NamesGeographical">Thames Conservancy</a></strong> (see also <a href="/big/eng/BRK#NamesGeographical">River Thames</a>).</li>
  364. <li>
  365. <p><a href=""><strong>Whitchurch Toll Bridge</strong></a> records are held by the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a>. </p>
  366. </li>
  367. <li>Some employers' and trade association archives are held by Warwick University's <a href="">Modern Record Centre</a>.</li>
  368. </ul></div></div></div>
  369. </div>
  370. <div class="panel-pane pane-block pane-genuki-dynamic-content-genuki-cemeteries-list" >
  371. <h2 class="pane-title"><a id="Cemeteries">Cemeteries</a></h2>
  372. <div class="field-name-field-churches"> <ul><li><a href="/big#Cemeteries">General information</a> about cemeteries.</li>
  373. </ul><ul><li><span style="font-weight:bold">Monumental Inscriptions (MIs):</span>
  374. <ul><li><a href="#BerksFHS">Berkshire FHS</a> shop sells <a href="">transcriptions of MIs</a> for Berkshire (mainly on CD and a number of which also contain photographs).  </li>
  375. <li>Some are also available for reference at <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Reading_Central_Library">Reading Central Library</a>.  </li>
  376. <li>The Institute of Heraldic and Genealogical Studies (IHGS) publishes free online <a href="">transcriptions</a> of a limited number MIs, including some from Berkshire.</li>
  377. <li>For Berkshire parishes now located in modern Oxfordshire, some MIs have been transcribed by <a href="/big/eng/BRK#OFHS">OFHS</a>. </li>
  378. <li>See also burials under <strong><em><a href="#ChurchRecords" style="font-weight:bold; font-style:italic">Church Records</a></em></strong> and <a href="/big/eng/BRK#MilitaryRecords">War Memorials</a> below.<span style="font-style:italic"> </span></li>
  379. </ul></li>
  380. </ul><ul></ul><ul></ul><ul><li>For the location of cemeteries, see  Church Database under <em><strong><a href="/big/eng/BRK#ChurchHistory">Church History</a></strong></em>. </li>
  381. </ul><ul><li>Contact details for <a href="">Berkshire crematoria</a>.</li>
  382. </ul><ul></ul><ul><li>The <em><span style="font-style:italic">Monumental Brasses of Berkshire</span></em>, William Lack, H Martin Stuchfield &amp; Philip Whittemore, (Monumental Brass Society, 1993. ISBN 0 9501298 8 7). 194 pages; over 200 illustrations, see online <a href="">name index</a>.</li>
  383. </ul><ul><li><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Directories">Trade directories</a> can provide some information about the cemeteries themselves through the years, see <a href="/files/eng/BRK/Tradedirectory1915Samplepages.pdf">sample pages</a> from a 1915 directory.</li>
  384. </ul><p></div>
  385. </div>
  386. <div class="panel-pane pane-entity-field pane-node-field-census" id="Census">
  387. <h2 class="pane-title">Census</h2>
  388. <div class="field field-name-field-census field-type-text-long field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"> <ul><li>General information about the <a href="/big/eng/Census">England &amp; Wales</a> and <a href="">UK &amp; Ireland</a> censuses, including online access.</li>
  389. </ul><ul><li><a href="">FreeCEN</a> is a volunteer project to provide free online access to transcriptions of the censuses.  There is very little <a href="">coverage of Berkshire</a>.</li>
  390. </ul><ul><li><a href="">Street indexes</a> to the 1841, 1851, 1861, 1871 and 1891 censuses are available from <a href="#The_National_Archives">TNA</a>'s Your Archives because those online censuses do not allow address searches.</li>
  391. </ul><ul><li><a href="#BerksFHS">Berkshire FHS</a> offers <a href="">on-site access</a> through Findmypast, Origins and Ancestry. Their shop sells CDs containing <a href="">full indices and transcripts of the 1851, 1881, 1891 censuses</a> of Berkshire.  </li>
  392. </ul><ul><li>The <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a> hold all the census enumerators' returns for Berkshire 1841-1901 on microfilm or fiche, with indexes for 1851 and 1881. </li>
  393. </ul><ul><li>See also <em><a href="#Religious_Census_1851"><span>The Berkshire Religious Census 1851</span></a></em> under <em><strong><a href="#ChurchHistory"><span>Church History</span></a> </strong></em>below.</li>
  394. </ul><ul><li>Joseph Toomer's census of Newbury 1815 - a full transcript and index is available from <a href="/big/eng/BRK#BerksFHS">Berkshire FHS</a> shop.</li>
  395. </ul><ul><li><a href="/big/eng/BRK#BerksFHS">Berkshire FHS</a> (and others) sell a printed transcript of an <a href="">1801 census for Binfield</a>.</li>
  396. </ul><ul><li><strong><span>Census substitutes</span></strong>: For the years for which census returns are not available, consider <em><strong><a href="#Voting">Voting Registers</a>, <a href="#Directories">Directories</a></strong></em>, <em><strong><a href="#Manors">Manorial Records</a>.  </strong></em>
  397. <ul></ul></li>
  398. </ul></div></div></div>
  399. </div>
  400. <div class="panel-pane pane-entity-field pane-node-field-charities" >
  401. <h2 class="pane-title"><a id="Charities">Charities</a></h2>
  402. <div class="field field-name-field-charities field-type-text-long field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"> <ul><li><strong>The Community of St John Baptist, Clewer</strong> was established in 1852 and they ran orphanages, children’s homes, boarding schools, hospitals and convalescent homes around the country as well as carried out missionary work. They are probably best known in Berkshire for the House of Mercy in Hatch Lane, Clewer which was a place where ‘fallen women’ could be rehabilitated and was also the convent in which the Sisters lived. The Sisters relocated to Oxfordshire in 2001 and in 2012 they moved to the campus of Ripon College Cuddesdon (an Anglican Theological College) where they still offer support and education today. (see the <em><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Periodicals">Berkshire Echo</a></em> Vol 78, 2017). Records held by the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a> (ref. D/EX 1675).</li>
  403. <li>
  404. <p><strong>Robert Palmer’s Almshouse Charity</strong> in Sonning, 1815-1958.  Records held by the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a> (ref. D/QX 24).</p>
  405. </li>
  406. <li>
  407. <p>See <a href=""><em><strong>Schools </strong></em></a>for charity schools.</p>
  408. </li>
  409. </ul></div></div></div>
  410. </div>
  411. <div class="panel-pane pane-entity-field pane-node-field-church-history" >
  412. <h2 class="pane-title"><a id="ChurchHistory">Church History</a></h2>
  413. <div class="field field-name-field-church-history field-type-text-long field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"> <ul><li><a href="/big#ChurchHistory">General information</a> about church history and <a href="/big/ChurchRecords">availability of records</a>.  </li>
  414. </ul><ul><li>The <a id="GENUKI_church_database"></a><strong><a href="/big/churchdb">GENUKI Church Database</a></strong><span> </span>lists places of worship (not just Church of England) and burial grounds, including links to the individual churches' own websites and to the related Genuki Parish page where further information may be found. Contributions and corrections are positively invited.  <a href="/big/eng/BRK/ChurchDatabase">Read more about how to use the database and how you can contribute</a>.  </li>
  415. </ul><ul><li><a href="/big/eng/BRK#BerksFHS">Berkshire FHS</a> has information on a limited number of <a href="">Berkshire churches</a>.</li>
  416. </ul><ul><li>For ministers, see also <a href="#Occupations">Church Ministers</a>.  </li>
  417. </ul><ul><li><em><strong><span><a id="Religious_Census_1851"></a></span><span>The Berkshire Religious Census 1851</span></strong></em>, editor Kate Tiller, <a href="">Berkshire Record Society</a>, 2010, ISBN 13 9780954871642,  lists places of worship, giving brief details of each (see <a href="/files/eng/BRK/Berks1851ReligiousCensusSample.jpg">sample page</a>) and some photographs.  Copies held by the <a href="#BerksFHS">Berkshire FHS</a> and <a href="#Reading_Central_Library">Reading Central Library</a>.  
  418. <ul><li>The book is a transcription of the entries of Berkshire churches in the full <em><a href=""><span>Ecclesiastical Census Returns HO 129</span></a></em> which is available as a series of free downloads from <a href="#The_National_Archives">TNA</a> containing the returns for all of England and Wales, arranged by registration district.  The handwritten returns can be difficult to read (see <a href="/files/eng/BRK/Berks1851ReligiousCensusAbingdonStHelen.pdf">sample page</a>), so the transcription may be easier to use.  This was the first and only census of places of worship in England and Wales and was made alongside the population census of the same year with the same registration districts.  It was not compulsory and only about 80% of Berkshire churches seem to have responded, the C of E being particularly reluctant.  </li>
  419. <li>All the Berkshire churches listed in the census are in the Genuki Church Database above and are identified as such.  </li>
  420. <li>See article in <em><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Periodicals">Berkshire Family Historian</a></em>, Mar 2008, Vol 31, page 8.</li>
  421. </ul></li>
  422. </ul><ul><li><a id="Berkshire_Nonconformist_Registrations"></a><em><strong><span>Berkshire Nonconformist Meeting House Registrations 1689-1852</span></strong></em>  in 2 parts, editor Lisa Spurrier, <a href="">Berkshire Record Society</a>, 2005, ISBN 0952494698,  copies available for reference in <a href="#Reading_Central_Library">Reading Central Library</a> and the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a>.  It is a transcription of the applications to register the places of worship in <a href="#HistoricalGeography">historic Berkshire</a> of Protestant Dissenters (those who dissented from the Church of England) and also some Roman Catholic churches, as a result of the Toleration Act .  See <a href="/files/eng/BRK/BerksNonconformistRegistrationssample.jpg">sample</a> record.  Most of the 366 entries are for a room in a private house, and therefore often do not show in other records of the time.  It also provides useful descriptions of the different denominations in Berkshire at the time: Methodists (Wesleyan, Primitive and Countess of Huntingdon's Connexion), Baptist (Particular, Strict, General), Presbyterians, Independents/Congregationalists, (Plymouth) Brethren).</li>
  423. </ul><ul><li>Thumbnail descriptions of church buildings and their histories can often be found in <a href="#Directories">trade directories</a> through the years, see <a href="/files/eng/BRK/Tradedirectory1915Samplepages.pdf">sample pages</a> from a 1915 directory.</li>
  424. </ul><ul><li><strong><span><a id="Church_of_England"></a>Church of England (C of E)</span>:</strong>  
  425. <ul><li>This list of <a href="">redundant churches</a> within the diocese of Oxford (which includes Berkshire) also lists those sold for other uses (e.g. to other religions or as private houses).</li>
  426. <li>The <a href="">Clergy of the Church of England Database</a> includes background information on particular dioceses, cathedrals &amp; collegiate churches and non-diocesan locations (as well as historical information on the careers of some C of E clergymen).</li>
  427. </ul></li>
  428. </ul><ul></ul><ul><li><strong><span><a id="Methodist_Church"></a>Methodist Church: </span></strong>
  429. <ul><li>Records of some Berkshire Methodist churches are held by the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a> (see Vol 72, 2015 of the<em> <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Periodicals">Berkshire Echo</a>)</em>.</li>
  430. <li>Wantage and Abingdon Circuit: documents are archived with the <a href="#Oxfordshire_History_Centre">Oxfordshire History Centre</a>. </li>
  431. <li>Reading (later Reading and Silchester) Circuit:  the records of Valerie May Eyers, who was the Circuit archivist, are held by the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a> (ref. <a href=" 0005 DEX1638.pdf">D/EX 1638</a>) which contain much historical information about the Reading area Methodist churches c1891 to 1999, including leaflets, books, press cuttings and photographs.</li>
  432. </ul></li>
  433. <li><strong><span><a id="Congregational_Church"></a>Congregational Church:</span>  </strong>
  434. <ul><li>For the early history of the Berkshire churches, see <em><a href="/files/eng/BRK/Maps/CongregationalChurchesOfBerksTableOfContents.pdf"><span>The History of the Congregational Churches in the Berks, South Oxon and South Bucks Association</span></a></em> by WH Summers, 1905, copies held by <a href="#Reading_Central_Library">Reading Central Library</a> and <a href="/big/eng/BRK#BerksFHS">Berkshire FHS library</a> and <a href="">online</a> at <a href="#Online_books">Open Library</a>.  The book also includes some Presbyterian churches that later became Congregational.</li>
  435. </ul></li>
  436. <li><strong><span><a id="Roman_Catholic_Church"></a>Roman Catholic Church</span>:  </strong>
  437. <ul><li><em><span>The Thames Valley Papists</span></em> by Tony Hadlands is available <a href="">free online</a> and in hard copy from <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Reading_Central_Library">Reading Central Library</a>.  It "tells the story of the Catholics of the Thames valley from Henry VIII's break with Rome until Catholic Emancipation nearly three hundred years later."  </li>
  438. <li>Berkshire falls under the Catholic <a href="">diocese of Portsmouth</a>.  </li>
  439. </ul></li>
  440. <li><strong><span><a id="Society_of_Friends"></a><span>Religious Society of Friends</span> (Quakers):  </span></strong>
  441. <ul><li><a href="">Quaker Records in Berkshire</a> are provided by the <a href="">Quaker FHS</a>.</li>
  442. <li><em><span>Early Berkshire Quakers</span></em> article in <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Periodicals">Berkshire Family Historian</a>, Mar 2009, Vol 32, page 17.</li>
  443. <li><a href="">Quakers in Britain</a> provides a list of <span style="text-decoration:underline">present</span> Meeting Houses.  Their <a href="">library</a> was founded in 1673 and includes books, periodicals, manuscripts and pictures, as well as the archives of the central organisation of Quakers in Britain.</li>
  444. <li><a href="">Mid-Thames Quakers</a>. </li>
  445. <li><em><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Business_and_Commerce"><span><span>Quaker Enterprise in Biscuits</span></span></a></em> - a history of Huntley and Palmers (biscuit manufacturers) of Reading.</li>
  446. <li><a href="">Genguides</a>. </li>
  447. </ul></li>
  448. <li><strong><span><a id="Baptists"></a>Baptist Church:</span></strong>
  449. <ul><li><em><a href="/files/eng/BRK/Maps/BaptistsOfBerkshire.pdf"><span>The Baptists of Berkshire Through Three Centuries</span></a></em> by Ernest A Payne, 1951, copies held by <a href="#Reading_Central_Library">Reading Central Library</a>.  Describes the history of the church in Berkshire from 1600s to 1950s, with a table listing churches existing in 1949 with the name of pastor, number of members, etc.   Includes pictures of famous ministers of the Reading King St Church: John Howard Hinton, William Anderson, Robert Gordon Fairbairn.</li>
  450. <li><em><a href=""><span>A brief history of Baptists in Reading</span></a>. </em><span> </span></li>
  451. </ul></li>
  452. </ul><ul><li><strong><span><a id="Jewish"></a>Jews:  </span></strong>
  453. <ul><li>See <a href="">general information</a> about Jewish records.</li>
  454. <li><em><span>Jewish Genealogy</span></em> article in the <em><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Periodicals">Berkshire Family Historian</a></em>, Vol 25, Dec 2001, page 105.</li>
  455. </ul></li>
  456. </ul><ul><li><em><a id="Historic_Churches_of_Berkshire"></a><a href="">Historic Churches of Berkshire</a></em> from Royal Berkshire History provides brief histories (sometimes with photographs) of many Berkshire churches, including the ruined <a href="">Reading Abbey</a>.</li>
  457. <li>
  458. <p>For churches that are Listed Buildings, see also <em><strong><a href="#Dwellings"><span>Dwellings</span></a></strong></em><span>. </span></p>
  459. </li>
  460. </ul><ul><li><strong><span>Photographs of churches</span></strong>, see:
  461. <ul><li>The various resources listed above often have photographs or drawings.</li>
  462. <li><a href="">Churches of Britain and Ireland</a>. </li>
  463. <li>The GENUKI church database (see above) has links to the churches' own websites which usually have photographs, and also links to Geograph. </li>
  464. <li><a href="">Oxfordshire Churches &amp; Chapels</a> include photographs of some churches and chapels in present day Oxfordshire including some that are in what was <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Geography">historic Berkshire</a>.</li>
  465. <li><a href="">Oxfordshire Churches in 360 Degrees</a> provide 3D interior views of some churches in present day Oxfordshire including some that are in what was <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Geography">historic Berkshire</a>.</li>
  466. <li>For monuments in church yards, see <em><strong><a href="#Cemeteries"><span>Cemeteries</span></a></strong></em>.</li>
  467. <li>See also Historical Photographs under <a href="/big/eng/BRK#History"><em><strong>History</strong></em>. </a></li>
  468. </ul></li>
  469. <li><strong><span>Reading Abbey</span></strong>
  470. <ul><li><a href="">Reading Museum</a></li>
  471. <li><a href="">Royal Berkshire History</a> </li>
  472. <li><a href="">Friends of Reading Abbey</a>.</li>
  473. <li>14th century Reading Abbey formulary is held by the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a> (see Vol 68, 2014 page 4 of the<em> <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Periodicals">Berkshire Echo</a></em>).
  474. <ul></ul></li>
  475. </ul></li>
  476. </ul></div></div></div>
  477. </div>
  478. <div class="panel-pane pane-entity-field pane-node-field-church-records" >
  479. <h2 class="pane-title"><a id="ChurchRecords">Church Records</a></h2>
  480. <div class="field field-name-field-church-records field-type-text-long field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"> <ul><li><a href="/big/ChurchRecords">General information</a> about church records.  </li>
  481. </ul><ul><li><strong><a id="BRO_parish_records"></a></strong><span><strong>Parish Registers</strong>:  </span>Before English &amp; Welsh Civil Registration started in July 1837, baptisms, marriages and burials were only recorded by the churches in the Parish Registers. Births and deaths were not usually recorded as such. 
  482. <ul><li>A useful <a href="">guide to the Berkshire Parish Registers</a> from the <a href="#BerksFHS">Berkshire FHS</a>.</li>
  483. </ul><ul><li><strong><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a></strong><span>:</span>
  484. <ul><li>They<span> </span>hold the originals and microfilms of most Berkshire parish and non-parochial registers for baptisms/births, marriages, and burials/deaths. </li>
  485. </ul><ul><li>Their online guide to <a href="">Parochial (i.e. Church of England) registers</a> covers all parishes past and present in the Archdeaconry of Berkshire and parishes in the Archdeaconry of Buckinghamshire that are within the present Berkshire borders.  The English parish church was a key secular (as well as religious) institution until the Victorian period.  As part of local government, it was responsible for poor relief, running local charities, and even local roads and law enforcement.  As a result, the 'parish chest' contains a lot more than just the registers.  </li>
  486. </ul><ul><li>The <a href="">Non-Parochial registers</a> cover non-Church of England baptisms, marriages and burials.  </li>
  487. <li>Some of the BRO registers are also <a href="">available in CD and fiche</a> from  <a href="/big/eng/BRK#BerksFHS">Berkshire FHS</a> and partial coverage online from Findmypast, see <a href="#index_to_the_Church_Records">Index to the Parish Registers</a> below.</li>
  488. </ul></li>
  489. <li><strong><a href="">Maidenhead Library</a></strong><span>: </span>the Brooks Collection: transcripts of registers for all Maidenhead parishes except Waltham St. Lawrence, and transcripts of registers for a number of other parishes in <a href="/big/eng/BRK#HistoricalGeography">historic Berkshire</a>, but not including Windsor, for the period from 1500s to 1837.  It is hoped that a full list of which registers are available at Maidenhead Library, will be online late 2013. </li>
  490. <li><strong><a href="">Windsor Library</a></strong><span>:</span>  St. John the Baptist, New Windsor only: Baptisms 1559–1837; Marriages: 1559–1837; Burials: 1560–1837; Index: 1559–1837.</li>
  491. <li><strong><a href="#OFHS">OFHS</a></strong> publish data about the Parishes of north Berkshire (i.e., those parishes that were in <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Geography">historic Berkshire</a> and are now in Oxfordshire):
  492. <ul><li>Parish Register transcriptions on <a href="">microfiche</a> of north Berkshire and many on CD.</li>
  493. <li>A very useful <a href="">description of baptisms, marriages and burials</a>, most of which is equally applicable to Berkshire.</li>
  494. </ul></li>
  495. <li>The <strong><span>Eureka Partnership</span></strong> publish printed transcriptions of a number of Berkshire <a href="">Non-Conformist baptism, marriage and burial records</a> and <a href="">Marriage Notices</a>.  </li>
  496. </ul></li>
  497. </ul><ul><li><a id="index_to_the_Church_Records"></a><strong><span>Index to the </span><span>Parish</span><span> Registers</span></strong>:
  498. <ul><li>The <strong><a href="">International Genealogical Index</a><span> (IGI)</span></strong>  contains many, but not all, indexes to the records of 131 Berkshire towns and villages, and is a useful finding aid.  
  499. <ul><li><a href="">Berkshire FHS guide</a>.   </li>
  500. <li><a href="">IGI Batch Numbers</a>: It is not always easy to locate your ancestors in the IGI using their search. Manually typing in the batch numbers can be tedious. Hugh Wallis has created a database of those numbers and the source records that they apply to. A very powerful feature includes a hotlink from each batch number to the IGI search, including the ability to enter the surname you are looking for. This makes it very easy to search all the batches for a particular geographic location using just the last name.  </li>
  501. <li>Similar information is available from <a href="">Steve Archer</a>.  </li>
  502. </ul></li>
  503. <li><a href="/big/eng/BRK#BerksFHS">Berkshire </a><a href="/big/eng/BRK#BerksFHS">FHS</a>'s <strong><a href="">Berkshire Baptisms</a></strong> 2nd edition CD contains indexed transcriptions of over 250,000 baptisms and 777,000 names from 102 parish and non-parochial registers.  Also subscription access online from <a href="">Findmypast</a>.  </li>
  504. <li><a href="/big/eng/BRK#BerksFHS">Berkshire </a><a href="/big/eng/BRK#BerksFHS">FHS</a>'s <strong><a href="">Berkshire Marriages</a></strong> 3rd edition CD contains indexed transcriptions of the marriages (both Anglican (Church of England) and nonconformist) in all pre-1974 Berkshire parishes. Those  Berkshire FHS transcriptions of events more than 85 years old are also available online from <a href="">Findmypast</a>.  </li>
  505. <li>Phillimore's marriages transcripts for Berkshire are sold on CD by <a href="">Archive CD Books</a> for most, but not all, parishes.</li>
  506. <li>Some parishes that were in <a href="/big/eng/BRK#HistoricalGeography">historic Berkshire</a> and now in Oxfordshire are on the <a href="">North Berkshire Marriage Index</a> compiled by the <a href="#OFHS">OFHS</a>.</li>
  507. <li><a href="/big/eng/BRK#BerksFHS">Berkshire </a><a href="/big/eng/BRK#BerksFHS">FHS</a>'s <strong><a id="Berkshire_Burial_Index"></a><a href="">Berkshire Burials</a></strong> 12th edition CD contains indexed transcriptions of over 900,000 burials (see their <a href="">coverage</a>).  Those transcriptions of events more than 50 years old are also available online from <a href="">Findmypast</a>.  NOTE: inscriptions on gravestones (memorial inscriptions, MIs) are not the same as burial records, see <a href="#Cemeteries"><span>Cemeteries</span></a><span>.</span></li>
  508. <li><a href=""><strong>FreeREG</strong></a> provides free online access to "baptism, marriage, and burial records, which have been extracted from parish registers, non-conformist records and other relevant sources in the UK".  Sadly only about 35000 out of 37 million records have been transcribed for Berkshire (as of 2017).</li>
  509. <li>For deaths, see also <a href="/big/eng/BRK#CourtRecords">Coroners Index</a> below.</li>
  510. </ul></li>
  511. </ul><ul><li>For post-July 1837 English &amp; Welsh civil records of births, marriages and deaths, see <em><strong><a href="/big/eng/BRK#CivReg">Civil Registration</a></strong></em><span>.</span></li>
  512. </ul><ul><li>Some other church records (e.g. records of meetings) are also held by the <a href="#Archives">BRO</a> and may be listed on the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#NRA">NRA</a>.  </li>
  513. </ul><ul><li>The Archdeaconry of Berkshire was part of the Diocese of Salisbury until 1836 when it was transferred to the Diocese of Oxford. As a result of this, Bishop's Transcripts and items, such as some wills, which came under the jurisdiction of the diocesan courts are found in the <a href="">Wiltshire and Swindon History Centre</a> or the <a href="">Oxfordshire Record Office</a>. There are three Peculiar jurisdictions.</li>
  514. </ul><ul><li><a href="">Oxfordshire Archdeacon's Marriage Bonds index</a> is available free online and, because of boundary and jurisdiction changes, contains some <span style="text-decoration:underline">prospective</span> Berkshire marriages.</li>
  515. </ul><ul><li><a href="">Berkshire, Wiltshire and Dorset marriage licence bonds</a> are available on CD from the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#BerksFHS">Berkshire FHS</a> shop. Contains details of 70,000 bonds of people expecting to get married in the Salisbury docese, including those living outside.</li>
  516. </ul><ul><li>Map of the <a href="/files/eng/BRK/Maps/BerkshireParishes.gif">ecclesiastical parishes</a> (not to be confused with administrative parishes) of 19th century Berkshire from <a href="/big/eng/BRK#BerksFHS">Berkshire FHS</a>.</li>
  517. </ul><ul><li>A comprehensive listing of Parish Registers, Monumental Inscriptions and transcripts can be found in the <em>National Index of Parish Registers Volume 8 Part 1 - Berkshire, 2nd edition,</em> compiled by Anthony Wilcox and published by the <a href="">Society of Genealogists</a> in 2003 and available from the <a href="#BerksFHS">Berkshire FHS</a> shop. </li>
  518. </ul><ul><li><a href="/big/eng/BRK#BerksFHS">Berkshire FHS</a> (see under <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">Archives</a>) sells a number of <a href="">Parish Registers</a> on microfiche and CD.  Some of this data is also searchable online by subscription at <a href="">Find My Past</a>. </li>
  519. </ul><ul><li>Information on the location of <a href="">Quaker Records in Berkshire</a> provided by the <a href="">Quaker FHS</a>.</li>
  520. </ul><ul><li><a href="">Parish register copies</a> for Berkshire in the library of the Society of Genealogists.</li>
  521. </ul></div></div></div>
  522. </div>
  523. <div class="panel-pane pane-entity-field pane-node-field-civil-registration" >
  524. <h2 class="pane-title"><a id="CivilReg">Civil Registration</a></h2>
  525. <div class="field field-name-field-civil-registration field-type-text-long field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"> <ul><li><a href="/big/eng#CivilReg">General information</a> about civil registration.  </li>
  526. </ul><ul><li>Births, marriages and deaths (BMDs) in England and Wales <span style="text-decoration:underline">post-July 1837</span> were recorded by local Register Offices (even those marriages conducted in church), with copies also held by the <a href="">General Register Office (GRO)</a>.   See explanation of <a href="/big/eng/civreg">Civil Registration</a> in England and Wales and how to order certificates.  Indexes are available:
  527. <ul><li><a href="">FreeBMD</a> offer free online access to the <span style="text-decoration:underline">GRO</span> indexes for the whole of England and Wales (not just Berkshire), presently covering 1837 to the 1960s (see <a href="">current coverage</a>), with more being added. </li>
  528. <li>The <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a> (and other offices in the UK and overseas, <a href="">see list</a>) hold microfiches of the GRO indexes for the whole of England and Wales, although these are now less necessary (and less convenient) as the FreeBMD coverage expands.</li>
  529. <li><a href="">BerkshireBMD</a> offer free online access to some <span style="text-decoration:underline">local</span> indexes for Berkshire.  Currently only some records of the Reading and Bradfield Registration Districts have been transcribed for the period 1837 to mid 20th century.</li>
  530. <li>See <a href="">explanation</a> of the difference between <span style="text-decoration:underline">local</span> indexes and <span style="text-decoration:underline">GRO</span> indexes.</li>
  531. <li><a href="">Registration Districts in Berkshire.</a></li>
  532. <li><a href="">Ancestry</a> and <a href="">Find My Past</a> allow free searching of their records, but require a subscription to see the full records.  Findmypast offers a bit more detail on their free search results, including town and implied registration district.</li>
  533. <li>For deaths, see also <a href="/big/eng/BRK#CourtRecords">Coroners Index</a> below.</li>
  534. </ul></li>
  535. <li>
  536. <p>See <em><strong><a href="/big/eng/BRK#ChurchRecords">Church Records</a></strong></em> for pre-1837 baptisms, marriages and burials.</p>
  537. </li>
  538. <li>
  539. <p>Brett Langston has provided details of the <a href="">Registration Districts in Berkshire</a> from 1837 onwards.</p>
  540. </li>
  541. </ul><ul><li><a href="/big/eng/BRK#BerksFHS">Berkshire FHS</a> maintains a list of present day Berkshire <a href="">Registrars</a> of Births, Deaths and Marriages.
  542. <ul></ul></li>
  543. </ul></div></div></div>
  544. </div>
  545. <div class="panel-pane pane-entity-field pane-node-field-correctional-institutions" >
  546. <h2 class="pane-title"><a id="Correctional">Correctional Institutions</a></h2>
  547. <div class="field field-name-field-correctional-institutions field-type-text-long field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"> <ul><li><a href="/big#Correctional">General information</a> about correctional institutions.  </li>
  548. </ul><ul><li>House of Correction in Reading (the old lock-up) was in what is now Greyfriars church and housed petty criminals, ‘rogues and beggars’, see the <em><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Periodicals">Berkshire Echo</a> </em>Vol 67, 2014 from the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a>.  </li>
  549. </ul><ul><li>The original county jail was built in 1786 in Reading and later replaced in 1844 by Reading Goal on the same site.  A description is given in the <em><span>Reading Gaol by Reading Town</span> </em>mentioned below<span>. </span></li>
  550. </ul><ul><li><strong>Reading Gaol </strong>(1844-2013):
  551. <ul><li>Descripions of the (now closed) gaol from <a href="">Berkshire FHS</a>, <a href="">BRO</a> and <a href="">Wikipedia</a>.  </li>
  552. <li><em><span>Reading Gaol by Reading Town</span></em>, Peter Southerton, ISBN 0750902965, 1993 is a detailed history with a list of governors and executions; this, and other related books, are held by <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Reading_Central_Library">Reading Central Library</a>. </li>
  553. <li><em><a href=""><span>Light in Dark Places: Photographs of Prisoners in Reading Gaol</span></a></em>, article from the <em><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Periodicals">Berkshire Family Historian</a></em>, Dec 1999.  </li>
  554. <li>Visiting Justices’ report book on Reading Gaol, 1860-1878 (D/EX 1847), Reading Prison, 1878-2013 (P/RP1) and Reading Prison execution book (P/RP1/14/1)are held by the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a>. </li>
  555. <li>Their best known prisoner was <a href="">Oscar Wilde</a> in 1895. See his book<span> </span><em><a href=""><span>Ballad of Reading Gaol</span></a></em>, free online from <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Online_books">Project Gutenberg</a>, describing his time there.   </li>
  556. <li>It housed <a href="">internees during WW1</a>, both enemy aliens and Irishmen involved in the Easter Rising, see the <em><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Periodicals">Berkshire Echo</a> </em>Vol 75, Apr 2016 from the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a>.</li>
  557. <li>The prisoners and/or staff will be listed periodically in the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Census">censuses</a> and <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Directories">trade directories</a>. </li>
  558. </ul></li>
  559. </ul><ul><li><a href="">Historical criminal records</a> at the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#The_National_Archives">TNA</a> for England and Wales (including some for Berkshire) are available online by subscription from <a href="">Find My Past</a> containing records from 1770 to 1935. </li>
  560. </ul></div></div></div>
  561. </div>
  562. <div class="panel-pane pane-entity-field pane-node-field-court-records" >
  563. <h2 class="pane-title"><a id="CourtRecords">Court Records</a></h2>
  564. <div class="field field-name-field-court-records field-type-text-long field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"> <ul><li><a href="/big/eng#CourtRecords">General information</a> about Court Records.  While court records can be thin, many cases were subsequently reported in local newspapers (not necessarily just in those covering the area where the inquest took place), see <em><strong><a href="#Newspapers">Newspapers</a>.</strong></em></li>
  565. <li>
  566. <p><strong>Petty Sessions</strong>:</p>
  567. <ul><li>They were the lowest tier in the court system and developed at the beginning of the 18th century to take on some of the work previously undertaken by the Quarter Sessions. They dealt with minor criminal matters.  They were replaced by Magistrates Courts in the 1970s.  <a href="">Read more .... </a></li>
  568. <li>Archived court records are held by the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a> for the following : Abingdon County Division, Faringdon Division, Forest Division, Hungerford and Lambourn Division, Hungerford Division, Ilsley Division, Lambourn Division, Maidenhead Borough, Maidenhead County Division, Maidenhead Division, Moreton and Wallingford Division, Moreton Division, Newbury Borough, Newbury County Division, Reading Borough, Reading County Division, Slough Division, Wallingford Borough, Wantage Division, West Berkshire Division, Windsor Borough, Windsor County Division and may be listed on the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#NRA">NRA</a>.  </li>
  569. </ul></li>
  570. <li>
  571. <p><strong>Quarter Sessions</strong>: </p>
  572. <ul><li>Justices of the Peace (JPs) presided at Quarter Sessions, where they were tasked with addressing many matters ranging from criminal offences, to questions relating to settlement rights and paternity, which affected entitlement to poor relief.  They were replaced by Crown Courts in the 1970s.  <a href="">Read more .... </a></li>
  573. <li>County Quarter Sessions: records held by the <a href="#Archives">BRO</a> (ref. Q/AC).</li>
  574. <li>Reading Borough Quarter Sessions, 1682-1969 held by the <a href="#Archives">BRO</a> (ref. R/JQ), unfortunately very little from the period before 1836, when the borough was reformed. Includes calendars of  prisoners to 1969, and papers such as depositions and convictions in criminal cases to 1909. The papers also supplement the records of Reading Petty Sessions, as there are copies of summary proceedings at Reading Petty Sessions filed at the superior court, which are earlier in date than anything in the records of that court. For the earlier period, there is a sessions diary for the 1680s, and some miscellaneous but interesting survivals from the late 18th century. These include bonds and agreements relating to the transportation of convicts to America in the 1760s and 1770s.</li>
  575. <li>The Maidenhead Quarter Sessions records are held by the <a href="#Archives">BRO</a> (ref. M/JQS).</li>
  576. </ul></li>
  577. <li>
  578. <p><strong>Coroners' Court: </strong></p>
  579. <ul><li>Inquests were carried out by the coroner in England and Wales where a sudden, accidental, suspicious or unnatural death occurred.<strong>  </strong><a href="">Read more .... </a></li>
  580. <li><em><a href=""><span>Berkshire Coroners' Notebook 1775-1813</span></a> </em>has been transcribed by The Eureka Partnership.</li>
  581. <li><em><a href=""><span>Berkshire Coroners' Index 1688 - 1926</span></a></em> is an index to the surviving papers of coroners' inquests available on CD from <a href="/big/eng/BRK#BerksFHS">Berkshire FHS</a> shop.  This is an index only; the records themselves are only available to view in hard copy at the <a href="#Archives">BRO</a>.  </li>
  582. </ul></li>
  583. <li>
  584. <p><a href="">Historical criminal records</a> at the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#The_National_Archives">TNA</a> for England and Wales (including some for Berkshire) are available online by subscription from <a href="">Find My Past</a> containing records from 1770 to 1935. </p>
  585. </li>
  586. <li>
  587. <p><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Directories">Trade directories</a> can provide some information through the years of the courts, their location and officers, see <a href="/files/eng/BRK/Tradedirectory1915Samplepages.pdf">sample pages</a> from a 1915 directory.</p>
  588. </li>
  589. <li>
  590. <p><a href="/big/eng">Research Guides</a> from <a href="/big/eng/BRK#The_National_Archives">TNA</a> or search their catalogue (set Dept to "HO47").</p>
  591. </li>
  592. <li>See article <em>Investigating Berkshire Crime</em> in <em><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Periodicals">Berkshire Family Historian</a></em>, Sep 2016, Vol 40 page 26.</li>
  593. </ul></div></div></div>
  594. </div>
  595. <div class="panel-pane pane-block pane-genuki-dynamic-content-genuki-description-travel" >
  596. <h2 class="pane-title"><a id="Description">Description and Travel</a></h2>
  597. <div class="field-name-field-historical-geography"> <ul><li><a href="/big#Description">General information</a>.  </li>
  598. </ul><ul><li>For books describing Berkshire, see <em><strong><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Bibliography"><span style="font-weight:bold; font-style:italic">Bibliography</span></a><span style="font-weight:bold; font-style:italic">. </span></strong></em></li>
  599. </ul><ul><li>Descriptions of the county and its towns and parishes from different periods can be found in various <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Directories">trade directories</a>,  from the early 19th century onwards, including:
  600. <ul><li><a href="/big/eng/BRK/Pigot1830">Pigot's 1830 Directory</a></li>
  601. <li><em><a href="/big/eng/BRK/Gaz1868">The National Gazetteer of Great Britain and Ireland</a> </em>(1868), transcribed by Colin Hinson.</li>
  602. <li>Individual <a href="/big/eng/BRK/Names">town and parish</a> pages on this website.</li>
  603. <li>See <a href="/files/eng/BRK/Tradedirectory1915Samplepages.pdf">sample pages</a> from a 1915 directory.</li>
  604. </ul></li>
  605. </ul><ul></ul><ul><li><a href="">A description of Berkshire</a> from <a href="/big/eng/BRK#BerksFHS">Berkshire FHS</a>. </li>
  606. </ul><ul></ul><ul><li> <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Statistics">A Vision of Britain Through Time</a>.
  607. <ul></ul></li>
  608. </ul><ul><li><em><a href=";amp;pg=PA1&amp;amp;dq=berkshire+subject:%22history%22&amp;amp;hl=en&amp;amp;ei=4MAQTYqlIcHQhAeCpqG3Dg&amp;amp;sa=X&amp;amp;oi=book_result&amp;amp;ct=result"><span style="font-style:italic">The Journey Book of Berkshire</span></a></em>, Charles Knight, 1840, free from <a href="#Online_books">Google Book Search</a>.</li>
  609. </ul><ul><li><em><a href=""><span style="font-style:italic">Parochial Topography of the Hundred of Wanting with other miscellaneous records relating to the County of Berks</span></a></em> by William Nelson Clarke, of Arlington, 1824, free from the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Online_books">Open Library</a>.</li>
  610. </ul><p></div>
  611. </div>
  612. <div class="panel-pane pane-entity-field pane-node-field-directories" >
  613. <h2 class="pane-title"><a id="Directories">Directories</a></h2>
  614. <div class="field field-name-field-directories field-type-text-long field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"> <ul><li><a href="/big/Directories">General information</a> about Directories in UK and Ireland.  </li>
  615. </ul><ul><li><strong><span>Electoral Registers and Poll  Books</span></strong>  - see <em><strong><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Voting">Voting Registers</a></strong></em><span>. </span></li>
  616. </ul><ul><li><strong>Hearth tax returns</strong><b> -</b> see <em><strong><a href="#"><span>Taxation</span></a><span>.  </span></strong></em></li>
  617. </ul><ul><li><strong><span>Jurors Lists</span></strong> (those qualified to serve on a jury) are held by the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a>, including the period 1897-1922 (ref. Q/RJ/1 to 19). They typically list just the names and qualification.</li>
  618. </ul><ul><li><strong><span>Militia muster rolls</span></strong> - see <em><strong><a href="/big/eng/BRK#MilitaryRecords"><span>Military Records</span></a><span>. </span></strong></em></li>
  619. </ul><ul><li><strong><span>Protestation Returns</span></strong> for Berkshire, 1641/1642 - copies are held by the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a> (T/A 40) and the originals are held at the House of Lords Record Office.  On the eve of the English Civil War, Parliament ordered that a protestation be made as an oath of allegiance to the King, to Parliament and to the established church. Signed initially by members of Parliament in 1641, the order to take the protestation was later extended to all males in England and Wales over the age of eighteen. The officials of the parish were required to make the oath in front of the Justices of the Peace of the hundred, and then in turn the parish officials administered the oath of loyalty for their parishioners. The returns usually take the form of a list of the names of all of the men in the parish over the age of eighteen who took the protestation.  Very occasionally, children and servants are listed, as in the case of Sutton Courtenay; or women took the protestation, as in the case of West Shefford. Those who refused to take the oath also had their names listed. The returns were later used to identify Roman Catholics by their refusal, who were then subject to increased taxation.  The returns that survive for Berkshire offer partial but substantial coverage, with most of central Berkshire extant.  See article in the <em><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Periodicals">Berkshire Family Historian</a></em>, Vol 23, Sep 2009, page 15.</li>
  620. </ul><ul><li><strong><span>Rate Books and Valuation Lists</span></strong> - see <em><strong><a href="#Taxation"><span>Taxation. </span></a></strong></em></li>
  621. </ul><ul><li><strong><span>Trade Directories</span> </strong>
  622. <ul><li>See <a href="/files/eng/BRK/Tradedirectory1915Samplepages.pdf">sample pages</a> from a 1915 directory.</li>
  623. <li>The University of Leicester's free online <strong><a href="">Historical Directories</a></strong> collection includes these <a href="">Berkshire directories</a>.</li>
  624. <li><a href="/big/eng/BRK#BerksFHS">Berkshire FHS</a> sell various <a href="">Berkshire trade directories</a> 1842 to 1931. </li>
  625. <li><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Reading_Central_Library">Reading Central Library</a> holds various trade directories for reference, the earliest being the Universal British Directory of 1796.  To see what is available, search in their catalogue for "directory".  They also provide free online the following:  <em><span>The Post-Office Reading directory 1842</span>,  <span>Macaulay's Reading directory, almanac, and official register 1865</span></em>, and <em><span>Steven's Directory of Reading and neighbourhood 1888</span>.  </em></li>
  626. <li><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">Windsor and Maidenhead libraries</a> hold a selection of <a href="">local directories</a>.</li>
  627. <li><a href="">Direct Resources</a> have provided Surname Indexes to several trade directories of around 1848. The 1847 index for Berkshire includes 4,641 surnames.</li>
  628. <li>Stephen Whatley's <em><a href=";amp;printsec=frontcover&amp;amp;dq=Whatley&amp;#039;s+Gazetteer+of+England&amp;amp;hl=en&amp;amp;ei=5YOhTrX5FM7FtAaQkZmYAw&amp;amp;sa=X&amp;amp;oi=book_result&amp;amp;ct=result"><span>Gazetteer of England of 1750</span></a></em> is available free online from <a href="#Online_books">Google Books</a> in two volumes, with an index from <a href="">Mel Lockie</a>.  It was never intended to be a complete gazetteer and Whatley concentrates on medieval lordships and their history of ownership but it provides a unique source of information about places not otherwise mentioned in conventional gazetteers.</li>
  629. <li><a href=""></a> features a list of county directories for <a href="">Berkshire</a> at parish chest</li>
  630. <li>Sue O'Neill's searchable <a href="">Trade Directory Surname Index</a> covers Pigot's directories of various counties, including <a href="">Berkshire</a> for 1830. </li>
  631. </ul></li>
  632. </ul></div></div></div>
  633. </div>
  634. <div class="panel-pane pane-entity-field pane-node-field-dwellings" >
  635. <h2 class="pane-title"><a id="Dwellings">Dwellings</a></h2>
  636. <div class="field field-name-field-dwellings field-type-text-long field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"> <ul><li>See <a href="">general information </a>about Dwellings.</li>
  637. <li>
  638. <p>The <a href="#Archives">BRO</a> has a <a href="">guide to researching buildings and places</a> and a detailed catalogue of the leases of borough properties, 1514-1875 (R/AT3).  See also an article in the <em><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Periodicals">Berkshire Family Historian</a></em>, Vol 33, Sep 2009, page 22.</p>
  639. </li>
  640. <li>
  641. <p><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Reading_Central_Library">Reading Central Library</a> holds over 4000 house sale catalogues which give detailed descriptions of houses when put up for sale in the past, see their <a href="/files/eng/BRK/RCLLocalFactsheet9salecatalogues.pdf">Factsheet</a>.  To identify their holdings, search the library catalogue with "sale catalogue" in the search field.</p>
  642. </li>
  643. <li>
  644. <p>Descriptions of some of the historic buildings, including castles and grander houses, of Berkshire are available from <a href="">Royal Berkshire History</a>.  Many are also described in <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Directories">trade directories</a>.</p>
  645. </li>
  646. <li>
  647. <p><a id="British_Listed_Buildings_Online"></a><a href="">British Listed Buildings Online</a>.</p>
  648. </li>
  649. <li>
  650. <p><em><span>Berkshire Return of Landowners, 1873</span></em> (of land over one acre) is held by the at <a href="/big/eng/BRK#TheNA">TNA</a><a href="/big/eng/BRK#The_National_Archives">.</a>  <a href="">Ancestry</a> provide subscription access.  An extract is available on both microfiche and CD from <a href="/big/eng/BRK#BerksFHS">Berkshire FHS </a></p>
  651. </li>
  652. <li>
  653. <p><span><em><a href=";sort=sort_title&amp;sf1=series_exact&amp;st1=PEVSNERARCHITECTURALGUIDESBUILDINGSOFENGLAND&amp;m=2&amp;dc=52">Pevsner Architectural Guides: Buildings of England: Berkshire</a></em>, </span>21 May 2010, ISBN: 9780300126624, copies held by <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Reading_Central_Library">Reading Central Library</a>. </p>
  654. </li>
  655. <li>
  656. <p><a href=""><strong>Coley Park</strong></a>, Reading from the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a>. </p>
  657. </li>
  658. <li>
  659. <p><a href=""><strong>Shaw House</strong></a> records are held by the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a>. </p>
  660. </li>
  661. <li>
  662. <p><a href=""><strong>Welford Park</strong></a> records are held by the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a>. </p>
  663. </li>
  664. <li>
  665. <p>Valuation Office survey 1910 - 1915. - see <em><strong><a href="#Taxation"><span>Taxation</span></a><span>.  </span></strong></em></p>
  666. </li>
  667. <li>
  668. <p>For Public Houses (pubs) - see Licenced Victualers (under <em><strong><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Occupations">Occupations</a></strong></em>). </p>
  669. </li>
  670. <li>
  671. <p>For books about a building, or perhaps just a passing reference, try searching online books, see the <em><strong><a href="#Bibliography"><span>Bibliography</span></a><span>. </span></strong></em></p>
  672. </li>
  673. <li>For photographs, see Historical Photographs (under <em><strong><a href="/big/eng/BRK#History">History</a></strong></em>). </li>
  674. </ul></div></div></div>
  675. </div>
  676. <div class="panel-pane pane-entity-field pane-node-field-genealogy" >
  677. <h2 class="pane-title"><a id="Genealogy">Genealogy</a></h2>
  678. <div class="field field-name-field-genealogy field-type-text-long field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"> <ul><li>Help from Genuki to get you started: 
  679. <ul><li><a href="/big/Genealogy">General information</a>.  </li>
  680. <li><a href="/gs">Getting Started in Genealogy and Family History. </a></li>
  681. <li><a href="/big/Genealogy#Research">Research Guides. </a></li>
  682. <li><a href="/big/Genealogy">Tutorials. </a></li>
  683. </ul></li>
  684. </ul><ul><li>Help from the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#BerksFHS">Berkshire FHS</a>:
  685. <ul><li><a href="">How to get started</a>.  </li>
  686. <li>The <a href="">Berkshire Strays Index</a>. </li>
  687. <li>An alphabetic list of <a href="">Members Surname Interests</a> that includes about 10,000 surnames.  </li>
  688. <li>Surname index to names and events in <a href="">Birth Briefs</a>, five-generation ancestral (i.e. pedigree) charts submitted by members of the society. </li>
  689. </ul></li>
  690. </ul><ul><li><strong><span>Research Services</span></strong>: 
  691. <ul><li><a href="">Berkshire Name Search</a>, provided by <a href="/big/eng/BRK#BerksFHS">Berkshire FHS</a>,  searches a master index covering a range of individual databases.  </li>
  692. <li><a href="#Reading_Central_Library">Reading Central Library</a> and <a href="#Reading_Central_Library">Royal Borough of Windsor and Maidenhead (RBWM ) Libraries</a> (and others) offer charged-for research services.  </li>
  693. <li>Random Acts of Genealogical Kindness (RAOGC) offer a <a href="">free lookup service</a> by volunteers. </li>
  694. <li>Some members of message boards and forums, see immediately below, are willing to make look-ups.</li>
  695. </ul></li>
  696. </ul><ul></ul><ul><li><span><strong>Professional research</strong>:  </span>For those thinking of using the services of a paid researcher, and only in response to a prior written application, <a href="/big/eng/BRK#BerksFHS">Berkshire FHS</a> can return a short list of names and contact details of researchers who undertake commissioned projects. This information is offered by the society purely as a public service. Inclusion of a researcher on a list neither constitutes nor implies recommendation, endorsement or warranty of any kind by the society. Client and researcher should always negotiate any commissioned work directly and in entirety.</li>
  697. </ul><ul></ul><ul><li><span><strong>Mailing lists, message boards and forums for Berkshire:</strong> </span>
  698. <ul><li><a href="/big/eng/BRK#BerksFHS">Berkshire FHS</a> runs for its members the most active forum to discuss issues concerning Berkshire genealogy and to solicit help and advice.  </li>
  699. <li><a href="">Facebook Berkshire genealogy group. </a></li>
  700. <li><a href="">RootsChat</a>. </li>
  701. <li><a href="">RootsWeb</a>. </li>
  702. <li><a href="">Berkshire Local History Association</a>. </li>
  703. <li><a href="">British Genealogy</a>. </li>
  704. <li><a href="">Curious Fox</a> is a village by village contact site for anybody researching family history, genealogy and local history in the UK and Ireland. Every UK county, town and village has a page for family history, local history, surname and genealogy enquiries.</li>
  705. </ul></li>
  706. <li>
  707. <p>Researchers may be interested in the <a href="">Berkshire Genweb</a> pages.</p>
  708. </li>
  709. </ul></div></div></div>
  710. </div>
  711. <div class="panel-pane pane-entity-field pane-node-field-heraldry" >
  712. <h2 class="pane-title"><a id="Heraldry">Heraldry</a></h2>
  713. <div class="field field-name-field-heraldry field-type-text-long field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"> <ul><li><a href="/big#Heraldry">General information</a> about heraldry.  </li>
  714. </ul><ul><li>Nigel Batty-Smith has scanned the entire volumes I and II of the <em>Visitations of Berkshire, 1532, 1566, 1623, 1665-66,</em> Harleian Society, volumes 56 &amp; 57 old series and they are now available to view free <a href="">online</a> on his website.  It is also available <a href="">online</a> (possibly more accessibly) from the Open Library (see under <em><strong><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Bibliography">Bibliography</a></strong></em>). </li>
  715. </ul><ul><li>For books about Heraldry, see <em><strong><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Bibliography"><span>Bibliography</span></a><span>.</span></strong></em>
  716. <ul></ul></li>
  717. </ul></div></div></div>
  718. </div>
  719. <div class="panel-pane pane-block pane-genuki-dynamic-content-genuki-historical-geography" >
  720. <h2 class="pane-title"><a id="Geography">Historical Geography</a></h2>
  721. <div class="field-name-field-historical-geography"> <ul><li><a href="/big#Geography">General information</a> about historical geography. </li>
  722. </ul><ul><li>For books about Berkshire geography, see <em><strong><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Bibliography"><span style="font-weight:bold; font-style:italic">Bibliography</span></a><span style="font-weight:bold; font-style:italic">.</span></strong></em></li>
  723. </ul><ul><li><strong>The local government reorganisation of 1974</strong> brought major changes to the boundaries of Berkshire with parts being lost to Oxfordshire and others gained from Buckinghamshire. Further changes in 1998 finally abolished Berkshire as an administrative unit and replaced it with six Unitary Authorities - Bracknell Forest, Reading, Slough, West Berkshire, Windsor and Maidenhead, and Wokingham.  <a href="/big/Regions/UKchanges">More about boundary changes...</a> <b style="font-weight:bold">N.B.</b><span style="font-weight:bold"> Information on GENUKI pages is organised on the basis of the pre-1974 counties</span>.</li>
  724. </ul><ul><li>The <a href="/big/Gazetteer">Genuki Gazetteer</a> shows the location of places and lists neighbouring places with links to online maps and to Genuki pages that may contain information about that place and the genealogical resources which are available for it.</li>
  725. </ul><ul><li><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Directories">Trade directories</a> can provide some information of the changes to administrative areas through the years, see <a href="/files/eng/BRK/Tradedirectory1915Samplepages.pdf">sample pages</a> from a 1915 directory.</li>
  726. </ul><ul><li>A similar facility is provided by the LDS Family Search's <em><a href=""><span style="font-style:italic">England Jurisdictions 1851</span></a> </em>where the boundaries of parishes, civil registration districts, C of E dioceses, rural deanerys, Poor Law Unions and Hundreds can be superimposed on maps.</li>
  727. </ul><ul><li>List of <a href="/big/eng/BRK/Names/Hundreds">Berkshire hundreds</a>, the historical sub-divisions of counties, introduced in the 10th century primarily as a unit of taxation but also having administrative, judicial and military functions.</li>
  728. </ul><ul><li><strong><span style="font-weight:bold">Enclosures:</span></strong>
  729. <ul><li><em><span style="font-style:italic">Enclosure in Berkshire, 1485-1885</span></em>, ed. Ross Wordie, <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Societies">Berkshire Record Society</a>, vol 5, 2000.  Between 1600 and 1900 the landscape and agriculture of Berkshire was transformed. In 1600, three quarters of the county was covered by large open fields, common land or waste.  By 1900 all but 4% was in the form of small enclosed, hedged fields, owned by individual landowners. </li>
  730. <li>See also <em><span style="font-style:italic">New Landscapes: Enclosure in Berkshire</span></em> in <em><strong><a href="#Maps" style="font-weight:bold; font-style:italic">Maps</a></strong></em> below.</li>
  731. </ul></li>
  732. </ul><ul><li>Royal Berkshire History provides information about <a href="">Berkshire country houses and churches</a>. </li>
  733. </ul><ul><li>See also <em><strong><span style="font-weight:bold; font-style:italic"><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Maps">Maps.</a></span></strong></em>
  734. <ul></ul></li>
  735. </ul><p></div>
  736. </div>
  737. <div class="panel-pane pane-entity-field pane-node-field-history" >
  738. <h2 class="pane-title"><a id="History">History</a></h2>
  739. <div class="field field-name-field-history field-type-text-long field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"> <ul><li><a href="/big/History">General information</a> about history.  </li>
  740. </ul><ul><li><em><a href="">Victoria County History of Berkshire</a> </em>is available <a id="Victoria_County_History_of_Berkshire">online</a>.  It was completed in four volumes between 1906 and 1924, with a separate index produced in 1927. Although published more than 80 years ago and in need of some updating, the sections on borough government remain particularly useful.</li>
  741. </ul><ul><li>A more recent history is <em>A History of Berkshire</em> by Dr. Judith Hunter, published by Phillimore in 1995.</li>
  742. </ul><ul><li>David Nash Ford, history editor at <a href=""></a>, is the author of <a href="">Royal Berkshire History</a>, a website "featuring details of all aspects of the Royal County's fascinating &amp; historic past."</li>
  743. </ul><ul><li><a href="">Francis Frith</a> sells modern books about the history of Berkshire places.</li>
  744. </ul><ul><li>For the history of religious denominations and individual churches, see <em><strong><span><a href="/big/eng/BRK#ChurchHistory">Church History</a>.</span></strong></em></li>
  745. </ul><ul><li>Many older historical books are available free online, see <em><strong><a href="#Bibliography"><span>Bibliography</span></a>.</strong></em>  For example:
  746. <ul><li><em><a href=""><span>Bygone Berkshire</span></a></em><span> </span>by P. H. Ditchfield, 1896, from <a href="#OnlineBooks">Open Library</a>.</li>
  747. <li><span><em><a href="">A History of Berkshire</a></em> </span>(1887), Charles Cooper King, from Internet Archive.</li>
  748. <li><em><a href=""><span>The Antiquities of Berkshire</span></a> </em>(1723), Elias Ashmole, from Internet Archive.</li>
  749. <li><em><a href=""><span>Topographical Dictionary of England</span></a>,</em> Samuel Lewis, 1845, from Internet Archive, provides a description of each English parish and county in alphabetical order: Vol. 1 A-C, Vol. 3 L-R and Vol. 4 S-Z. Vol 2 is not currently available.</li>
  750. <li>Volume 1 of <a href="">Magna Britannia</a> by the Rev. Daniel Lysons and his brother Samuel Lysons, published in 1806 and re-issued in 1813, is perhaps the most famous history of Berkshire, from <a href="#OnlineBooks">Open Library</a>. (and also from <a href="#Bibliography">Archive CD Books</a>)</li>
  751. </ul></li>
  752. <li>
  753. <p>Trade directories provide a description of the places listed, see <em><strong><a href="#Directories"><span>Directories</span></a><span>.  </span></strong></em></p>
  754. </li>
  755. </ul><ul><li><strong>Berkshire dialects</strong>:
  756. <ul><li>See article <em>Old Berkshire Voices </em> in <em><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Periodicals">Berkshire Family Historian</a></em>, Dec 2016, Vol 40, page 19.</li>
  757. <li>The British Library has online <a href="">recordings of British accents</a>, including Berkshire.</li>
  758. <li><a href=";redir_esc=y"><em>A Glossary of Berkshire Words and Phrases</em></a>, Barzillai Lowsley, Job Lowsley, English Dialect Society, 1888. </li>
  759. <li><em><a href=""><span>Bygone Berkshire</span></a></em><span> </span>by P. H. Ditchfield, 1896, from <a href="#OnlineBooks">Open Library</a>, contains a section on Berkshire words and phrases.</li>
  760. </ul></li>
  761. <li>
  762. <p>The <a id="Corpus_of_Romanesque_Sculpture"></a><a href="">Corpus of Romanesque Sculpture in Britain and Ireland</a>, "an evolving electronic archive of British and Irish Romanesque stone sculpture," contains a section on <a href="">Berkshire </a>buildings, mainly churches.</p>
  763. </li>
  764. </ul><ul></ul><ul><li><strong><a id="Historical_photographs"></a><span>Historical photographs</span></strong> are available from:
  765. <ul><li><a href="#">Reading Central Library</a>, search their catalogue.  </li>
  766. </ul><ul><li>Reading Museum holds the <a href=";mwsquery={collection}={history}"><em><span>Reading Chronicle</span></em></a> Collection of over 40,000 negatives taken by the newspaper between 1938 and 1964, and has published many of them online on <a href="">History Pin</a>.</li>
  767. <li><a href="">Flickr</a> publish many historical photographs, including these from <a href="">Swindon</a> and <a href="">Bracknell Forest</a> libraries.  </li>
  768. <li>The <a href="#Archives">BRO</a>, including more than 9000 aerial photographs of the county commissioned by Berkshire County Council 1964 and 1996 (ref. C/PL).</li>
  769. <li><a href="/big/eng/BRK#MERL">MERL</a> has a <a href="">collection of photographs</a> of English rural life.</li>
  770. <li>TNA has a <a href="">brief guide to researching photographs</a>.</li>
  771. <li><a href="">Heritage Images</a>. </li>
  772. <li>English Heritage's <a href="">ViewFinder</a> shows historic photographs of England from the 1850s. (For example, <a href=";amp;mainQuery=St%20Marys%20Church,%20Aldworth,%20Berkshire&amp;amp;searchType=all&amp;amp;form=home">St Mary's church</a>, Aldworth in c1890).  </li>
  773. <li><a href="">Badger's Heritage</a> (line drawings).</li>
  774. <li>For images in books, see also <em><strong><a href="#Bibliography"><span>Bibliography</span></a><span>. </span></strong></em></li>
  775. <li>For monuments and monumental inscriptions (MIs, gravestones), see also <em><strong><a href="#Cemeteries"><span>Cemeteries</span></a><span>. </span></strong></em></li>
  776. <li>For churches, see also <em><strong><span><a href="#ChurchHistory">Church History</a>. </span></strong></em></li>
  777. <li>For railways, see also <em><strong><a href="#Business"><span>Business and Commerce</span></a></strong></em></li>
  778. <li>For buildings, see also <em><strong><a href="#Dwellings"><span>Dwellings</span></a><span>. </span></strong></em></li>
  779. <li>For public houses, see also <a href="#Licenced">Licenced Victualers</a>. </li>
  780. <li>For modern photographs,  try: 
  781. <ul><li><a href="">Flickr</a>, <a href="">Panoramio</a> and <a href="">Geograph</a> have user-submitted photographs.</li>
  782. <li>Google Streetview (through <a href=";amp;dg=dbrw&amp;amp;newdg=1">Google Maps</a>) will provide modern photographs of buildings if you know their location.</li>
  783. <li><a id="Images_of_England"></a><a href="">Images of England</a> provide a ‘point in time’ photographic library of England’s listed buildings, recorded at the turn of the 21st century, with over 300,000 images of England’s built heritage from lamp posts to lavatories, phone boxes to toll booths, milestones to gravestones, as well as thousands of bridges, historic houses and churches.  Note that this website uses the current boundary of Berkshire, not the historic ones used by these pages, see <a href="/big/Regions/UKchanges">more about boundary changes...</a>  </li>
  784. <li><a href=";tab=wi">Google Images</a>. </li>
  785. </ul></li>
  786. </ul></li>
  787. </ul></div></div></div>
  788. </div>
  789. <div class="panel-pane pane-entity-field pane-node-field-manors" >
  790. <h2 class="pane-title"><a id="Manors">Manors</a></h2>
  791. <div class="field field-name-field-manors field-type-text-long field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"> <ul><li><a href="/big/eng#Manors">General information</a> about manors.</li>
  792. </ul><ul><li>At the time of the Domesday Book in 1086, the manor was the basic unit of local government. The manor court evolved as the forum where all matters relating to the manor were dealt with, including property transactions, byelaws and local disputes. Records of these courts, surviving from the mid thirteenth century,  tell us much about how society was organised at a local level. They can reflect the impact of national events and movements like the Great Plague or Tudor enclosure. They are arguably at their most informative in the medieval period, when the power of the manor was at its height. It was later supplanted by the parish vestry and local magistrate. However, the manorial court system survived officially until 1922 when the Law of Property Act abolished both the courts and the manorial land tenure called copyhold. Manorial records can be a great way to find out information on individuals beyond their birth, marriage and death dates. Going back in time much before census, electoral register and civil registration, manorial records can fill in where other records are patchy or non-existent, with so many interesting notes of family relationships, abodes, occupations and life events.  <a href="">Manorial Documents Register</a> (MDR) is published by <a href="#TheNA">TNA</a> and most of the records of the 350 Berkshire manors are at the <a href="#Archives">BRO</a>, with others at <a href="/big/eng/BRK#TheNA">TNA</a> and in public and private repositories.</li>
  793. </ul><ul><li>For manor houses, see <em><strong><a href="#Dwellings"><span>Dwellings</span></a><span>. </span></strong></em></li>
  794. </ul></div></div></div>
  795. </div>
  796. <div class="panel-pane pane-block pane-genuki-dynamic-content-genuki-maplinks" >
  797. <h2 class="pane-title"><a id="Maps">Maps</a></h2>
  798. <div class="field-name-field-maps"> <ul><li>General information about maps of <a href="/big/eng/Maps">England</a> and <a href="/big/Maps">UK &amp; Ireland</a>.</li>
  799. </ul><ul><li><strong><span style="font-weight:bold">Digital Ordnance Survey (OS) maps</span></strong> of Berkshire (and elsewhere) from the mid 19th century to 1970s are available online at <a href="">Old Maps</a>.  Although intended for the sale of maps, the free on-screen images can still be useful.   An article in the <em><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Periodicals" style="font-style:italic">Berkshire Family Historian</a></em>, Vol 33, Sep 2009, page 18 describes how good use can be made of them.
  800. <ul><li>TIP 1:  It can also be accessed via the <a href="/big/Gazetteer">Genuki Gazetteer</a>: Enter the place name and click Search; click the pin on the map (NOT the single item on the list top right); pick the third item "Other maps"; pick "OldMaps" (not "Old Maps On Line"); zoom in as necessary; pick a suitable date and scale from the maps along the right hand edge.  </li>
  801. <li>TIP 2: If looking for the location of a church on a map, use the <a href="/big/eng/BRK/ChurchDatabase">Genuki Church Database</a> and follow the links to OldMaps.</li>
  802. </ul></li>
  803. </ul><ul><li><a href="/big/eng/BRK#BerksFHS" style="font-weight:bold"><strong>Berkshire FHS</strong>:</a>
  804. <ul><li><a href="">Gazetteer of Berkshire</a> (members only) also links to Google Maps.  </li>
  805. <li>Sells many <a href="">historical maps</a> of Berkshire, including a CD of the fifty-one <a href="">6 inch maps of Berkshire</a> (produced with the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a>), originally published by the Ordnance Survey between 1881-1887.</li>
  806. <li>Maps of <a href="/files/eng/BRK/Maps/BerkshireParishes.gif">Berkshire Parishes</a> and <a href="/files/eng/BRK/Maps/BerkshirePoorLawUnions.gif">Berkshire Poorlaw Union</a> areas. </li>
  807. </ul></li>
  808. </ul><ul><li><strong><a href="#Archives" style="font-weight:bold">BRO</a> </strong>holds a number of <a href="">historical maps</a>, including:
  809. <ul><li>6 inch and 25 inch to the mile OS maps from the first edition in the 1870s to the 1930s. </li>
  810. </ul><ul><li>Speed’s 1611 map of Reading – the earliest known (D/EX2385).</li>
  811. <li><a href="">New Landscapes: Enclosure in Berkshire</a>, a joint project with the <a href="">Museum of English Rural Life</a>, shows historic manuscript maps and land awards, and thus documents the process of enclosing the common fields of Berkshire between 1738 and 1883, particularly useful for finding older place names.</li>
  812. <li>Tithe maps (best source for finding who owned/farmed what land and how in the early Victorian period), and manuscript and printed maps, indexed by place.   See <a href="">description</a> from the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#TheNA">TNA</a>. Available by subscription from <a href="">The Genealogist</a>. </li>
  813. <li>Deposited Plans (plans required to be submitted for major infrastructure projects (e.g. a new railway line)) which include, not only the map itself, but also details of the ownership of the land affected. E.g. the Deposited Plan of Great Western Railway at time of widening of the line from Maidenhead to Reading in 1890, ref. D/P 113/28/4.</li>
  814. <li>A small group of plans which have strayed from the Englefield Estate archive (D/EZ175).</li>
  815. </ul></li>
  816. </ul><ul><li><strong><a href="#Reading_Central_Library" style="font-weight:bold">Reading Central Library</a>:  </strong>
  817. <ul><li>A selection of maps from 1574 onwards for reference, including enormous 1:500 OS maps of Reading in the 1870s, see their <a href="/files/eng/BRK/RCLLocalFactsheet6-Maps.pdf">Factsheet</a>. </li>
  818. <li>The Rocque maps of 1761, see article in <em><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Periodicals" style="font-style:italic">Berkshire Family Historian</a></em>, Dec 2008, Vol 32, page 12. </li>
  819. <li>Free online <a href=";ENTRY_NAME=BS&amp;ENTRY_TYPE=K&amp;SEARCH_FORM=%2Fcgi-bin%2Fspydus.exe%2FMSGTRN%2FOPAC%2FBSEARCH%3FHOMEPRMS%3DBSEARCHPARAMS&amp;SORTS=SQL_REL_BIB">estate maps</a> for for some estates in Berkshire, including Hardwick, Rose Hill, London Street, Good Rest, Castle Hill, Earley, Burfield and Shinfield.  </li>
  820. </ul></li>
  821. </ul><ul><li><a href=""><u>Maidenhead</u>, <u>Windsor</u> and <u>Ascot</u> Libraries</a> hold a large selection of printed OS maps for each of their distinct areas from 1868 to 1993.</li>
  822. </ul><ul><li><em>An Historical Atlas  of Berkshire</em>, editor Joan Dils and Margaret Yates, <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Societies">Berkshire Record Society</a>, 2012, ISBN 0 9548716 9 3, shows maps of: parishes, geology, administration divisions, agriculture, country houses, Poor Law areas, railways, roads, population, etc.  Copies are held by <a href="/big/eng/BRK#BerksFHS">Berkshire FHS</a> and <a href="#Reading_Central_Library">Reading Central Library</a>. </li>
  823. </ul><ul><li>A collection of 14th-19th century <a href="">maps of Berkshire</a> is provided free by Genmaps "for the personal use of genealogists and historians for study." </li>
  824. </ul><ul><li><a href="">1840 map of Berkshire</a> from John Fisher.</li>
  825. </ul><ul><li>The <a href="">Institute of Heraldic and Genealogical Studies</a> produces a <a href="">Parish Map</a> of Berkshire giving the name of each parish and showing parochial boundaries and probate jurisdiction in colour. It  is also available from the <a href="">Berkshire FHS shop</a>.</li>
  826. </ul><ul><li><a href="">Cambridge University Library</a> have digitised John Speed's <em>Theatre of the Empire of Great Britaine </em>published in 1611/12 of the UK, including a map of Berkshire.</li>
  827. </ul><p></div>
  828. </div>
  829. <div class="panel-pane pane-entity-field pane-node-field-medical-records" >
  830. <h2 class="pane-title"><a id="MedicalRecords">Medical Records</a></h2>
  831. <div class="field field-name-field-medical-records field-type-text-long field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"> <ul><li><a href="/big/MedicalRecords">General information</a> about medical records. </li>
  832. </ul><ul><li>Many records are held by the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a> but some are un-catalogued.  For catalogued records, use TNA's <a href=";_ep=berkshire%20record%20office&amp;_dss=range&amp;_hb=oth">Discovery</a> advanced search and include "Berkshire Record Office" in the "Exact word or phrase" field, in addition to your own search term(s).   </li>
  833. </ul><ul><li><em><span>Early Medical Services : Berkshire and South Oxfordshire from 1740</span></em>, by Railton, Margaret. Polmood Publications, 1994, available from <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Reading_Central_Library">Reading Central Library</a>.   A history of medical treatment for the poor, from the Old Poor Law in 18th C to health care under the New Poor Law from 1834, with the development of hospitals, dispensaries and medical societies on which the NHS was built.
  834. <ul></ul></li>
  835. </ul><ul><li><strong><span><a id="Hospitals"></a>Hospitals</span></strong>
  836. <ul><li>The <a href="">Index of English and Welsh Lunatic Asylums and Mental Hospitals</a>, based on a comprehensive survey in 1844, and extended to other asylums.  </li>
  837. <li><em><span>Care and Compassion: Old Prints and Photographs of Hospitals and Nurses in Berkshire and South Oxfordshire 1839-1930</span>.</em> Published by the Heritage Centre.  ISBN 0 9539417 0 1. Available from <a href="/big/eng/BRK#BerksFHS">Berkshire FHS</a> and <a href="#Reading_Central_Library">Reading Central Library</a>.  Covers the following hospitals: Royal Berkshire Hospital, Reading; Maidenhead General Hospital; Newbury District Hospital; King Edward VII Hospital, Windsor; Speen Cottage Hospital; Wallingford Cottage Hospital; Royal Victoria Cottage Hospital, South Ascot; Henley War Memorial Hospital; Broadmoor; Berkshire County Mental Hospital; Peppard Sanatorium; Pinewood Sanatorium; Cold Ash Children's Hospital; Heatherwood Hospital; London and Ascot Convalescent Hospital; St Andrew's Convalescent Hospital, Clewer; Wallingford Isolation Hospital; Maidenhead Isolation Hospital; Hungerford Isolation Hospital; Cippenham Isolation Hospital; Park Hospital, Reading; Workhouse Infirmaries: Eton, Windsor, Bradfield, Wallingford, Wokingham, Newbury, Reading, Easthampstead, Maidenhead, Hungerford; various temporary War Hospitals in WW1.</li>
  838. <li><em><span>Early Medical Services. Berkshire and South Oxfordshire from 1740</span></em>. Margaret Railton.</li>
  839. <li><em><span>Leonard and John Joyce: Surgeons of Reading and Newbury</span></em>. Marshall Barr and Lionel Williams.</li>
  840. <li><strong>Abingdon:</strong>
  841. <ul><li><a href="">Marcham</a> Road Hospital, founded in about 1897 as Abingdon Joint Hospital for Infectious Diseases, later known as Abingdon Joint Isolation Hospital.</li>
  842. <li>
  843. <p><a href="">The Warren Cottage Hospital</a> became part of the NHS in 1948, closed in July 1968, reopened in February 1969, closed finally in 1977 and the building sold in 1984.</p>
  844. </li>
  845. </ul></li>
  846. <li><strong>Ascot</strong>:
  847. <ul><li>Royal Victoria Cottage Hospital, South Ascot opened 1898 to mark Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee, later used housing and training nurses, then closed and land sold for housing.</li>
  848. <li>Heatherwood Hospital opened 1923 for the benefit of ex-servicemen and dependents, became a general hospital in 1934.</li>
  849. <li>London and Ascot Convalescent Hospital (aka Ascot Priory) opened in 1863, after 1947, became a private nursing home.</li>
  850. </ul></li>
  851. <li><strong><span>Binfield Park Hospital</span></strong>, Binfield was built in 1775 for the splendidly named Onesiphorus Elliot, became a military hospital in the Second World War and from 1949 to 2000 an NHS hospital.   The building has since been converted into housing.
  852. <ul><li>Records are held by the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a> (ref. D/H9).  </li>
  853. <li><a href="">BBC article</a>.  </li>
  854. <li><a href="">British Listed Buildings</a>.  </li>
  855. </ul></li>
  856. <li><a href=""><strong>Borocourt Hospital</strong></a> was built in 1870s as Wyfold Court, a private house for Edward Herman, converted to a hospital for mental defectives in 1930, closed in 1993.  The Grade II listed building was converted into flats and houses.</li>
  857. <li><strong><span>Broadmoor Hospital, </span></strong>Crowthorne was Britain's first criminal lunatic asylum. It is planned to close by 2017. 
  858. <ul><li><a href="">Historic archives</a> are held by the <a href="#Archives">BRO</a>, including some inmates' stories (Edward Oxford, Richard Dadd, Christiana Edmunds, William Chester Minor, Henry Dodwell)</li>
  859. <li><em><span>Broadmoor: A History of Criminal Lunacy and its Problems</span></em>, Ralph Partridge, 1953, available from <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Reading_Central_Library">Reading Central Library</a>.  </li>
  860. <li><em><span>Broadmoor Revealed</span></em>, Mark Stevens (<a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a> archivist), ISBN: 9781781593202, includes chapters on inmates Edward Oxford, Richard Dadd, William Chester Minor.  Available from <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Reading_Central_Library">Reading Central Library</a>, <a href="/big/eng/BRK#BerksFHS">Berkshire FHS</a> and <a href=";amp;*Version*=1&amp;amp;*entries*=0">Amazon</a>.  Listen to a <a href="">podcast of his talk</a>, 50 mins.  </li>
  861. <li><em><span>Life in the Victorian Asylum</span></em>, Mark Stevens (<a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a> archivist), ISBN 9781781593738, 2014,  describes why county asylums were built, the sort of people they housed and the treatments they received.  See review in <em><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Periodicals">Berkshire Family Historian</a></em>, June 2015, Vol 38, page 30.  </li>
  862. <li><a href="">Broadmoor Hospital</a> from <a href="/big/eng/BRK#BerksFHS">Berkshire FHS</a>.  </li>
  863. <li>Article about inmate Emma Greenwood in <em><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Periodicals">Berkshire Family Historian</a></em>, June 2011, Vol 34, page 27.  </li>
  864. <li><span>Interpreting Mental Health Records</span> article in <em><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Periodicals">Berkshire Family Historian</a></em>, Dec 2006, Vol 30, page 12.    </li>
  865. <li><a href="">BBC article</a>.  </li>
  866. <li><span><em><a href="">Inside Broadmoor</a></em> </span>- TV documentary, 2002, 47 mins.  </li>
  867. <li><a href="">Wikipedia</a>.  </li>
  868. </ul></li>
  869. <li><strong><span>Church Hill House Hospital</span></strong>, Bracknell, based in the former <a href="#PoorHouses">Easthampstead Workhouse</a>, records are held by the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a> (ref. D/H8), including the admissions register, 1929-1933.</li>
  870. <li><strong>Cippenham Isolation Hospital</strong> built in early 1900s, rebuilt over the years, closed early 1950s.</li>
  871. <li>St Andrew’s Convalescent Hospital, <strong>Clewer</strong>, built in the 1866, closed and demolished in 1954, archives are held by the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a>, including photographs of several wards (ref. D/EX2183).</li>
  872. <li><strong>Cold Ash Children's Hospital</strong> founded in 1886, moved to new building in 1892, closed in 1963 and site sold for development.</li>
  873. <li><strong><a href="">Fair Mile Hospital</a></strong>, Moulsford - was opened in 1870 for 285 patients as the <strong><span>Moulsford Asylum</span></strong>, Cholsey, later became the Berkshire County Mental Hospital, Fairmile.  Now closed and converted into housing.
  874. <ul><li>Records are held by the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a> (ref. D/H10), including burials.  Lost casebooks for 1884-1924 have recently been found (ref. D/EZ181).   <a href="">See their gallery</a>. </li>
  875. <li><span><em>Nursing at the Fairmile Mental Hospital, Cholsey</em>, 1935-1939</span> by Mary Fairbairn Macintyre, 2013, Berkshire Medical Heritage Centre.  A memoir of a student nurse in the 1930s.  Available from <a href="/big/eng/BRK#BerksFHS">Berkshire FHS</a>.  See review in <em><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Periodicals">Berkshire Family Historian</a></em>, June 2015, Vol 38, page 31.  </li>
  876. <li><em><span>Fair Mile Hospital: a Victorian Asylum</span></em>, Ian Wheeler, the History Press, 2015. A comprehensive history of the facility from 1870 to 2010.  See review in <em><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Periodicals">Berkshire Family Historian</a></em>, Sept. 2015, Vol 39, page 33.  </li>
  877. <li><a href="">Fair Mile Hospital</a> from <a href="/big/eng/BRK#BerksFHS">Berkshire FHS</a>.  </li>
  878. <li><a href="">Whatever's Left</a> have some information and pictures.   </li>
  879. </ul></li>
  880. <li><strong>Henley </strong>War Memorial Hospital built in 1923 to commemorate the 339 local men who died in WW1, closed 1984 and land sold for redevelopment.</li>
  881. <li><strong>Hungerford Isolation Hospital</strong>  used in WW1, demolished in 1940s.</li>
  882. <li><strong><span>Littlemore Hospital</span></strong>, Oxfordshire, provided care to Berkshire residents between 1847 and 1870. 
  883. <ul><li>Brief history from <a href="">Oxfordshire Health Archives</a>. </li>
  884. <li>1841 - 1948 archives are held by the <a href="#Oxfordshire_History_Centre">Oxfordshire History Centre</a>.  </li>
  885. </ul></li>
  886. <li><strong><span>Maidenhead hospitals</span></strong>: 
  887. <ul><li>Maidenhead General Hospital, also known as St Lukes, opened 1879 as a cottage hospital for 8 patients, built and maintained by voluntary donations, closed in 1977, demolished and overbuilt.  Registers of operations, 1966-1970, archives are held by the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a> (ref. D/H 1). </li>
  888. <li>St Mark's Hospital, 1946-1978 (previously <a href="#PoorHouses">Cookham (later Maidenhead) Workhouse</a>), archives are held by the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a> (ref. D/H 3).</li>
  889. <li>Maidenhead Isolation Hospital opened 1893, rebuilt over the years, closed 1984 and site sold for development. Records 1940-1978 are held by the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a> (ref. D/H 3).   </li>
  890. </ul></li>
  891. <li><strong><span>Moulsford Asylum</span></strong> - see Fair Mile Hospital, above.</li>
  892. <li><strong><span>Newbury District Hospital</span> </strong>
  893. <ul><li>Historic archives are held by the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a> (ref. <strong><a href="">D/H4</a>)</strong>. </li>
  894. <li>Built in 1884 in Andover Road, Newbury, to meet the medical needs of the people of Newbury and Newbury Rural District following the closure of the Nurses Home and Navvy Hospital in <span>Bartholomew</span> Terrace.  The hospital originally housed 12 patients, but various additions were made from 1894 onwards, with a major building programme in 1936-7.   </li>
  895. </ul></li>
  896. <li><strong>Peppard Sanatorium</strong> opened in 1898 for TB patients, became the Peppard Hospital as the need for TB treatment declined, closed in 1980s and site sold for development.</li>
  897. <li><strong>Reading:</strong>
  898. <ul><li><span>Battle Hospital</span> (built as <a href="#PoorHouses">Reading Union Workhouse</a>) closed and demolished in 2005.
  899. <ul><li><em><span>Story of Battle Hospital</span> </em>in the <a href="#Periodicals">Berkshire Echo</a> Vol 32, 2005 from the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a>.  </li>
  900. <li><span><em>Battle Workhouse &amp; Hospital 1867 - 2005</em>,</span> Margaret Railton &amp; Marshall Barr, available from <a href="#Reading_Central_Library">Reading Central Library</a>.    </li>
  901. <li><a href="">Wikipedia</a>.</li>
  902. </ul></li>
  903. <li><strong><span>Park Isolation Hospital</span></strong>, Prospect Park.  Built in 1906, closed 1987 and used an NHS offices, now demolished and replaced by Prospect Park Hospital.  1910-1931 records (subject to a hundred years’ closure) are held by the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a> (ref. D/H 11), including diphtheria and scarlet fever case books. </li>
  904. <li><strong><span>Royal Berkshire Hospital</span></strong>:
  905. <ul><li> <a href="">Museum and archive</a>.</li>
  906. <li><span><em>Royal Berkshire Hospital 1839 - 1989</em>, </span>Margaret Railton &amp; Marshall Barr, ISBN 0951437305 is available from <a href="#Reading_Central_Library">Reading Central Library</a>.  </li>
  907. <li><em><span>The Story of the Royal Berkshire Hospital 1837-1937</span></em>, ed. Ernest W Dormer, 1937, available from <a href="#BerksFHS">Berkshire FHS</a> library.  </li>
  908. <li>An autograph album kept by Barbara Arnst, a nurse 1901-1908, including several photographs of the wards, is held by the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a> (D/EX2299).  </li>
  909. <li><a href="">Wikipedia</a>.  </li>
  910. <li>Their most famous patient was perhaps <a href="">Douglas Bader</a> in 1931.  </li>
  911. </ul></li>
  912. </ul></li>
  913. <li><strong><span>Sandleford Hospital</span></strong> was built as <a href="#PoorHouses">Newbury Union Workhouse</a> in 1836, closed in 2004 and demolished.  Records are held by the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a>.  </li>
  914. <li><strong>Speen </strong>Cottage Hospital, opened 1869, by 1912, it became a convalescent home, closed in 1946.</li>
  915. <li><strong>Wallingford: </strong>
  916. <ul><li><a href="">Wallingford Cottage Hospital</a> (aka Morrell Cottage Hospital) opened 1881 on London Road, moved to new building in 1929, became the Wallingford Community Hospital in 1973.</li>
  917. <li><a href="">St Mary's Hospital</a> was built as <a href="#PoorHouses">Wallingford Workhouse</a>, becoming the Berkshire County Council Institution in 1930. Closed and demolished in 1982.  Records are held by the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a>.  </li>
  918. <li>
  919. <p><a href="">Wallingford Isolation Hospital</a>, built in 1904, was known at various times as Wallingford and Crowmarsh Joint Isolation Hospital, Wallingford and Bullingdon Joint Isolation Hospital, St George's Hospital in 1950. It was sold in 1981 and houses built.</p>
  920. </li>
  921. </ul></li>
  922. <li><strong>Wantage</strong>:
  923. <ul><li><strong><a href="">Wantage Cottage Hospital</a></strong> 1886-1927.   </li>
  924. <li><a href=""><span>Downs Hospital</span></a> was built as <a href="#PoorHouses">Wantage Workhouse</a>, now closed and the the site has reverted to agricultural use.  Records are held by the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a>.  </li>
  925. </ul></li>
  926. <li><strong><span><a id="Waylands_Hospital"></a><a href="">Waylands</a> Hospital</span></strong> - was built in 1835 as the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#PoorHouses">Bradfield Workhouse</a> and became Waylands Hospital in the 1900s. In 1990, the hospital (and associated SS Simon and Jude chapel of ease) was demolished except for the front which is incorporated into a new housng development.  Records are held by the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a>.  </li>
  927. <li><strong>Windsor</strong>:
  928. <ul><li>King Edward VII Hospital was opened in 1909 as the successor to the Windsor Dispensary and Infirmary.</li>
  929. <li>Old Windsor Unit of the King Edward VII Hospital was built as <a href="#PoorHouses">Windsor Workhouse</a> in 1840, closed in 1991 and converted to housing.  Records are held by the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a>.  </li>
  930. </ul></li>
  931. <li><strong><span>Wokingham:</span></strong>
  932. <ul><li>Wokingham Hospital was originally built in 1848 as <a href="#PoorHouses">Wokingham Workhouse</a>.  Records are held by the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a>.</li>
  933. <li>Pinewood Sanatorium was built by London County Council in 1901 for TB patients from the London area, closed in 1966, site sold and redeveloped.</li>
  934. <li><a href="">Wokingham Orthopedic Clinic</a> opened in 1920, closed c1974.</li>
  935. <li><span>Henry Lucas Hospital</span>
  936. <ul><li>It was founded in 1663, taken over by the <a href="">Drapers Company</a> shortly after, and finally sold by them in 2001.</li>
  937. <li><a href="">The Wokingham Society</a>.  </li>
  938. <li><a href="">British Listed Buildings</a>.  </li>
  939. </ul></li>
  940. </ul></li>
  941. </ul></li>
  942. </ul><h4><strong>Monumental Inscriptions (MIs) - see <em><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Cemeteries">Cemeteries</a>. </em></strong></h4>
  943. </div></div></div>
  944. </div>
  945. <div class="panel-pane pane-entity-field pane-node-field-military-records" >
  946. <h2 class="pane-title"><a id="MilitaryRecords">Military Records</a></h2>
  947. <div class="field field-name-field-military-records field-type-text-long field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"> <ul><li>See general information on <a href="">Military History</a> and <a href="">Military Records</a>. </li>
  948. <li>
  949. <p><a href="/big/eng/BRK#BerksFHS">Berkshire FHS</a> shop sells books and CDs of  <a href="">Berkshire military records</a>.</p>
  950. </li>
  951. <li><strong>Berkshire Militia:</strong>
  952. <ul><li>Militia Ballot Lists (all those eligible to serve) and Enrollment Lists (those chosen by ballot to serve) 1757-1831 are held by the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#TheNA">TNA</a> under WO13 and some by the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a>, see article in <em><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Periodicals">Berkshire Family Historian</a></em>, June 2007, Vol 30, page 11.</li>
  953. <li><a href="/big/eng/BRK#BerksFHS">Berkshire FHS</a> shop sells CDs of  <a href="">Berkshire enrollment lists</a> for 1807 and 1808. </li>
  954. <li><a href="">1522 Muster Roll for West Berkshire</a> in 5 parts (scroll down the list).</li>
  955. <li>The Eureka Partnership publish transcriptions of various <a href="">Berkshire Militia Rolls</a>.  </li>
  956. </ul></li>
  957. <li>
  958. <p><strong>Berkshire Yeomanry</strong>  - First raised in 1794 to counter the threat of invasion from Revolutionary France, used to counter social unrest in Berkshire in early 1800s, members served in the Boer War, WW1, WW2, Iraq, former Yugoslavia, Afghanistan. </p>
  959. <ul><li><a href="">Museum</a> in Windsor. </li>
  960. <li><a href="">Wikipedia</a>.</li>
  961. </ul></li>
  962. <li>
  963. <p><strong><span>The Royal Berkshire Regiment</span></strong> (Princess Charlotte of Wales's) amalgamated in 1959 with the Wiltshire Regiment to form the Duke of Edinburgh's Royal Regiment which in turn amalgamated in 1994 with the Gloucestershire Regiment to form the Gloucestershire, Berkshire and Wiltshire Regiment, which again amalgamated in 2007 with the Devonshire and Dorset Light Infantry, the Light Infantry and the Royal Greenjackets to form The Rifles.</p>
  964. <ul><li>The <a href="">Rifles Museum</a> (the Wardrobe) holds all the records for the Royal Berkshire Regiment (and its predecessors the 48th and 66th Regiments) and the Duke of Edinburgh’s Royal Regiment (Berkshire and Wiltshire). It is the only regimental museum in the country to have its war diaries on site and available to researchers.  Much of their archive is searchable online.  See article in <em><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Periodicals">Berkshire Family Historian</a></em>, Sep 2007, Vol 31, page 24.</li>
  965. <li><em><a href=""><span>66th Berkshire Regiment</span></a></em>, 1887, J Percy Groves, a brief history 1758 to 1881, free download from <a href="#OnlineBooks">Internet Archive</a>.  See also <span>Maiwand Lion</span> below.</li>
  966. <li><em><a href=""><span>The War Service of the 1/4 Royal Berkshire Regiment (T. F.)</span></a></em>  [in WW1] by CRMF Cruttwell, free download from <a href="#Online_books">Project Gutenberg</a>.</li>
  967. <li><a href="">2nd Battalion The Royal Berkshire Regiment</a> (Princess Charlotte of Wales's) veterans' website, mainly about the WW2 Burma theatre.  </li>
  968. <li><a href="">8th battalion Royal Berkshire Regiment</a> during WW1 - research by Andrew Tatham. </li>
  969. <li><span><em>Royal Berkshire Regiment 1743-1914</em> </span>and <em><span>Royal Berkshire Regiment 1914-1959</span></em>, Martin McIntyre, Tempus Publishing, 2006 and 2012, available from <a href="/big/eng/BRK#BerksFHS">Berkshire FHS</a>. See review in <em><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Periodicals">Berkshire Family Historian</a></em>, Mar 2014, Vol 37, page 30. </li>
  970. <li><em><span>History of the Royal Berkshire Militia</span></em> (now 3rd battalion Royal Berkshire Regiment), Emma Elizabeth Thoyts, 1897, 349 pages, is available from <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Reading_Central_Library">Reading Central Library</a> and a <a href="">free download</a> from the <a href="#OnlineBooks">Internet Archive</a>.    </li>
  971. </ul></li>
  972. </ul><ul></ul><ul><li><strong>World War 1</strong>:
  973. <ul><li>Some <a href="">war diaries</a> from WW1 for operations between 1914 and 1922 have been digitised by <a href="/big/eng/BRK#TheNA">TNA</a> for download for a modest charge; they contain daily reports of operations, intelligence summaries and other material for Berkshire (and other) regiments.</li>
  974. <li><a href="">WW1 records</a> held by the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a>.  </li>
  975. <li><a href="#Reading_Central_Library">Reading Central Library</a> holds many books about local regiments and militia, including the war diaries of the Berkshire Regiment from the World War I.  </li>
  976. <li><em><span>Reading Standard</span></em> produced a series of booklets entitled <span>Berkshire and the War</span> which was published monthly during WW1 with stories and photos of local casualties.   It includes people from outside Berkshire who joined a Berkshire regiment, Berkshire people who joined other regiments, Berkshire people in Berkshire regiments and Berkshire people in the Navy.  Copies are held by the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a>, <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Reading_Central_Library">Reading Central Library</a> and <a href="/big/eng/BRK#BerksFHS">Berkshire FHS</a>.  Also <a href="">available on CD</a>.  </li>
  977. <li><em><a href=""><span>A County at War - Berkshire 1914-1918</span></a></em>, John Trigg, 2007.  Available from <a href="/big/eng/BRK#BerksFHS">Berkshire FHS</a>.</li>
  978. <li><a href=""><em>Reading in the Great War 1914-1916</em></a>, available from <a href="/big/eng/BRK#BerksFHS">Berkshire FHS</a>.</li>
  979. <li><em><span>The Ration</span></em> was a magazine produced monthly by the staff of the Reading War Hospitals for staff and patients, bound in three volumes covering 1916-18, held by the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a> (ref. D/EE/Z34) and <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Reading_Central_Library">Reading Central Library</a>.   See article in <em><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Periodicals">Berkshire Family Historian</a></em>, Mar 2015, and <a href="">BBC report</a>.  </li>
  980. <li><a href="">Abingdon men who served in WW1</a>: from the book <span><em>Abingdon (Borough) Roll of Service August 1914 - June 1919</em>.</span></li>
  981. <li><a href="">For King and Country</a> - 'Uncovering the stories behind our Great War heroes'  from Windsor and Maidenhead who served.</li>
  982. <li><a href="">Berkshire POWs</a> held in Germany from <em><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Periodicals">Berkshire Family Historian</a></em>, Jun 2003.  Information can often also be found in contemporary local <a href="#Newspapers">newspaper</a> accounts. </li>
  983. <li><a href="">German POWs</a> held at Newbury Racecourse from <em><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Periodicals">Berkshire Family Historian</a></em>, Jun 2003.  Some injured ones were also held at <a href="#Hospitals">Broadmoor Hospital</a>, records held by the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a>, ref. D/H14/D1/1/4/1 and D/H14/A6/2/51.</li>
  984. <li><a href="">Reports from BBC Radio Berkshire</a> about Berkshire's involvement in WW1.</li>
  985. </ul></li>
  986. </ul><ul><li><strong>World War 2</strong>:  
  987. <ul><li>Some <a href="">WW2 records</a> are held by the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a>.  Highlights include a scrapbook from Oakfield Hostel in Wokingham for children evacuated from London, 1940-1951 (D/EX1362/1), a service register for Remenham parish annotated with commentary on the war, 1939-1945 (ref. D/P99/1B/4), and local government efforts for the home front, such as Maidenhead Borough’s Holidays at Home and Entertainment Sub-Committees, 1943, 1945 (ref. M/AC2/3/2).  </li>
  988. <li><em><span>Berkshire Airfields in the Second World War</span></em> by Robin J Brooks describes the history of each airfield, highlights some of the major operations carried out from them, and their overall contribution to the war effort. </li>
  989. <li><a href="">Prisoner of War camps</a> in Berkshire: Winter Quarter Camp, Ascot; Lodge Farm Camp, Baydon, Newbury;  Mortimer Camp, Stratfield Mortimer;  Stanbury House Camp, Stanbury Park, Spencers Wood, Reading;  Basildon House, Lower Basildon, Pangbourne; Durnell's Farm Camp (Magazine Camp), Central Ordnance Depot, Didcot; Crookham Common Camp, Thatcham, Newbury.  From <span> <em>Churchill's Unexpected Guests: Prisoners of War in Britain in World War II </em></span>by Sophie Jackson, 2010, ISBN: 9780752455655.  See also <a href="">Wikipedia</a>. </li>
  990. <li>Ascot Internment Camp No. 7 - in Swinley forest near Ascot West rail station to intern upto 700 enemy aliens and British fascist sympathisers classified medium risk.  Closed in 1943 when it became the Winter Quarter POW camp, above.  <em><span>Remembering Wartime - Ascot and Sunningdale 1939-1945</span></em> by Christine Weightman, 2006, ISBN 0 9537945 2 0 contains a brief description of the camp.  See also <a href="">Wikipedia</a>.  </li>
  991. <li><a href="">Bombing of Reading and Newbury</a> in 1943.</li>
  992. </ul></li>
  993. <li>
  994. <p><strong>Berkshire <a href="">Victoria Cross</a> holders</strong>: </p>
  995. <ul><li><a href="">List</a></li>
  996. <li>Reading-born VC holders: <a href=",_3rd_Baronet">Sir Charles Russell (1826-1883)</a>, <a href="">Frederick William Owen Potts (1892-1940)</a>,  <a href="">Alexander Buller Turner (1893-1915)</a>,  and his brother <a href="">Victor Buller Turner (1900-1972)</a>. </li>
  997. </ul></li>
  998. <li>
  999. <p><a id="War_Memorials"></a><strong>War Memorials</strong></p>
  1000. <ul><li><a href="/big/eng/BRK#BerksFHS">Berkshire FHS</a> have produced the <em><a href="">Berkshire War Memorials</a></em> CD which holds transcriptions and photographs of nearly 750 war memorials ie. nearly all of those in pre-1974 Berkshire  It covers not only World Wars 1 and 2 but also others, including the Boer War, Korea, Northern Ireland, the Falklands, Iraq and Afghanistan.  Some of this information is also available free online at:
  1001. <ul><li><a href="">Location map</a> of Windsor &amp; Maidenhead war memorials.</li>
  1002. <li>The <a href="">Cemetery Junction War Graves</a> website (previously Reading Remembrance Trust) has photographs, transcriptions and short biographies of many of those who lost their lives as a result of WW1 and are buried or commemorated on graves in the Old Reading Cemetery, Cemetery Junction, Reading.  It also includes the <a href="">Alfred Sutton School War Memorial</a>.</li>
  1003. <li>The names on some Berkshire war memorials are available from <a href="">Roll of Honour</a>.  </li>
  1004. <li>You can also search online photograph sites (see Historical Photographs under <a href="/big/eng/BRK#History"><em><strong>History</strong></em> </a> for details) eg, this one in <a href="">East Ilsley</a>.  
  1005. <ul><li>Some Berkshire <a href="">war memorials</a>.  </li>
  1006. </ul></li>
  1007. <li><a href="">Berkshire War Memorials</a> provides an online inventory of war memorials in Berkshire.</li>
  1008. <li><a href="">The West Berkshire War Memorials Project</a>: online photographs and transcriptions of the war memorials in West Berkshire.  </li>
  1009. <li>The <strong><span>Maiwand Lion</span> </strong>war memorial in Forbury Gardens, Reading for the Afghan War of 1880:
  1010. <ul><li><a href="">British Empire website</a>.  </li>
  1011. <li><a href="">Roll of Honour</a> (with photo and list of names). </li>
  1012. <li><a href="">Wikipedia</a>.</li>
  1013. <li><em><a href=""><span>Maiwand:  The Last Stand of the 66th (Berkshire) Regiment in Afghanistan, 1880</span></a></em> by Richard J Stacpoole-Ryding, ISBN 978 0 7524 4537 3 (available from <a href="#Reading_Central_Library">Reading Central Library</a> and <a href="/big/eng/BRK#BerksFHS">Berkshire FHS</a>) aims to be the definitive description of the battle and associated campaign, with a full list of participants and many photographs, very useful for anyone with ancestors involved.  See <a href="">review</a> by  <a href="/big/eng/BRK#BerksFHS">Berkshire FHS</a>.</li>
  1014. <li>A list of names on the plinth was published in <em><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Periodicals">Berkshire Family Historian</a></em>, Spring 1981, Vol 6, page 58. </li>
  1015. <li>The battle is also commemorated by a memorial in <a href="/big/eng/WIL/Shalbourne">Shalbourne</a> (once in Berks, now in Wilts) to remember 3 fatalities from the village:  George Tuttle, Joseph Cope, Charles Rolfe. </li>
  1016. </ul></li>
  1017. </ul></li>
  1018. <li>See also<em><strong> <a href="#Cemeteries"><span>Cemeteries</span></a></strong></em><span>. </span></li>
  1019. </ul></li>
  1020. </ul><ul></ul><ul></ul><ul></ul><ul><li>Philip Johnston's <em><a href="">History of the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst</a></em>.</li>
  1021. </ul><ul><li>The <a href="">Museum of Berkshire Aviation</a> has, among other things, a list of <a href="">military airfields</a> in Berkshire.
  1022. <ul></ul></li>
  1023. </ul></div></div></div>
  1024. </div>
  1025. <div class="panel-pane pane-entity-field pane-node-field-names-geographical" >
  1026. <h2 class="pane-title"><a id="NamesGeographical">Names, Geographical</a></h2>
  1027. <div class="field field-name-field-names-geographical field-type-text-long field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"> <ul><li><a href="/big#NamesGeographical">General information</a> on geographical names.  </li>
  1028. </ul><ul><li>The <a href="/big/eng/BRK/Names/Hundreds">Hundreds</a> of Berkshire.</li>
  1029. </ul><ul><li><a href="/big/eng/BRK/Names/Extraparochial">Extra-parochial</a> places for Berkshire.</li>
  1030. </ul><ul><li>Berkshire place-names and landowners in <a href="">Domesday Book Online</a>. </li>
  1031. </ul><ul><li><em><a href="">The Place-names of Berkshire</a> </em>- an essay by Frank Merry Stenton, Research Fellow in Local History, University College, Reading. Published 1911 by University College Reading; free online from <a href="#OnlineBooks">Internet Archive</a>. </li>
  1032. <li>The <span><a id="River_Thames"></a><strong>River Thames</strong></span><strong>:</strong>
  1033. <ul><li> <a href="">Thames Pilot</a> provides historical information about the river.  </li>
  1034. <li>The <a href="#Archives">BRO</a> has the archive of the <a href="">Thames Conservancy</a> and an early 17th century map showing the River Thames and its channels and islands at Cookham (D/EZ 132)<span style="text-decoration:underline">.</span></li>
  1035. <li><a href="">Thames Navigation Commission Minutes, 1771-1790</a> from the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Societies">Berkshire Record Society</a>.</li>
  1036. <li><em><span>The Royal River:  The Thames from Source to Sea</span></em> was first published in 1885 (and re-published  by Bloomsbury Books in 1985, ISBN 0 906223 77 6) provides a description of the river as it was, with maps and wood engravings, available in <a href="#Reading_Central_Library">Reading Central Library</a>. </li>
  1037. <li><span><em><a href="">A Picturesque Tour of the River Thames in its Western Course: including Particular Descriptions of Richmond, Windsor, and Hampton Court</a></em>,  </span>by John Fisher Murray, 9 editions, first published in 1845, free online from <a href="/big/eng/BRK#OnlineBooks">Open Library</a>.  </li>
  1038. <li>Commissioners’ minute books are held by <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a> (ref. D/TC) and record battles with vested interests, problems with barge-owners, negotiations with riverside landowners, struggles to raise the capital required (and problems caused by financial mismanagement), as well as the technical problems encountered in building the new locks.</li>
  1039. <li><a href="">River &amp; Rowing Museum</a>, Henley</li>
  1040. <li><em><span>Down by the River:  the Thames and Kennet in Reading</span></em> by Gillian Clark, 2009, childhood memories of millers, bargees, lock-keepers, boat builders etc, available from <a href="#BerksFHS">Berkshire FHS</a> shop and <a href="#Reading_Central_Library">Reading Central Library.</a></li>
  1041. </ul></li>
  1042. </ul></div></div></div>
  1043. </div>
  1044. <div class="panel-pane pane-entity-field pane-node-field-names-personal" >
  1045. <h2 class="pane-title"><a id="NamesPersonal">Names, Personal</a></h2>
  1046. <div class="field field-name-field-names-personal field-type-text-long field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"> <ul><li><a href="/big/NamesPersonal">General information</a> on personal names.  </li>
  1047. </ul><ul><li>The location of archived personal papers may be listed on the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#NRA">NRA</a>.  </li>
  1048. </ul><ul><li>Published family trees: <a href="">Genes Reunited</a>,  <a href="">Rootsweb</a>,  <a href="">Ancestry</a>,  <a href="">Mocavo</a> (but be careful to verify what you find).</li>
  1049. <li>
  1050. <p>The <a href="#Archives">BRO</a> have <a href="">portraits</a> of the following: George Charles Cherry (1822-1887), Richard Benyon (1811-1897), Lord Wantage (1832-1901) (Robert James (Lloyd) Lindsay), James Herbert Benyon (1849-1935), Robert Palmer (1793-1872), William George Mount (1824-1906).</p>
  1051. </li>
  1052. <li>
  1053. <p><a href="">Ford's Landed Gentry of Berkshire</a>. </p>
  1054. </li>
  1055. <li>
  1056. <p><a href="">Notable People of Berkshire</a>. </p>
  1057. </li>
  1058. <li>
  1059. <p><a href="">High Sheriffs of Berkshire</a>.  </p>
  1060. </li>
  1061. <li>
  1062. <p><em><a href=""><span>Some 19th Century Berkshire Squires; A County History 1800-1900</span></a>,</em> John Trigg (Self published, 2005) A5, 168pp, Softback</p>
  1063. </li>
  1064. <li>
  1065. <p><strong><span>Richard Barry</span></strong> (seventh earl of Barrymore) was a reckless Georgian rake - see article in <em><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Periodicals">Berkshire Family Historian</a></em>, June 2011, Vol 34, page 19.</p>
  1066. </li>
  1067. <li>
  1068. <p><a href=""><strong>Amelia Dyer</strong> née Hobley</a> (1837 – 1896) "Ogress of Reading" was the most prolific baby farm murderer of Victorian England. </p>
  1069. </li>
  1070. <li>
  1071. <p><strong><span>Sydney Langford Jones</span></strong> of Blewbury was an artist, a Quaker and pacifist, records are held by the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a> (ref. D/EX1795), including two small sculptures he created out of porridge whilst interned in Pentonville Prison as a conscientious objector during the First World War.</p>
  1072. </li>
  1073. <li>
  1074. <p><strong>John Nevil Maskelyne</strong> (1839–1917) was a nationally celebrated illusionist who lived in Bucklebury, see article in <em><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Periodicals">Berkshire Family Historian</a></em>, Sep 2016, Vol 40 page 25.</p>
  1075. </li>
  1076. <li>
  1077. <p><strong>George Blackall Simonds</strong> (1843 - 1929) (of the <a href="">Reading brewing family</a>) was a famous sculptor (including the <a href="">Maiwand Lion war memorial</a> in Reading), see article in <em><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Periodicals">Berkshire Family Historian</a></em>, Mar 2017, Vol 40 page 22.</p>
  1078. </li>
  1079. <li>
  1080. <p><strong><a href=""><span>John Soane</span></a></strong> (1753-1837) is regarded as one of England’s finest architects. He grew up and went to school in Reading and designed, among other things,  the Simeon Monument in the Market Place, Reading.</p>
  1081. </li>
  1082. <li>
  1083. <p><strong>Thomas Noon Talfourd</strong> (1795-1854),  lawyer and judge of Berkshire, records are held by the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a>, see articles in the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Periodicals">Berkshire Echo</a> Vol 6 of 1998.</p>
  1084. </li>
  1085. <li>
  1086. <p><strong>The Toomers of Newbury</strong> - see articles in <em><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Periodicals">Berkshire Family Historian</a></em>, Sep 2008, Vol 33 page 25 and Dec 2008, Vol 32 page 23. </p>
  1087. </li>
  1088. <li>
  1089. <p><strong><a href="">Jethro Tull</a> </strong>(1674 – 1741) was an agricultural pioneer who helped bring about the British Agricultural Revolution.</p>
  1090. </li>
  1091. <li>
  1092. <p><strong>Vansittart </strong>(later <strong>Vansittart Neale</strong>) family of <a href="/big/eng/BRK/Bisham">Bisham Abbey</a>.  For involvement in Napoleonic War, see the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Periodicals">Berkshire Echo</a> Vol 72 of 2015.</p>
  1093. </li>
  1094. <li>
  1095. <p><strong>Conrad Birdwood Willcocks </strong>1887-1973, architect. His records, containing all the plans and papers for almost every project he worked on, are held by <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a>  (ref. D/EWK).  See Vol 74 Jan 2016 of the <em><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Periodicals">Berkshire Echo</a></em>.</p>
  1096. </li>
  1097. <li>
  1098. <p><em><a href=""><span>County Genealogies. Pedigrees of Berkshire Families</span></a>.</em> Collected by Berry, William, 1774-1851. Transferred from his own hand writing and printed in lithography by E. Barwick, published 1837, free online from <a href="#Online_books">HathiTrust Digital Library</a>.  </p>
  1099. </li>
  1100. <li>
  1101. <p><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Directories">Trade directories</a> can provide some information through the years of people, both high and low, especially those in official positions.  See <a href="/files/eng/BRK/Tradedirectory1915Samplepages.pdf">sample pages</a> from a 1915 directory.</p>
  1102. </li>
  1103. <li>
  1104. <p><a href="/big/eng/BRK#BerksFHS">Berkshire FHS</a> publish their <a href="">members' surname interests</a> and <a href="/big/eng/BRK#OFHS">OFHS</a> their similar <a href="">OXSIL</a> (which covers part of <a href="#Geography">historic Berkshire</a>).</p>
  1105. </li>
  1106. <li><strong><span><a id="Biographies"></a><a href="">Biographies</a></span> </strong></li>
  1107. </ul></div></div></div>
  1108. </div>
  1109. <div class="panel-pane pane-entity-field pane-node-field-newspapers" >
  1110. <h2 class="pane-title"><a id="Newspapers">Newspapers</a></h2>
  1111. <div class="field field-name-field-newspapers field-type-text-long field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"> <ul><li><a href="/big/Newspapers">General information</a> about newspapers.</li>
  1112. </ul><ul><li>Wikipedia has a list of online newspapers around the world, <a href="">including the UK</a>.</li>
  1113. </ul><ul><li>
  1114. <p><a href="">Berkshire newspapers</a> from <a href="/big/eng/BRK#BerksFHS">Berkshire FHS</a>. </p>
  1115. </li>
  1116. <li><strong><a href="#Reading_Central_Library">Reading Central Library</a> </strong>holdings are described in their <a href="/files/eng/BRK/RCLLocalFactsheet10Newspapers.pdf">Factsheet</a>, and includes:
  1117. <ul></ul><ul><li>Various unindexed historic Berkshire newspapers on microfilm for reference.</li>
  1118. <li>The <span><em>Illustrated London News</em> </span>(1842-2003 incomplete).</li>
  1119. <li>Full text search online access to <em><span>The Times</span></em> 1785-2007.  This will also be available to members of other libraries that subscribe. </li>
  1120. <li><em><span>The Early Newspaper Press in Berkshire 1723 - 1855</span></em>, KG Burton, Reading, 1954 describes the history and development of newspapers in Berkshire (i.e. mainly Reading).</li>
  1121. </ul></li>
  1122. <li><a href="">Bracknell Library</a> has past copies of <em><span>Bracknell News</span> and <span>Wokingham Times</span></em> (not at Wokingham Library, as might be expected).</li>
  1123. </ul><ul><li><a href="">Newbury Library</a> has past copies of the <span>Newbury Weekly News</span> from its founding in February 1867 on microfilm.  Although not the first in its field, it is the only Newbury newspaper to have been published continuously from its Victorian beginning through to the present day.  A copy of a memoir relating to the setting up of the newspaper written in 1917 by founder Thomas Wheildon Turner is held by <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a> (D/EX 1755).</li>
  1124. </ul><ul><li>The <a href=""><em><span>Guardian</span> </em>and <em><span>Observer</span></em></a><em> </em>archives offer online every page of the <span>Guardian</span> since 1821 and the <span>Observer</span> since 1791. It is free to search, but they charge to read the articles.</li>
  1125. </ul><ul><li>Google provides a searchable worldwide <a href=";amp;gl=US&amp;amp;ned=us&amp;amp;hl=en">newspaper archive</a>, although there are no Berkshire newspapers currently.</li>
  1126. </ul><ul><li><em><a href=";Eton.html">Windsor and Eton Express</a></em> - Surname and Public House index as well as full text articles from this newspaper from the early nineteenth century. Gives a good idea of the type of things you can find in the old local papers in the library.</li>
  1127. </ul><ul><li>To trace the history of a newspaper, <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Directories">trade directories</a> can provide some information through the years, see <a href="/files/eng/BRK/Tradedirectory1915Samplepages.pdf">sample pages</a> from a 1915 directory.</li>
  1128. </ul><p>See also <em><strong><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Periodicals"><span>Periodicals</span></a><span>. </span></strong></em></p>
  1129. </div></div></div>
  1130. </div>
  1131. <div class="panel-pane pane-entity-field pane-node-field-occupations" >
  1132. <h2 class="pane-title"><a id="Occupations">Occupations</a></h2>
  1133. <div class="field field-name-field-occupations field-type-text-long field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"> <ul><li><a href="/big/Occupations">General information</a> about researching occupations and <a href="">guides</a> from TNA.  </li>
  1134. </ul><ul><li>TNA's <a href="">Discovery</a> facility allows you to search their records of a person by occupation (try "apothecary AND richardson") and may be listed on the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#NRA">NRA</a>.  </li>
  1135. </ul><ul><li><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Directories">Trade directories</a> can provide some information about individuals and companies through the years, see <a href="/files/eng/BRK/Tradedirectory1915Samplepages.pdf">sample pages</a> from a 1915 directory.</li>
  1136. </ul><ul><li>Warwick University's <a href="">Modern Record Centre</a> provides definitions of  trades and occupations, many of which will be unfamiliar (scroll down the page).</li>
  1137. </ul><ul><li>Ancestry provides subscription access to some <a href="">occupational records</a>.</li>
  1138. </ul><ul><li><strong><a href="">Apprenticeships</a>: </strong>The <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a> have some registers of apprentices in their <a href="/big/eng/BRK#PoorHouses">Poorhouse</a> records.</li>
  1139. <li>
  1140. <p><strong><a href="">Church ministers</a>: </strong></p>
  1141. <ul><li>Many early ministers of the Church of England were graduates of Cambridge or Oxford Universities - see under <a href="">Schools</a>.</li>
  1142. <li><em>Crockford's Clerical Directory</em>: first published in 1858, contains biographies of over 26,000 clergy of the Church of England, the Church in Wales, the Scottish Episcopal Church and the Church of Ireland.  Copies are held by many libraries, including <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Reading_Central_Library">Reading Central Library</a>. Also available free for different years from various <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Bibliography">online books sites</a>  (e.g. this <a href=";amp;printsec=frontcover&amp;amp;dq=%22Crockford&amp;#039;s+Clerical+Directory%22&amp;amp;hl=en&amp;amp;ei=x8--TcbTNcaZ8QOX8InbBQ&amp;amp;sa=X&amp;amp;oi=book_result&amp;amp;ct=book-thumbnail">1865 edition</a> from <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Online_books">Google Books</a>).  Clergy since 1968 are also listed <a href="">online</a>. </li>
  1143. <li><em>The Church Times</em> is a weekly C of E newspaper which often contains obituaries; a full set is archived at the <a href="">Church of England Record Centre</a>.  </li>
  1144. <li>The <a href="">Surman Index</a> is an online biographical card index of Congregational ministers which "includes the names of about 32,000 ministers, and, where known, their dates, details of their education, ministries or other employment, together with the sources used. It covers the period from the mid-seventeenth century to 1972".</li>
  1145. <li>The <a href="">Dictionary of Quaker Biography</a> consists of approximately 20,000 biographical entries of prominent British and American Friends from the 17th to the 20th centuries.</li>
  1146. <li><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Directories">Trade directories</a> can provide some information about ministers through the years, see <a href="/files/eng/BRK/Tradedirectory1915Samplepages.pdf">sample pages</a> from a 1915 directory.</li>
  1147. <li>See also <em><strong><a href="/big/eng/BRK#ChurchHistory">Church History</a></strong></em>. </li>
  1148. </ul></li>
  1149. <li><a href=""><strong><span>Dentists</span></strong> </a></li>
  1150. <li>
  1151. <p><strong><a href="">Doctors</a></strong></p>
  1152. <ul><li>For hospital medical staff, try also the <em><strong><span>Hospital Records Database</span></strong></em> below.</li>
  1153. <li>Some hospital staff will be listed in the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Census">censuses</a>.  </li>
  1154. </ul></li>
  1155. <li>
  1156. <p><strong>Horse racing and training</strong> is well established in Berkshire, see <a href="/files/eng/BRK/RaceCoursesandStablesinBerks.jpg">sketch map</a>.</p>
  1157. <ul><li>The <a href=""><em>Sport of Kings (and Queens</em>)</a> from <em><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Periodicals">Berkshire Family Historian</a></em>, June 2002.  </li>
  1158. <li>Reading Racing article in <em><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Periodicals">Berkshire Family Historian</a>, </em>Mar 2008, Vol 31, page 18.  </li>
  1159. <li><em>The Running Horses - A Brief History of Racing in Berkshire from 1740</em>, 1978, 29pp booklet  by David Boyd, ISBN 0905538307 is available from <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Reading_Central_Library">Reading Central Library</a>.  </li>
  1160. <li><em>Horse Racing in Berkshire</em> by James Douglas-Home, 1992, ISBN 0-7509-0138-1 is available from <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Reading_Central_Library">Reading Central Library</a>.  </li>
  1161. <li><em>Free Rein: Racing in Berkshire and Beyond 1700-1905</em>, Penelope Stokes ISBN 0 9528339 1 3, available in <a href="/big/eng/BRK#BerksFHS">Berkshire FHS</a> library.</li>
  1162. <li><a href="">National Horseracing Museum</a> have an <a href="">online archive</a> of some jockeys, horses etc.   The Jockey Club no longer regulates the industry.</li>
  1163. <li><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Directories">Trade directories</a> and local <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Newspapers">newspapers</a> can provide some information through the years.  </li>
  1164. <li>The <a href="">Cox Library</a> is a collection of books and other printed material related to the worldwide history and organisation of horse racing and thoroughbred breeding.  </li>
  1165. </ul></li>
  1166. <li>
  1167. <p><strong><a id="Licenced">Licenced Victuallers</a></strong> (aka public house (pub) landlords, licensees):</p>
  1168. <ul><li>See also <a href="">Inns, Hotels and Pubs</a>.</li>
  1169. <li>The records of their licences issued by the local authorities are held by the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a>.  Search their holdings using TNA's <a href=";_ep=berkshire%20record%20office&amp;_dss=range&amp;_hb=oth">Discovery</a> advanced search and include "Berkshire Record Office" in the "Exact word or phrase" field, in addition to your own search term(s).</li>
  1170. <li>See this <a href="">description</a> from TNA.  </li>
  1171. <li><a href="">Directory of historic pubs in Berkshire</a> uses information from censuses, trade directories, etc. to list licensees, bar staff, lodgers and visitors.</li>
  1172. </ul></li>
  1173. <li>
  1174. <p><strong>Millers:</strong></p>
  1175. <ul><li>Berkshire Windmills, Guy Blythman, 2007, available from <a href="/big/eng/BRK#BerksFHS">Berkshire FHS</a> shop and <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Reading_Central_Library">Reading Central Library</a>, lists the 49 windmills known to have existed in Berkshire with brief details and locations.</li>
  1176. <li><a href="">Mills Archive Trust</a> is a repository for historical and contemporary material on traditional mills and milling worldwide (including Berkshire) and is located in Reading. </li>
  1177. </ul></li>
  1178. <li>
  1179. <p><strong><a href=""><span>Nurses</span></a>:</strong></p>
  1180. <ul><li>District Nurses - healthcare for the poor in the first half of the 20th century was often provided by District Nurses who were funded by District Nursing Associations. </li>
  1181. <li>These <strong><span>District Nursing Associations</span></strong>' records are available from the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a>: 
  1182. <ul><li>The Bagley Wood Nursing Association (for Kennington, Radley, Sunningwell and Wootton), 1923-1948, (D/QNA/BW).  </li>
  1183. <li>The Wantage District Nursing Association (for Grove and Wantage, and from 1940 Letcombe Bassett and Letcombe Regis), 1928-1942, (D/QNA/WT). </li>
  1184. <li>Also available are the minutes of Sonning Deanery Moral Welfare Association, 1934-1938 (D/RDS) which helped unmarried mothers, fallen women and deserted wives by providing financial assistance, places in homes, referrals to the police, and assistance with prosecutions for maintenance, although the names of its clients are omitted.</li>
  1185. </ul></li>
  1186. </ul></li>
  1187. <li>
  1188. <p><strong><a id="Police"></a>Police</strong> - Berkshire is currently policed by the Thames Valley Police, formed by the amalgamation of various local forces:</p>
  1189. <ul><li>Abingdon Borough Police 1836-1889 amalgamated with the Berkshire Constabulary.</li>
  1190. <li>Newbury Borough Police 1836-1875 amalgamated with the Berkshire Constabulary.</li>
  1191. <li>Reading Borough Police 1836-1968 amalgamated to form the Thames Valley Constabulary (now Thames Valley Police).</li>
  1192. <li>New Windsor Borough Police 1836-1947 amalgamated with the Berkshire Constabulary.</li>
  1193. <li>Wokingham - policed from Reading.</li>
  1194. <li>Berkshire Constabulary 1855-1968, amalgamated with the Buckinghamshire Constabulary,  Oxford City Police, Oxfordshire Constabulary and Reading Borough Police to form the Thames Valley Constabulary (now Thames Valley Police).</li>
  1195. </ul></li>
  1196. </ul><p style="margin-left:40px">Sources of historical information about the police:</p>
  1197. <ul style="margin-left:40px"><li><a href="">General information</a> about the Police. </li>
  1198. <li>The <a href="">Thames Valley Police Museum</a> is located within Sulhamstead House, known locally as the 'White House', at <a href="">Sulhamstead</a>, Berkshire, open by appointment.  </li>
  1199. <li>Surviving personnel records are patchy:
  1200. <ul><li>Buckinghamshire police records are held by the <a href="">Centre for Buckinghamshire Studies</a>, Aylesbury. </li>
  1201. <li>Oxford City Police records are held by the <a href="">Oxfordshire History Centre</a>.  </li>
  1202. <li>Berkshire Constabulary records are held by the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a>,  including examination records for many police officers 1856-1929 (Q/APE series), including details of age, address, previous jobs, reading ability, etc. <a href=";amp;_hb=oth">Search by name</a> at TNA.</li>
  1203. <li>Oxfordshire Constabulary and Reading Borough police records are held at the <a href="">Thames Valley Police Museum</a>, Sulhamstead.  </li>
  1204. <li>Windsor Borough Police records were destroyed by flood.  </li>
  1205. </ul></li>
  1206. <li><a href=""><em>Reading Borough Police Registers</em></a> for the periods 1865-1880 and 1881-1905 are available from <a href="/big/eng/BRK#BerksFHS">Berkshire FHS</a> shop and the originals are held at the <a href="">Thames Valley Police Museum</a>.</li>
  1207. <li><em>Was Your Ancestor a Berkshire Policeman?</em>,  article in <em><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Periodicals">Berkshire Family Historian</a>,</em> Vol 14, page 112 gives a brief history of the Berkshire police forces.</li>
  1208. <li><em>Queens Peace, a History of Reading Borough Police 1836-1968</em>, Alan Wykes, 1968, available from <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Reading_Central_Library">Reading Central Library</a>.   </li>
  1209. <li><em>Short History of the Berkshire Constabulary, 1856-1956,</em> 1956, ISBN: 9999043185, available from <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Reading_Central_Library">Reading Central Library</a>.  </li>
  1210. <li><a href="">Wikipedia</a>.  </li>
  1211. </ul><ul><li>
  1212. <p><a href=""><strong>Post Office workers</strong></a></p>
  1213. </li>
  1214. <li>
  1215. <p><strong>Prisons</strong> - see <em><strong><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Correctional">Correctional Institutions</a>. </strong></em></p>
  1216. </li>
  1217. <li>
  1218. <p><strong>Railway workers</strong> - see <em><strong><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Business">Business &amp; Commerce</a>. </strong></em></p>
  1219. </li>
  1220. <li>
  1221. <p>Royal household in Windsor castle - see <a href="/big/eng/BRK#The_Royal_Archives">The Royal Archives</a>.  </p>
  1222. </li>
  1223. </ul><ul><li><strong>Soldiers</strong>, see <em><strong><a href="/big/eng/BRK#MilitaryRecords">Military</a>. </strong></em></li>
  1224. </ul><ul></ul><ul><li><strong>Teachers </strong>- see<em><strong> <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Schools">Schools</a>. </strong></em></li>
  1225. </ul><ul><li><strong><a href="">Trade Union records</a> </strong>
  1226. <ul><li><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a> hold records of the Reading Typographical Society, 1898-1970 (ref. D/EX1941); and the Reading branch of the GMB union and its predecessors (originally the National Union of Gasworkers and General Labourers), 1911-1988 (ref. D/EX2017).</li>
  1227. <li>The location of archived papers may be listed on the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#NRA">NRA</a>.  </li>
  1228. </ul></li>
  1229. <li>
  1230. <p><strong>The Weavers’ Company</strong> in Newbury was a powerful trade gild founded in the 16th century. Records held by the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a> (ref. D/ENM, etc), including the organisation’s 1602 charter from Queen Elizabeth I.</p>
  1231. </li>
  1232. </ul><p><strong>*Organisations, Other</strong><br /><br />
  1233. See below for records of organisations other than <em><strong><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Business">Business and Commerce Records</a>, <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Schools">Schools</a>, <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Court_Records">Courts</a>, <a href="/big/eng/BRK#MilitaryRecords">Military</a>, <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Newspapers">Newspapers</a></strong></em>.  Check the links below, and use TNA's <a href=";_ep=berkshire%20record%20office&amp;_dss=range&amp;_hb=oth">Discovery</a> advanced search and include "Berkshire Record Office" in the "Exact word or phrase" field, in addition to your own search term(s).    </p>
  1234. <ul><li><strong>Reading Co-operative Society</strong> - records are held by the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a> (ref. D/EX1497). </li>
  1235. <li>
  1236. <p><strong>Sports clubs</strong> - The <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a> hold records of a number of Berkshire sports clubs, see the <em><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Periodicals">Berkshire Echo</a> </em>Vol 60 of 2012, Vol 64 of 2013, including those of Berkshire County Cricket Club 1903-2013. Typical records might include administrative records, minutes, annual reports, accounts, programmes, newsletters, photographs, membership lists.</p>
  1237. </li>
  1238. <li><strong><a href="">Statutory authorities</a></strong> - various records of some public companies are held by the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a>. </li>
  1239. </ul><ul><li><strong>Thames Conservancy</strong> - see <em><strong><a href="/big/eng/BRK#NamesGeographical">Names, Geographical</a>. </strong></em>
  1240. <ul></ul><ul></ul></li>
  1241. </ul><p><strong>Parish Records</strong> - see <em><strong><a href="/big/eng/BRK#ChurchRecords">Church Records. </a></strong></em></p>
  1242. </div></div></div>
  1243. </div>
  1244. <div class="panel-pane pane-entity-field pane-node-field-periodicals" >
  1245. <h2 class="pane-title"><a id="Periodicals">Periodicals</a></h2>
  1246. <div class="field field-name-field-periodicals field-type-text-long field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"> <ul><li><a href="/big/Periodicals">General information</a> about periodicals.</li>
  1247. </ul><ul><li><i>Berkshire Old and New</i> is published annually by the <a href="">Berkshire Record Society</a>.</li>
  1248. </ul><ul><li><strong><em><a href="">Berkshire Family Historian</a></em></strong> is published quarterly by <a href="#BerksFHS">Berkshire FHS</a> for its members.  All issues from its first publication in 1975 are available in their Research Centre and (for members only) online.</li>
  1249. </ul><ul></ul><ul><li><em><strong><a id="Berkshire_Echo"></a><a href="">Berkshire Echo</a></strong></em> is published quarterly free online by the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a> with articles about their holdings, in particular new additions.  The best way to search the articles seems to be using Google (or similar) and include "Berkshire Echo" (with quotes) in addition to your search terms in the search field.</li>
  1250. </ul><ul><li>See also <strong><em><a href="#Newspapers"><span>Newspapers</span></a><span>.</span></em></strong>
  1251. <ul></ul><ul></ul></li>
  1252. </ul></div></div></div>
  1253. </div>
  1254. <div class="panel-pane pane-entity-field pane-node-field-poor-houses-poor-law-etc" >
  1255. <h2 class="pane-title"><a id="PoorHouses">Poor Houses, Poor Law etc.</a></h2>
  1256. <div class="field field-name-field-poor-houses-poor-law-etc- field-type-text-long field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"> <ul><li><a href="/big/eng#PoorHouses">General information</a> about poorhouses. In 1782, the Gilbert Act divided counties into districts providing unions of parishes to be controlled by Boards of Guardians in order to benefit the old, the sick, the infirm and orphans. During the First World War many workhouses were used as war hospitals.  Under the Local Government Act of 1929, the Poor Law Unions were abolished. Responsibility for poor relief passed to local authorities from April 1930. Berkshire County Council took over all the former workhouses in Berkshire apart from Reading, which was taken over by Reading Borough Council. See article in the <em><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Periodicals">Berkshire Echo</a> </em>Vol 76 of Sep. 2016 for general information about the poorhouses and social care generally before the welfare state in 1948.</li>
  1257. </ul><ul><li>Peter Higginbotham's <a href=""><i>The Story of Workhouses</i></a> provides a detailed description of each poorhouse and the location of their archived records, including these serving Berkshire:<strong> <a href="">Abingdon</a><span>,  </span><a href="">Bradfield</a><span>,  </span><a href="">Cookham</a></strong><span> </span>(later re-named Maidenhead)<span>, <strong> </strong></span><strong><a href="">Easthampstead</a><span>, </span><a href="">Faringdon</a><span>,  </span><a href="">Hungerford</a> </strong>(and Ramsbury)<span>,  </span><strong><a href="">Newbury</a><span>,  </span><a href="">Reading</a><span>,  </span><a href="">Wallingford</a><span>,  </span><a href="">Wantage</a><span>,  </span><a href="">Windsor</a><span> </span></strong>and<span> </span><strong><a href="">Wokingham</a><span>.</span></strong></li>
  1258. </ul><ul><li>Many records are held by the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a> and, where they exist, may contain: lists of inmates, register of Apprentices, register of births, register of deaths, rate books, admission and discharge registers, Board of Guardians' records. A useful source of information on those at the bottom of the social heap.</li>
  1259. <li>Records of the original <a href="">Oracle cloth workhouse</a> are held by the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a>. </li>
  1260. </ul><ul><li>The Eureka Partnership publish a number of <a href="">birth and death records of the Berkshire Workhouses</a>.  </li>
  1261. </ul><ul><li><a href="/big/eng/BRK#BerksFHS">Berkshire FHS</a> shop sells a number of booklets of Poor Law Union records:  <a href="">Abingdon</a>, <a href="">Bradfield</a>, <a href="">Wallingford</a> (2 vols), <a href="">Wantage</a>, <a href="">Wokingham</a>.  </li>
  1262. </ul><ul><li>If you are looking for someone who was in a workhouse, it is worth checking if they also appear in the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#CourtRecords">Quarter Sessions</a> records, also held by the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a>. </li>
  1263. </ul><ul><li>The <a href="">Berkshire Overseers Papers</a> are published by <a href="/big/eng/BRK#BerksFHS">Berkshire FHS</a> on CD which contains virtually all of the surviving pre-1834 records arranged by Poor Law Union, and with a master index. </li>
  1264. </ul><ul><li><a href="/big/eng/BRK#BerksFHS">Berkshire FHS</a> identify the <a href="">Berkshire Poorlaw Unions</a> and their constituent parishes (for members only).  See also their sketch map of  <a href="/files/eng/BRK/Maps/BerkshirePoorLawUnions.gif">Berkshire Poorlaw Union</a> areas. </li>
  1265. </ul><ul><li><a href="">Newbury Poor Law Union Workhouse births and deaths</a>.  </li>
  1266. </ul><ul><li>For photographs of workhouses, see <em><span>The Story of Workhouses</span></em> above and Historical Photographs under <a href="/big/eng/BRK#History"><em><strong>History</strong></em>.</a></li>
  1267. </ul><ul><li><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Directories">Trade directories</a> can provide some information through the years, see <a href="/files/eng/BRK/Tradedirectory1915Samplepages.pdf">sample pages</a> from a 1915 directory.</li>
  1268. </ul></div></div></div>
  1269. </div>
  1270. <div class="panel-pane pane-entity-field pane-node-field-probate-records" >
  1271. <h2 class="pane-title"><a id="Probate">Probate Records</a></h2>
  1272. <div class="field field-name-field-probate-records field-type-text-long field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"> <ul><li>General information about probate records in <a href="/big/eng/Probate">England </a>and <a href="">UK &amp; Ireland.</a></li>
  1273. </ul><ul><li>See articles in <em><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Periodicals">Berkshire Family Historian</a></em>, Dec 2001, Vol 25, page 93 and Sep 2009, Vol 33, page 12.  </li>
  1274. </ul><ul><li>Explanations about probate and wills are provided by TNA - <a href="">Pre 1858</a> and <a href="">post 1858</a>. </li>
  1275. </ul><ul><li>
  1276. <p><strong>Post-1858 wills</strong>:</p>
  1277. <ul><li>
  1278. <div>The <a href="">Probate Service</a> allows you to search for and order a will or ‘grant of representation’ for people who died in or after 1858. You need the surname and year of death.  The free index can be quite informative, even if you do not pay for the will.</div>
  1279. </li>
  1280. <li>
  1281. <div>Indexes to 1858 to 1943 wills and admons for England and Wales (also known as the National Probate Calender) can be viewed on microfiche at the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a>. (A less complete version of the calendar can be viewed on <a href="">Ancestry</a>.)</div>
  1282. </li>
  1283. </ul></li>
  1284. <li>
  1285. <p><strong>Pre-1858 Wills</strong>: administrations and other probate records will be found in the Record Office holding the documents of the ecclesiastical (church) court where the will was proved:  </p>
  1286. <ul><li><a href="">Berkshire wills and probate documents</a> from the archdiaconal court are held at the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a>.  Those Berkshire documents of the Consistory Court of Salisbury (the diocesan court) can be found at the <a href="">Wiltshire &amp; Swindon History Centre</a> where the <a href="">catalogue is online searchable</a>.  It contains 105,000 wills and inventories dating from 1540 to 1858 for Wiltshire, Berkshire, parts of Dorset and Uffculme in Devon.</li>
  1287. <li><a href="/big/eng/BRK#BerksFHS">Berkshire FHS,</a> in partnership with the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a>, <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Societies">Berkshire Record Society</a> and <a href="/big/eng/BRK#OFHS">OFHS</a>, has published the index all <a href="">probate documents of the Berkshire Archdeaconry</a> on CD.  Note that this is an index; it does not contain the actual documents but gives all the details necessary to order the records from the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a>.</li>
  1288. <li>Those Berkshire wills proved at the Prerogative Court of Canterbury and their associated documents are at <a href="">TNA</a>.   </li>
  1289. <li><a href="">The National Wills Index</a> - subscription access from Origins.Net.  </li>
  1290. <li>Also use TNA's <a href=";_ep=berkshire%20record%20office&amp;_dss=range&amp;_hb=oth">Discovery</a> advanced search and include "Berkshire Record Office" in the "Exact word or phrase" field, in addition to your own search term(s).  </li>
  1291. <li>Probate documents from 'peculiars' (parishes in one archdeaconry or diocese but subject to the religious or lay authority of another archdeacon, bishop or other body or person) may be found elsewhere. </li>
  1292. <li>The following Berkshire parishes were 'peculiars' of the Salisbury Diocese: Arborfield, Blewbury, Hurst, Ruscombe, Sandhurst, Sonning &amp; Wokingham, with the Chapels of Upton and Aston Upthorpe. </li>
  1293. <li>Probate documents for Hungerford, Langford, Shalbourne, Wantage (early) and West Ilsley can be found at the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">Bodleian Library</a> in Oxford. </li>
  1294. <li>Wills of the few inhabitants of Windsor Castle are kept at <a href="">The Aerary</a>. </li>
  1295. <li>Berkshire was an archdeaconry in the diocese of Salisbury in the archdiocese of Canterbury until, in 1836, it was moved to the diocese of Oxford. </li>
  1296. </ul></li>
  1297. <li>
  1298. <p>Transcriptions of some Berkshire wills are available online:</p>
  1299. <ul><li>From <a href="">TNA</a>:  <a href=",_Berkshire,_proved_24_Oct_1809">Anthony Bigot of Reading</a>, <a href="">Katherine Harling</a>, and <a href="">Edward Jones</a>.</li>
  1300. <li><a href="/big/eng/BRK#OFHS">OFHS</a> publish transcriptions of mainly <a href="">Oxfordshire wills</a>, but also some for testators who were born or lived in <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Geography">historic Berkshire</a>.</li>
  1301. <li><a href="">Surrey Plus Wills Index</a> provides an index to the location of some wills from Berkshire, in some cases with online transcripts.</li>
  1302. <li>Nick Hidden has provided a collection of about 1000 <a href="/big/eng/BRKwills"><u>abstracts of probate documents</u></a> from c1500 to 1858 (when civil probate registries came into being in England &amp; Wales) relating to testators from the neighbourhood of Hungerford and Wantage in Berkshire. There is some spread into Wiltshire and to a lesser degree Hampshire and Oxfordshire. </li>
  1303. </ul></li>
  1304. </ul></div></div></div>
  1305. </div>
  1306. <div class="panel-pane pane-entity-field pane-node-field-schools" >
  1307. <h2 class="pane-title"><a id="Schools">Schools</a></h2>
  1308. <div class="field field-name-field-schools field-type-text-long field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"> <ul><li>General information about school records in <a href="/big/eng#Schools">England</a> and <a href="">UK &amp; Ireland</a>. </li>
  1309. </ul><ul><li><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a> holdings:
  1310. <ul><li><a href="">Research guides</a> listing some of their historical school records.  They are generally subject to a <a href="">50-year closure period</a>.  </li>
  1311. <li>For catalogued records, use TNA's <a href=";_ep=berkshire%20record%20office&amp;_dss=range&amp;_hb=oth">Discovery</a> advanced search and include "Berkshire Record Office" in the "Exact word or phrase" field, in addition to your own search term(s).   </li>
  1312. <li>Some are un-catalogued, of which some are listed below:  </li>
  1313. </ul></li>
  1314. </ul><p style="margin-left:80px">Beech Hill Church of England School, 1951-1967 (D/EX 1864); Mrs Bland’s School, Burghfield Common, 1904-1991 (D/EX2082); Bradfield CE Primary School, 1921-2000s (SCH24); Wildmoor Heath (formerly Broadmoor) Primary School, Crowthorne, 1873-2000 (SCH29); Princess Margaret Rose School (formerly St Stephen’s Senior Girls’ School), Clewer, 1889-1983 (SCH8); St Mary’s School, Datchet, 1844-1980s (SCH30); St Nicolas’ Primary School, East Challow (2003/SCH/1 &amp; 21?); Maidenhead Infant School, Brock Lane, 1870-1884 managers’ minutes (D/P 194); Reading schools:  the British Infants School (later a Board School) in Southampton Street, 1870-1907, and George Palmer Infants School, 1907-1996 (2001/SCH/3) (see also The Centenary of the George Palmer School, Daphne Barnes-Phillips); Battle Mixed/Senior/Secondary Modern School, 1891-1968, Wilson Mixed, Central and Senior Schools, 1905-1972, and Meadway Comprehensive, 1972-2001 (2001/SCH/4); and Christchurch C of E Primary School (now New Christ Church CE (VA) School), 1983-2000 (2001/SCH/5); Katesgrove Primary School, Reading 1872-1987 (SCH6); Reading and Earley Board School (later New Town Board School and New Town Secondary Modern School) and Alfred Sutton Secondary Girls’ School, Reading, log books, 1877-1895 and 1949-1973 (D/EX2015); plans for several Reading schools, 1851-1872 (D/EX2009); Reading Teachers’ Centre, 1970-c.1983 (D/EX2081); Battle Primary School, Reading, 1893-2000 (SCH20); Wilson Primary School, Reading, 1904-c.1990s (SCH14); and Churchend School, Tilehurst, 1962-2008 (SCH15); Letcombe Bassett National school, 1864-1926 log books (D/EX 1904); Newbury County Grammar School for Girls, 1950-1961 (D/EX2308); Newbury County Girls’ Grammar School, 1904-2003 (SCH12 and D/EX2060); St Bartholomew’s Grammar School, Newbury, 1945-1975 (SCH11); St Bartholomew’s School, Newbury admission registers, 1975-1998 (2004/SCH/1); St Bartholomew’s [Comprehensive] School, Newbury, 1975- 2001 (SCH13); Winchcombe Junior School, Newbury records, 1950-2005 (SCH2); Winchcombe Infants’ School, Newbury, 1964-1981 (SCH10); Streatley C of E School 1873-2003 (D/EX2127); photographs of Courtenay Lodge School, Sutton Courtenay and Maiden Erlegh School, Earley, 1930s-1950s (D/EX1914); Lambs Lane Council School, Swallowfield 1908-1916 (SCH19); Sir Charles Russell's school, Swallowfield 1873-1908 admissions register (SCH17); St Mary’s Church of England Junior School, Thatcham, formerly Thatcham National School, 1883-2005 (SCH4); Parsons Down Junior School, Thatcham, 1997-2004 (SCH27); West Hendred School admission register, 1904-1966, (SCH1/11/1); St John’s Primary School, Wallingford, 1863-2010 (SCH22); Robert Piggott Church of England Junior School, Wargrave, 1993-2000 log books (2001/SCH/2); Lambrook School, a private preparatory boarding school for boys in Winkfield, 1870-1997 (D/EX1832); Winkfield St Mary’s Church of England School 1943-2003 (SCH18); Ranelagh School, founded as an elementary charity school in Cranbourne by the Earl of Ranelagh in 1709, refounded as a grammar school in new premises in Bracknell in 1908, and since 1981 a comprehensive school (SCH5) and Cranbourne Ranelagh School, Winkfield, 1904-1942 (D/EX1979).</p>
  1315. <ul></ul><ul style="margin-left:40px"><li><em>School Records at the BRO, </em> article in <em><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Periodicals">Berkshire Family Historian</a></em>, Dec 2006, Vol 30, page 21.  </li>
  1316. <li><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a>'s album of early 20th century photographs of Berkshire schools (D/EX1964/1), see the <em><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Periodicals">Berkshire Echo</a> </em>Vol 62 of 2013 and the links below.</li>
  1317. <li>The location of archived papers may be listed on the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#NRA">NRA</a>.  </li>
  1318. </ul><ul><li>Useful  information about schools through the years can often be found in <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Directories">trade directories</a>, see <a href="">sample pages</a> from a 1915 directory.</li>
  1319. </ul><ul><li><strong>Blewbury Charity School: </strong>see <em><a href="">The Story of Blewbury Charity School</a></em>, Peter Northeast (Blewbury Local History Group, 1964, 3rd ed with amendments by BLHG, 2007) A4, 30pp. ISBN 978-0-9504794-7-7 </li>
  1320. </ul><ul><li><strong>Bradfield College</strong>, Bradfield
  1321. <ul><li><a href="">College website</a>.  </li>
  1322. <li><a href="">Wikipedia</a>.  </li>
  1323. <li><em><a href="">Bradfield College Register</a></em> of 1888 on CD from <a href="/big/eng/BRK#BerksFHS">Berkshire FHS</a>.  <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Reading_Central_Library">Reading Central Library</a> hold registers for some years 1876 to 1963.  Subscription online access for 1850-1908 from <em><a href="">The Genealogist</a>.</em></li>
  1324. </ul></li>
  1325. </ul><ul><li><strong>Radley College</strong> (aka St Peter's College), Radley near Abingdon: 
  1326. <ul><li><a href="">School archive</a>. </li>
  1327. <li><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Reading_Central_Library">Reading Central Library</a> hold a number of books about the college, including <em>St Peter's College, Radley Register 1847-1962</em>.</li>
  1328. </ul></li>
  1329. </ul><ul><li><strong>Reading Mechanics Institute</strong>: now closed, records are held by the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a> (D/EX1431).</li>
  1330. </ul><ul></ul><ul><li><strong><a href="">Reading School</a> </strong>is one of the town's oldest institutions.
  1331. <ul><li><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Reading_Central_Library">Reading Central Library</a> hold various books relating to the school. </li>
  1332. <li><a href="">Wikipedia</a>.  </li>
  1333. <li>See also <a href="">these pages</a> from a 1915 directory.</li>
  1334. </ul></li>
  1335. </ul><ul><li><strong> Ryeish Green School</strong>, Spencers Wood, see booklet <em>Ryeish Green School </em>by Spencers Wood Local History Group, 2010, A4, 60pp.  See <a href="">review </a>by Berkshire FHS.</li>
  1336. </ul><ul><li><strong><a href="">St Bartholomew's School</a>,</strong> Newbury
  1337. <ul><li>Founded in 1466 as St. Bartholomew's Boys' Grammar School, amalgamated with Newbury County Girls' Grammar School in 1975</li>
  1338. <li><a href="">Wikipedia</a>.  </li>
  1339. <li>See articles in <em><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Periodicals">Berkshire Family Historian</a></em>: June 2011, Vol 34, page 22; March 2014, Vol 37, page 16.  </li>
  1340. </ul></li>
  1341. </ul><ul></ul><ul><li><strong><a id="RMAsandhurst"></a>Royal Military Academy</strong>, Sandhurst:
  1342. <ul><li><a href="">Cadet and staff registers</a>. </li>
  1343. </ul><ul><li><a href="">A history</a>, from Philip Johnston.</li>
  1344. </ul></li>
  1345. </ul><ul><li><strong><a id="Wellington_College"></a><a href="">Wellington College</a></strong>, Sandhurst.</li>
  1346. </ul><ul><li><strong><a href="">White House Preparatory School</a></strong>, Wokingham (formerly Grosvenor House School and Wokingham Preparatory School), now closed.  </li>
  1347. </ul><ul><li><a id="Universities"></a>University College, Reading (now the <strong><a href="{FCD55335-19B5-4DCB-9DEC-0B4AD51A211F}&amp;amp;item=%2fabout%2fabout-history&amp;amp;user=extranet%5cAnonymous&amp;amp;site=DiscoverReadingcmswebprod04">University of Reading</a></strong>) was established in 1892.
  1348. <ul><li><a href="">Wikipedia</a></li>
  1349. <li><em>The University of Reading: the first fifty years</em>, Holt, J.C. (Reading, Reading University Press, 1977), is available from <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Reading_Central_Library">Reading Central Library</a>. </li>
  1350. <li>The names of senior staff can often be found in <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Directories">trade directories</a>, see <a href="">sample pages</a> from a 1915 directory.  </li>
  1351. <li>The holdings of their archives are described in the relevant sections of this page.  </li>
  1352. </ul></li>
  1353. </ul></div></div></div>
  1354. </div>
  1355. <div class="panel-pane pane-entity-field pane-node-field-societies" >
  1356. <h2 class="pane-title"><a id="Societies">Societies</a></h2>
  1357. <div class="field field-name-field-societies field-type-text-long field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"> <ul><li>For national societies, see <a href="/big/Societies">United Kingdom and Ireland Societies.</a></li>
  1358. </ul><ul><li><a href="#BerksFHS">Berkshire FHS</a>. </li>
  1359. </ul><ul><li><a href="#OFHS">Oxfordshire FHS</a> (also covers the northern part of the historical area of Berkshire).</li>
  1360. </ul><ul><li><a href="">Berkshire Record Society</a> was formed in 1993 and publishes in printed form historic documents and records of the history of Berkshire that are held in <a href="#Archives">BRO</a> and elsewhere.  <a href="#Reading_Central_Library">Reading Central Library</a> hold many of their publications. </li>
  1361. </ul><ul></ul><ul><li><a href="">Berkshire Local History Association</a> provide information about Berkshire.</li>
  1362. </ul><ul></ul><ul><li>For societies covering specialist subjects, see under the related subject sections on this page.</li>
  1363. </ul><ul><li>For more local societies, see the:
  1364. <ul><li>List from the <a href="">BLHA</a>.</li>
  1365. <li>List from <a href="">Royal Berkshire History</a>.</li>
  1366. <li>Related <a href="/big/eng/BRK/Names/A">town or parish page</a>.</li>
  1367. </ul></li>
  1368. </ul></div></div></div>
  1369. </div>
  1370. <div class="panel-pane pane-entity-field pane-node-field-statistics" >
  1371. <h2 class="pane-title"><a id="Statistics">Statistics</a></h2>
  1372. <div class="field field-name-field-statistics field-type-text-long field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"> <ul><li>General information about statistics from the censuses in <a href="/big/eng#Statistics">England </a>and <a href="">UK &amp; Ireland</a>  .</li>
  1373. </ul><ul><li>The <a href="">Office for National Statistics (ONS)</a> provides high level statistical information about Berkshire from the censuses 1801 to 1991.</li>
  1374. </ul></div></div></div>
  1375. </div>
  1376. <div class="panel-pane pane-entity-field pane-node-field-taxation" >
  1377. <h2 class="pane-title"><a id="Taxation">Taxation</a></h2>
  1378. <div class="field field-name-field-taxation field-type-text-long field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"> <ul><li>General information about taxation records in <a href="/big/eng#Taxation">England </a>and <a href="">UK &amp; Ireland</a>.</li>
  1379. </ul><ul><li><strong><a href="">Death Duty records</a></strong> kept by TNA have useful genealogical information, often including: the name of the deceased, with address and last occupation, the date of the will, the place and date of probate, and the names, addresses and occupations of the executors, the date of death, and information about the beneficiaries.  See article in <em><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Periodicals">Berkshire Family Historian</a></em>, Dec 2009, Vol 33, page 19.</li>
  1380. </ul><ul><li>The <a href="">E179 database</a> by TNA is a searchable index to the "King's Remembrancer, particulars of account and other records relating to lay and clerical taxation", containing detailed information about over 26,000 documents relating to the taxation of lay people in England and Wales between c.1200 and c.1700, which are likely to contain many names. Click here for <a href=";formid=41510">Berkshire documents.</a></li>
  1381. </ul><ul><li><strong><span>The Hearth Tax</span></strong> was levied between 1662 and 1689 on each householder according to the number of hearths in their dwelling.  
  1382. <ul><li>Hearth tax returns, 1662-1664 are held by the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a>. </li>
  1383. <li>See <a href="">article</a> in <em><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Periodicals">Berkshire Family Historian</a>,</em> Sept 1999.</li>
  1384. </ul></li>
  1385. <li>
  1386. <p><strong><a href=""><span>Protestations Returns 1641-42</span></a></strong>:  On the eve of the English Civil War, Parliament ordered that a protestation be made as an oath of allegiance to the King, to Parliament and to the established church. Signed initially by members of Parliament in 1641, the order to take the protestation was later extended to all males in England and Wales over the age of eighteen. The officials of the parish were required to make the oath in front of the Justices of the Peace of the hundred, and then in turn the parish officials administered the oath of loyalty for their parishioners. The returns usually take the form of a list of the names of all of the men in the parish over the age of eighteen who took the protestation. Very occasionally, children and servants are listed, as in the case of Sutton Courtenay; or women took the protestation, as in the case of West Shefford. Those who refused to take the oath also had their names listed. The returns were later used to identify Roman Catholics by their refusal, who were then subject to increased taxation. </p>
  1387. <ul><li><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a> has a copy of the Protestation Returns for Berkshire (reference T/A 40) for consultation; the originals are held at the <a href="">Parliamentary Archives</a>. The returns that survive for Berkshire offer partial but substantial coverage, with most of central Berkshire extant.  </li>
  1388. <li>See article in <em><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Periodicals">Berkshire Family Historian</a>,</em> Sep 2009, Vol 33, page 15.  </li>
  1389. <li>See article in Vol 31, 2005 of the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Berkshire_Echo">Berkshire Echo</a>.  </li>
  1390. </ul></li>
  1391. <li>
  1392. <p><span>Rates</span> (local property tax):  An article in Vol 63, 2013 of the <em><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Berkshire_Echo">Berkshire Echo</a></em> explains their history.  The <a href="/big/eng/BRK#Archives">BRO</a> publish this <em><a href="">Guide to Rate Books and Valuation Lists</a> </em>(excluding church rates) held by them.  Entries typically include owner’s name, address and type of property, rateable value and amount levied and sometimes the occupier.  Used with other sources, rate books can be useful for: studying all kinds of property, residential, commercial and industrial; filling gaps between the publication of trade directories and censuses; tracing owners and occupiers before 1918 who do not appear in electoral registers;  finding the rough age of a property, its relative value and size, changes to street names and numbering, and the number of occupied houses and tenements in a locality. </p>
  1393. </li>
  1394. </ul></div></div></div>
  1395. </div>
  1396. <div class="panel-pane pane-entity-field pane-node-field-town-records" >
  1397. <h2 class="pane-title"><a id="TownRecords">Town Records</a></h2>
  1398. <div class="field field-name-field-town-records field-type-text-long field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"> <ul><li><a href="/big/eng#TownRecords">General information</a> about town records.</li>
  1399. </ul><ul><li><strong><span>Archived town and borough records:</span> </strong>
  1400. <ul><li><a href="#Archives">BRO</a> hold the following: Bracknell Development Corporation, Maidenhead Borough, Newbury Borough, Reading Borough 1850-1962 (R/FR1-5), Slough Borough, Windsor Borough, Wokingham Borough.</li>
  1401. <li>Search also use TNA's <a href=";_ep=berkshire%20record%20office&amp;_dss=range&amp;_hb=oth">Discovery</a> advanced search and include "Berkshire Record Office" in the "Exact word or phrase" field, in addition to your own search term(s).    </li>
  1402. <li>The location of archived records may be listed on the <a href="/big/eng/BRK#NRA">NRA</a>.  </li>
  1403. </ul></li>
  1404. </ul><p><strong>Vital Records</strong> - see <em><strong><a href="/big/eng/BRK#CivilReg">Civil Registration</a>. </strong></em></p>
  1405. </div></div></div>
  1406. </div>
  1407. <div class="panel-pane pane-entity-field pane-node-field-voting-registers" >
  1408. <h2 class="pane-title"><a id="VotingRegisters">Voting Registers</a></h2>
  1409. <div class="field field-name-field-voting-registers field-type-text-long field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"> <ul><li>
  1410. <p>General information about Voting Registers in <a href="">UK &amp; Ireland. </a></p>
  1411. </li>
  1412. <li><strong>Electoral Registers/Rolls</strong> (aka Burgess Lists) (lists of those eligible to vote in local and national elections).  See <a href="">explanation</a> from Family Search.   British Library holds copies of all past and present Electoral Registers for view by personal visit.  Their online guide provides details of what is available, both from them and from companies offering paid-for online access.
  1413. <ul><li>An article in <em><a href="/big/eng/BRK#Periodicals">Berkshire Family Historian</a></em>, Dec 2012, Vol 36, page 20 explains their value.</li>
  1414. <li><a href="/big/eng/BRK#BerksFHS">Berkshire FHS</a> talk on Feb 2016 <span><a href="">Poll Books, Burgess Lists, Electoral Rolls and Family History</a>. </span></li>
  1415. <li><a href="/big/eng/BRK#BerksFHS">Berkshire FHS</a> publish the <a href="">Electoral Roll</a> for Berkshire for 1832.  It is particularly useful since it reflects the increased franchise as a result of the wide-ranging reforms to the electoral system of England and Wales in 1832, and the next best thing to a census.</li>
  1416. <li><a href="#Reading_Central_Library">Reading Central Library</a> hold Electoral Registers for Reading and Berkshire.  See their <a href="/files/eng/BRK/RCLLocalFactsheet5ElectoralRegisters.pdf">Factsheet</a> or search their <a href="#Reading_Central_Library">catalogue</a> for "Electoral Register".  </li>
  1417. <li>The <a href="#Archives">BRO</a> hold <a href="">Electoral Registers</a> for 1832, and from 1839 to the present day.</li>
  1418. <li><a href="">Ancestry</a>, <a href="">The Genealogist</a> and <a href="">Find My Past</a> provide subscription access to some electoral rolls, including Berkshire.</li>
  1419. </ul></li>
  1420. </ul><ul><li><strong>Poll  Books</strong> (lists of those who actually voted, and often how).  See <a href="">explanation</a> from Family Search.  
  1421. <ul><li><a href="/big/eng/BRK#BerksFHS">Berkshire FHS</a> publish <a href="">Poll Books</a> for Berkshire for 1727, 1768, 1796, 1812, 1818.</li>
  1422. <li><a href="/big/eng/BRK#BerksFHS">Berkshire FHS</a> talk<em> </em><span><em><a href="">Poll Books, Burgess Lists, Electoral Rolls and Family History</a>.</em> </span></li>
  1423. <li><a href="#Reading_Central_Library">Reading Central Library</a> hold Poll Books for Reading and Berkshire.  See their <a href="/files/eng/BRK/RCLLocalFactsheet5ElectoralRegisters.pdf">Factsheet</a>. </li>
  1424. <li>The <a href="#Archives">BRO</a> hold county and borough <a href="">Poll Books</a> for certain years between 1688 and 1863. </li>
  1425. <li><em><a href=""><span>Berkshire Poll Book 1727</span></a></em>, transcribed and published by The Eureka Partnership.</li>
  1426. <li><a href="">Ancestry</a>, <a href="">The Genealogist</a> provide subscription access to some poll books, including Berkshire.  </li>
  1427. </ul></li>
  1428. </ul><p><strong>Workhouses</strong> - see <em><strong><a href="/big/eng/BRK#PoorHouses">Poorhouses</a>. </strong></em></p>
  1429. <ul></ul></div></div></div>
  1430. </div>
  1431. </div>
  1432. </div>
  1433. </div>
  1434. </div>
  1435. </div>
  1436. </div>
  1437. <footer id="footer" class="region region-footer">
  1438. <div id="block-block-3" class="block block-block first last odd">
  1439. <div class="content">
  1440. <div id="gki_footer">
  1441. <a class="html5" href=""></a>
  1442. <a class="facebook" href=""></a>
  1443. <a class="help" href="#top" onclick="gki_open_contact_form(event)">Find help, report problems, or contribute information</a>
  1444. Last updated 9 December, 2017 - 18:09 - maintained by Robert Monk<br>GENUKI is a registered trade mark of the <a href="/org/#About" rel="nofollow">charitable trust GENUKI</a> Copyright &copy; 2015, GENUKI. <a href="/Acknowledgements" rel="nofollow">Hosted by Mythic Beasts Ltd.</a>
  1445. </div> </div>
  1446. </div>
  1447. </footer>
  1448. </div> <!-- end page -->
  1449. <script>
  1450. jQuery(document).ready(function($) {
  1451. cookieControl({
  1452. introText: '<p>This site uses cookies to store information on your computer.</p>',
  1453. fullText: '<p>Some cookies on this site are essential, and the site won\'t work as expected without them. These cookies are set when you submit a form, login or interact with the site by doing something that goes beyond clicking on simple links.</p><p>We also use some non-essential cookies to anonymously track visitors or enhance your experience of the site. If you\'re not happy with this, we won\'t set these cookies but some nice features of the site may be unavailable.</p>',
  1454. theme: 'dark',
  1455. html: '<div id="cccwr"><div id="ccc-state" class="ccc-pause"><div id="ccc-icon"><button><span>Cookie Control</span></button></div><div class="ccc-widget"><div class="ccc-outer"><div class="ccc-inner"><h2>Cookie Control</h2><div class="ccc-content"><p class="ccc-intro"></p><div class="ccc-expanded"></div><div id="ccc-cookies-switch" style="background-position-x: 0;"><a id="cctoggle" href="#" style="background-position-x: 0;" name="cctoggle"><span id="cctoggle-text">Cookies test</span></a></div><div id="ccc-implicit-warning">(One cookie will be set to store your preference)</div><div id="ccc-explicit-checkbox"><label><input id="cchide-popup" type="checkbox" name="ccc-hide-popup" value="Y" /> Do not ask me again<br /></label> (Ticking this sets a cookie to hide this popup if you then hit close. This will not store any personal information)</div><p class="ccc-about"><small><a href="" target="_blank">About this tool</a></small></p><a class="ccc-icon" href="" target="_blank"title="About Cookie Control">About Cookie Control</a><button class="ccc-close">Close</button></div></div></div><button class="ccc-expand">read more</button></div></div></div>',
  1456. position: 'right',
  1457. shape: 'diamond',
  1458. startOpen: false,
  1459. autoHide: 10000,
  1460. onAccept: function(cc){cookiecontrol_accepted(cc)},
  1461. onReady: function(){},
  1462. onCookiesAllowed: function(cc){cookiecontrol_cookiesallowed(cc)},
  1463. onCookiesNotAllowed: function(cc){cookiecontrol_cookiesnotallowed(cc)},
  1464. countries: '',
  1465. subdomains: true,
  1466. cookieName: 'genuki_cookiecontrol',
  1467. iconStatusCookieName: 'ccShowCookieIcon',
  1468. consentModel: 'implicit'
  1469. });
  1470. });
  1471. </script>
  1472. <script>function cookiecontrol_accepted(cc) {
  1473. cc.setCookie('ccShowCookieIcon', 'no');jQuery('#ccc-icon').hide();
  1474. ccAddHtmlClass();
  1475. }</script>
  1476. <script>function cookiecontrol_cookiesallowed(cc) {
  1477. ccAddHtmlClass();
  1478. }</script>
  1479. <script>function cookiecontrol_cookiesnotallowed(cc) {
  1480. }</script>
  1481. </body>
  1482. </html>

Used the schema for HTML + SVG 1.1 + MathML 3.0 + RDFa Lite 1.1.

The Content-Type was text/html with utf-8 specified as the charset. Used the HTML parser.

Total execution time 2809 milliseconds.

About this checkerReport an issueVersion: 16.3.3