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sf-no-children"><a href="/big/eng/SAL" title="Shropshire" class="sf-depth-4">Shropshire</a></li><li id="menu-1800-1" class="middle even sf-item-4 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/eng/SOM" title="Somerset" class="sf-depth-4">Somerset</a></li><li id="menu-1801-1" class="middle odd sf-item-5 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/eng/STS" title="Staffordshire" class="sf-depth-4">Staffordshire</a></li><li id="menu-531-1" class="middle even sf-item-6 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/eng/SFK" title="Suffolk" class="sf-depth-4">Suffolk</a></li><li id="menu-1802-1" class="middle odd sf-item-7 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/eng/SRY" title="Surrey" class="sf-depth-4">Surrey</a></li><li id="menu-1805-1" class="middle even sf-item-8 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/eng/SSX" title="Sussex" class="sf-depth-4">Sussex</a></li><li id="menu-1806-1" class="middle odd sf-item-9 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/eng/WAR" title="Warwickshire" 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href="http://www.genuki.org.uk/big/eng/YKS/ERY/" title="" class="sf-depth-5">East Riding</a></li><li id="menu-1895-1" class="middle odd sf-item-3 sf-depth-5 sf-no-children"><a href="http://www.genuki.org.uk/big/eng/YKS/NRY/" title="" class="sf-depth-5">North Riding</a></li><li id="menu-1896-1" class="last even sf-item-4 sf-depth-5 sf-no-children"><a href="http://www.genuki.org.uk/big/eng/YKS/WRY/" title="" class="sf-depth-5">West Riding</a></li></ul></li></ul></li></ul></li><li id="menu-1769-1" class="middle even sf-item-2 sf-depth-2 sf-total-children-2 sf-parent-children-2 sf-single-children-0 menuparent"><a href="/big/irl" title="Ireland" class="sf-depth-2 menuparent">Ireland</a><ul><li id="menu-1811-1" class="first odd sf-item-1 sf-depth-3 sf-total-children-15 sf-parent-children-0 sf-single-children-15 menuparent"><a href="/big/irl" title="Antrim - Kilkenny" class="sf-depth-3 menuparent">Antrim - Kilkenny</a><ul><li id="menu-1813-1" class="first odd sf-item-1 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/irl/ANT" title="Antrim" class="sf-depth-4">Antrim</a></li><li id="menu-1814-1" class="middle even sf-item-2 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/irl/ARM" title="Armagh" class="sf-depth-4">Armagh</a></li><li id="menu-1815-1" class="middle odd sf-item-3 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/irl/CAR" class="sf-depth-4">Carlow</a></li><li id="menu-1816-1" class="middle even sf-item-4 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/irl/CAV" title="Cavan" class="sf-depth-4">Cavan</a></li><li id="menu-1817-1" class="middle odd sf-item-5 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/irl/CLA" title="Clare" class="sf-depth-4">Clare</a></li><li id="menu-1818-1" class="middle even sf-item-6 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/irl/COR" title="County Cork" class="sf-depth-4">Cork</a></li><li id="menu-1819-1" class="middle odd sf-item-7 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/irl/LDY" title="Derry (Londonderry)" class="sf-depth-4">Derry (Londonderry)</a></li><li id="menu-1820-1" class="middle even sf-item-8 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/irl/DON" title="County Donegal" class="sf-depth-4">Donegal</a></li><li id="menu-1821-1" class="middle odd sf-item-9 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/irl/DOW" title="County Down" class="sf-depth-4">Down</a></li><li id="menu-1822-1" class="middle even sf-item-10 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/irl/DUB" title="County Dublin" class="sf-depth-4">Dublin</a></li><li id="menu-1823-1" class="middle odd sf-item-11 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/irl/FER" title="Fermanagh" class="sf-depth-4">Fermanagh</a></li><li id="menu-1824-1" class="middle even sf-item-12 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/irl/GAL" title="Galway" class="sf-depth-4">Galway</a></li><li id="menu-1825-1" class="middle odd sf-item-13 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/irl/KER" title="Kerry" class="sf-depth-4">Kerry</a></li><li id="menu-1826-1" class="middle even sf-item-14 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/irl/KID" title="County Kildare" class="sf-depth-4">Kildare</a></li><li id="menu-1827-1" class="last odd sf-item-15 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/irl/KIK" title="Kilkenny" class="sf-depth-4">Kilkenny</a></li></ul></li><li id="menu-1812-1" class="last even sf-item-2 sf-depth-3 sf-total-children-17 sf-parent-children-0 sf-single-children-17 menuparent"><a href="/big/irl" title="Laois - Wicklow" class="sf-depth-3 menuparent">Laois - Wicklow</a><ul><li id="menu-1828-1" class="first odd sf-item-1 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/irl/LEX" title="Laois (Queens)" class="sf-depth-4">Laois (Queens)</a></li><li id="menu-1829-1" class="middle even sf-item-2 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/irl/LET" class="sf-depth-4">Leitrim</a></li><li id="menu-1830-1" class="middle odd sf-item-3 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/irl/LIM" title="Limerick" class="sf-depth-4">Limerick</a></li><li id="menu-1831-1" class="middle even sf-item-4 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/irl/LOG" title="Longford" class="sf-depth-4">Longford</a></li><li id="menu-1832-1" class="middle odd sf-item-5 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/irl/LOU" class="sf-depth-4">Louth</a></li><li id="menu-1833-1" class="middle even sf-item-6 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/irl/MAY" title="County Mayo" class="sf-depth-4">Mayo</a></li><li id="menu-1834-1" class="middle odd sf-item-7 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/irl/MEA" title="County Meath" class="sf-depth-4">Meath</a></li><li id="menu-1835-1" class="middle even sf-item-8 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/irl/MOG" class="sf-depth-4">Monaghan</a></li><li id="menu-1836-1" class="middle odd sf-item-9 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/irl/OFF" title="County Offaly (Kings)" class="sf-depth-4">Offaly (Kings)</a></li><li id="menu-1837-1" class="middle even sf-item-10 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/irl/ROS" title="County Roscommon" class="sf-depth-4">Roscommon</a></li><li id="menu-1838-1" class="middle odd sf-item-11 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/irl/SLI" title="Sligo, Ireland" class="sf-depth-4">Sligo</a></li><li id="menu-1839-1" class="middle even sf-item-12 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/irl/TIP" title="Tipperary" class="sf-depth-4">Tipperary</a></li><li id="menu-1840-1" class="middle odd sf-item-13 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/irl/TYR" title="Tyrone" class="sf-depth-4">Tyrone</a></li><li id="menu-1841-1" class="middle even sf-item-14 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/irl/WAT" title="County Waterford" class="sf-depth-4">Waterford</a></li><li id="menu-1842-1" class="middle odd sf-item-15 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/irl/WEM" title="County Westmeath" class="sf-depth-4">Westmeath</a></li><li id="menu-1843-1" class="middle even sf-item-16 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/irl/WEX" title="Wexford" class="sf-depth-4">Wexford</a></li><li id="menu-1844-1" class="last odd sf-item-17 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/irl/WIC" class="sf-depth-4">Wicklow</a></li></ul></li></ul></li><li id="menu-683-1" class="middle odd sf-item-3 sf-depth-2 sf-total-children-2 sf-parent-children-2 sf-single-children-0 menuparent"><a href="/big/sct" title="Scotland" class="sf-depth-2 menuparent">Scotland</a><ul><li id="menu-1845-1" class="first odd sf-item-1 sf-depth-3 sf-total-children-17 sf-parent-children-0 sf-single-children-17 menuparent"><a href="/big/sct" title="Aberdeenshire - Kirkcudbrightshire" class="sf-depth-3 menuparent">Aberdeenshire - Kirkcudbrightshire</a><ul><li id="menu-1847-1" class="first odd sf-item-1 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/sct/ABD" title="Aberdeenshire" class="sf-depth-4">Aberdeenshire</a></li><li id="menu-1848-1" class="middle even sf-item-2 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/sct/ANS" title="Angus" class="sf-depth-4">Angus</a></li><li id="menu-1849-1" class="middle odd sf-item-3 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/sct/ARL" title="Argyllshire" class="sf-depth-4">Argyll</a></li><li id="menu-1850-1" class="middle even sf-item-4 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/sct/AYR" title="Ayrshire" class="sf-depth-4">Ayrshire</a></li><li id="menu-1851-1" class="middle odd sf-item-5 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/sct/BAN" title="Banffshire" class="sf-depth-4">Banffshire</a></li><li id="menu-1852-1" class="middle even sf-item-6 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/sct/BEW" title="Berwickshire" class="sf-depth-4">Berwickshire</a></li><li id="menu-1853-1" class="middle odd sf-item-7 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/sct/BUT" title="Bute" class="sf-depth-4">Bute</a></li><li id="menu-1854-1" class="middle even sf-item-8 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/sct/CAI" title="Caithness" class="sf-depth-4">Caithness</a></li><li id="menu-1855-1" class="middle odd sf-item-9 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/sct/CLK" title="Clackmannanshire" class="sf-depth-4">Clackmannanshire</a></li><li id="menu-1856-1" class="middle even sf-item-10 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/sct/DFS" title="Dumfriesshire" class="sf-depth-4">Dumfriesshire</a></li><li id="menu-1857-1" class="middle odd sf-item-11 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/sct/DNB" title="Dunbartonshire" class="sf-depth-4">Dunbartonshire</a></li><li id="menu-1858-1" class="middle even sf-item-12 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/sct/ELN" title="East Lothian" class="sf-depth-4">East Lothian</a></li><li id="menu-1859-1" class="middle odd sf-item-13 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/sct/FIF" title="Fife" class="sf-depth-4">Fife</a></li><li id="menu-1860-1" class="middle even sf-item-14 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/sct/INV" title="Inverness-shire" class="sf-depth-4">Inverness-shire</a></li><li id="menu-1861-1" class="middle odd sf-item-15 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/sct/KCD" title="Kincardineshire" class="sf-depth-4">Kincardineshire</a></li><li id="menu-1862-1" class="middle even sf-item-16 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/sct/KRS" title="Kinross-shire" class="sf-depth-4">Kinross-shire</a></li><li id="menu-1863-1" class="last odd sf-item-17 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/sct/KKD" title="Kirkcudbrightshire" class="sf-depth-4">Kirkcudbrightshire</a></li></ul></li><li id="menu-1846-1" class="last even sf-item-2 sf-depth-3 sf-total-children-16 sf-parent-children-0 sf-single-children-16 menuparent"><a href="/big/sct" title="Lanarkshire - Wigtownshire" class="sf-depth-3 menuparent">Lanarkshire - Wigtownshire</a><ul><li id="menu-1864-1" class="first odd sf-item-1 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/sct/LKS" title="Lanarkshire" class="sf-depth-4">Lanarkshire</a></li><li id="menu-1865-1" class="middle even sf-item-2 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/sct/MLN" title="Midlothian" class="sf-depth-4">Midlothian</a></li><li id="menu-1866-1" class="middle odd sf-item-3 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/sct/MOR" title="Moray" class="sf-depth-4">Moray</a></li><li id="menu-743-1" class="middle even sf-item-4 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/sct/NAI" title="County page for Nairnshire, Scotland." class="sf-depth-4">Nairnshire</a></li><li id="menu-1867-1" class="middle odd sf-item-5 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/sct/OKI" title="Orkney" class="sf-depth-4">Orkney</a></li><li id="menu-1868-1" class="middle even sf-item-6 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/sct/PEE" title="Peeblesshire" class="sf-depth-4">Peeblesshire</a></li><li id="menu-1869-1" class="middle odd sf-item-7 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/sct/PER" title="Perthshire" class="sf-depth-4">Perthshire</a></li><li id="menu-1870-1" class="middle even sf-item-8 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/sct/RFW" title="Renfrewshire" class="sf-depth-4">Renfrewshire</a></li><li id="menu-1871-1" class="middle odd sf-item-9 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/sct/ROC" title="Ross &amp; Cromarty" class="sf-depth-4">Ross &amp; Cromarty</a></li><li id="menu-1872-1" class="middle even sf-item-10 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/sct/ROX" title="Roxburghshire" class="sf-depth-4">Roxburghshire</a></li><li id="menu-1873-1" class="middle odd sf-item-11 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/sct/SEL" title="Selkirkshire" class="sf-depth-4">Selkirkshire</a></li><li id="menu-1874-1" class="middle even sf-item-12 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/sct/SHI" title="Shetland Isles" class="sf-depth-4">Shetland</a></li><li id="menu-1875-1" class="middle odd sf-item-13 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/sct/STI" title="Stirlingshire" class="sf-depth-4">Stirlingshire</a></li><li id="menu-1876-1" class="middle even sf-item-14 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/sct/SUT" title="Sutherland" class="sf-depth-4">Sutherland</a></li><li id="menu-1877-1" class="middle odd sf-item-15 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/sct/WLN" class="sf-depth-4">West Lothian</a></li><li id="menu-1878-1" class="last even sf-item-16 sf-depth-4 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/sct/WIG" title="Wigtownshire" class="sf-depth-4">Wigtownshire</a></li></ul></li></ul></li><li id="menu-1770-1" class="middle even sf-item-4 sf-depth-2 sf-total-children-13 sf-parent-children-0 sf-single-children-13 menuparent"><a href="/big/wal" title="Wales" class="sf-depth-2 menuparent">Wales</a><ul><li id="menu-1879-1" class="first odd sf-item-1 sf-depth-3 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/wal/AGY" title="Anglesey" class="sf-depth-3">Anglesey</a></li><li id="menu-1880-1" class="middle even sf-item-2 sf-depth-3 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/wal/BRE" title="Breconshire" class="sf-depth-3">Breconshire</a></li><li id="menu-1881-1" class="middle odd sf-item-3 sf-depth-3 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/wal/CAE" title="Caernarvonshire" class="sf-depth-3">Caernarvonshire</a></li><li id="menu-1882-1" class="middle even sf-item-4 sf-depth-3 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/wal/CGN" title="Cardiganshire" class="sf-depth-3">Cardiganshire</a></li><li id="menu-1883-1" class="middle odd sf-item-5 sf-depth-3 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/wal/CMN" title="Carmarthenshire" class="sf-depth-3">Carmarthenshire</a></li><li id="menu-1884-1" class="middle even sf-item-6 sf-depth-3 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/wal/DEN" title="Denbighshire" class="sf-depth-3">Denbighshire</a></li><li id="menu-1885-1" class="middle odd sf-item-7 sf-depth-3 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/wal/FLN" title="Flintshire" class="sf-depth-3">Flintshire</a></li><li id="menu-3112-1" class="middle even sf-item-8 sf-depth-3 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/wal/GLA" title="Glamorgan" class="sf-depth-3">Glamorgan</a></li><li id="menu-1886-1" class="middle odd sf-item-9 sf-depth-3 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/wal/MER" title="Merionethshire" class="sf-depth-3">Merionethshire</a></li><li id="menu-1887-1" class="middle even sf-item-10 sf-depth-3 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/wal/MON" title="Monmouthshire" class="sf-depth-3">Monmouthshire</a></li><li id="menu-1888-1" class="middle odd sf-item-11 sf-depth-3 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/wal/MGY" title="Montgomeryshire" class="sf-depth-3">Montgomeryshire</a></li><li id="menu-1889-1" class="middle even sf-item-12 sf-depth-3 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/wal/PEM" title="Pembrokeshire" class="sf-depth-3">Pembrokeshire</a></li><li id="menu-1890-1" class="last odd sf-item-13 sf-depth-3 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/wal/RAD" title="Radnorshire" class="sf-depth-3">Radnorshire</a></li></ul></li><li id="menu-1771-1" class="middle odd sf-item-5 sf-depth-2 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/CHI" class="sf-depth-2">Channel Islands</a></li><li id="menu-1772-1" class="last even sf-item-6 sf-depth-2 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/iom" title="Isle of Man" class="sf-depth-2">Isle of Man</a></li></ul></li><li id="menu-735-1" class="middle even sf-item-2 sf-depth-1 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/Gazetteer" title="Find places by searching the gazetteer" class="sf-depth-1">Gazetteer</a></li><li id="menu-736-1" class="middle odd sf-item-3 sf-depth-1 sf-no-children"><a href="/big/churchdb" title="Search the church database" class="sf-depth-1">Churches</a></li><li id="menu-1664-1" class="last even sf-item-4 sf-depth-1 sf-total-children-3 sf-parent-children-0 sf-single-children-3 menuparent"><a href="/news" title="News about the Genuki service" class="sf-depth-1 menuparent">News</a><ul><li id="menu-1665-1" class="first odd sf-item-1 sf-depth-2 sf-no-children"><a href="/news/main" title="Site conversion to use a CMS
  78. " class="sf-depth-2">Conversion to a CMS</a></li><li id="menu-1688-1" class="middle even sf-item-2 sf-depth-2 sf-no-children"><a href="/news/drupal" title="Progress in the conversion to a Drupal managed site" class="sf-depth-2">Drupal conversion diary</a></li><li id="menu-740-1" class="last odd sf-item-3 sf-depth-2 sf-no-children"><a href="http://geneva.weald.org.uk/" title="Genealogical events" class="sf-depth-2">Online calendar</a></li></ul></li></ul> </nav>
  79. </div>
  80. </div>
  81. </header>
  82. <div id="main">
  83. <div id="content" class="column" role="main">
  84. <div class="region region-highlighted">
  85. <div id="block-block-4" class="block block-block first odd">
  86. <div class="content">
  87. <a id="top"></a> </div>
  88. </div>
  89. <div id="block-webform-client-block-75525" class="block block-webform even">
  90. <h2 class="block__title block-title">Open a form to report problems or contribute information</h2>
  91. <div class="content">
  92. <form class="webform-client-form webform-client-form-75525" enctype="multipart/form-data" action="/big/wal/CMN/Pen-Boyr/Lloyd" method="post" id="webform-client-form-75525" accept-charset="UTF-8"><div><div class="webform-progressbar">
  93. <div class="webform-progressbar-outer">
  94. <div class="webform-progressbar-inner" style="width: 0%">&nbsp;</div>
  95. <span class="webform-progressbar-page current" style="left: 0%">
  96. <span class="webform-progressbar-page-number">1</span>
  97. <span class="webform-progressbar-page-label">
  98. Introduction </span>
  99. </span>
  100. <span class="webform-progressbar-page" style="left: 33.33%">
  101. <span class="webform-progressbar-page-number">2</span>
  102. <span class="webform-progressbar-page-label">
  103. Message details </span>
  104. </span>
  105. <span class="webform-progressbar-page" style="left: 66.67%">
  106. <span class="webform-progressbar-page-number">3</span>
  107. <span class="webform-progressbar-page-label">
  108. Upload file </span>
  109. </span>
  110. <span class="webform-progressbar-page" style="left: 100%">
  111. <span class="webform-progressbar-page-number">4</span>
  112. <span class="webform-progressbar-page-label">
  113. Submitted </span>
  114. </span>
  115. </div>
  116. </div>
  117. <div class="form-item webform-component webform-component-markup webform-component--introducution">
  118. <h4>Help and advice for A History of Carmarthenshire</h4>
  119. If you have found a problem on this page then please report it on the following form. We will then do our best to fix it. If you are wanting advice then the best place to ask is on the area's specific <a href="/big/Genealogy/DiscussionGroups">email lists</a>. All the information that we have is in the web pages, so please do not ask us to supply something that is not there. We are not able to offer a research service.
  120. <p>
  121. If you wish to report a problem, or contribute information, then do use the following form to tell us about it.
  122. </p><p>
  123. </p>
  124. </div>
  125. <input type="hidden" name="details[sid]" />
  126. <input type="hidden" name="details[page_num]" value="1" />
  127. <input type="hidden" name="details[page_count]" value="3" />
  128. <input type="hidden" name="details[finished]" value="0" />
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  143. <h1 class="page__title title" id="page-title">A History of Carmarthenshire</h1>
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  165. <div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even" property="content:encoded"> <p>Lloyd, Sir John E., (Ed.). 2 vols., Cardiff, London Carmarthenshire Society (1935, 1939). </p><p>With the kind permission of the publishers sundry snippets from this book have been extracted by Gareth Hicks onto some parish pages, these below are in random order. </p><p><a href="/big/wal/Bibliography/Contents2">Here is a list of the book's contents and contributors.</a> </p><p> </p><hr /><h4>Nonconformity and Methodism</h4> <p><i>Methodism and Associated Movements/Calvinistic Methodism</i> </p><p>"Several of the major figures of Welsh Methodism were Carmarthenshire men. Abundant room has been found for argument whether Griffith Jones was, or was not, a Methodist, but none at all as to his importance in the history of Methodism --- and he was a native of <b>Penboyr,</b> and lived at Llanddowror...." </p><p><i>The Gouge Movement</i> </p><p>There is a statement that in 1675 there were in Carmarthenshire a total number of pupils of 266 getting some schooling, not just via the Welsh Trust of Gouge and his friends though, a breakdown shows the number in <b>Penboyr</b> was 20.. </p><p><i>Carmarthen Academy and Dissenting Education</i> </p><p>"A few words may be added regarding the 'secondary' education of Dissenting ministers in the county --- remembering that here, as of yore in Scotland, the line between this and 'elementary' education is hard to draw................schools were also kept at ....... and <b>Penboyr</b> ......." </p><h4>Economic and Social Life</h4> <p><i>The Woollen Industry</i> </p><p>"...... there are references to ..................  a weaver in the famous cloth district of Llangeler and <b>Penboyr</b> in 1650.... and in <b>Penboyr</b> in 1793" </p><p>"An effort was made towards the end of the 18th century and the early part of the 19th century to encourage the poor of Carmarthenshire who lacked a 'sufficient industry' to turn their attention to the spinning of yarn and the knitting of stockings. The Carmarthenshire Agricultural Society formed towards the end of the 18th century offered each year premiums to 'cottagers having nothing to depend on but their day labour, who, with the assistance of their wives and children living with them, such children not being above 12 years old, shall spin the greatest Quantity of Yarn from the first day of January to the end of the same year.' The five premiums offered by the society in this competition were won practically  every year by residents in the two parishes of Llangeler and <b>Penboyr,</b> the two parishes which have the most developed woollen trade at the present day. Such a scheme clearly illustrates the continued domestic character of the trade, and even the casual tourists of the period pay their tribute to the great industry of the peasants, and particularly of the women. Donovan says that 'every female is acquainted with the art of carding and spinning wool, which they knit into stockings, wigs, caps etc,' and that the women could card, spin, and knit about four pairs of stockings a week. </p><p>Even in the 19th century, the woollen manufacturers of Carmarthenshire were most reluctant to take up the factory system, notwithstanding that at that time the English woollen trade was prospering greatly with the increasing mechanisation. Although the power-driven carding and spinning machines had appeared within the county towards the end of the 18th century, the history of the woollen trade in the two parishes which still lead in the industry shows the reluctance to change. Llangeler and <b>Penboyr</b> had only four fulling mills at Pentrecourt, Dolwyon, Drefach, and Cwmpengraig at the end of the 18th century, and there were no factories for carding and spinning until the 19th. The first factory was set up at Cwmpengraig early in the century, and the second at Dolwyon in 1820, but these two had only machines for carding, the willying and spinning being done by hand. A third factory at Llwynbedw had spinning machines. Up to about 1850, the word 'factory' in Carmarthenshire simply meant a building where carding or spinning machines were driven by water power. " </p><h4>Boundaries and local divisions</h4> <p>"One of the seven cantrefs of Dyfed was Emlyn, occupying the south bank of the Teifi from the Tyweli to the Broyan. It was an important lordship, with a castle at Cilgerran overhanging the gorge of the Teify, until, about 1240, its owner, Gilbert Marshall, earl of Pembroke, gave the portion which lies east of the river Cuch to Maredudd ap Rhys, who built, in the parish of Cenarth, the 'New Castle' ever since known by that name. The two halves of the ancient cantref were never again united , and in Henry VIII's groupings of lordships into counties Emlyn Uch Cuch went to Carmarthenshire and Emlyn Is Cuch to Pembrokeshire. The former comprised the parishes of <b>Penboyr,</b> Llangeler, and Cenarth, with the hamlet of Cwm Morgan in the parish of Cilrhedyn; thus the river Cuch, familiar to legend as the scene of the hunting of Pwyll, prince of Dyfed, forms the county boundary throughout its length." </p><h4>The Age of the Native Princes</h4> <p><i>The Early Church: Rise of the Kingdom of Deheubarth</i> </p><p>"There are not many examples in the county of the cult of the local saint, greatly honoured and revered within his own narrow domain, but unknown elsewhere. One conspicious instance, however, is afforded by Llawddog, who drew his origin from Nudd Hael, a sixth century prince of Northern Britain, and who was the patron saint of Cenarth Mawr, <b>Penboyr</b> and Llanllawddog ........................Llawddog was also the original patron of Cilgerran, so that his authority would seem at one time to have been paramount throughout the whole cantref of Emlyn..." </p><h4>Prehistoric and Roman Times</h4> <p><i>Fortresses utilising promontories, cliffs and tongues of land at the confluences of upland streams and defended in part only by artificial works</i> </p><p>Includes; </p><ul><li>Caer Blaen Minog, Penboyr </li></ul><p><i>Topographical Index</i> </p><p>Includes; </p><ul><li><b>Penboyr.</b> Near the parish church. 'Pot of Roman coins'. (RCAM, 673) </li></ul><p><i>List of Carmarthenshire Megaliths</i> </p><p>A schedule of Standing Stones includes ;   </p><ul><li>S.W of Crug y Gorllwyn, Penboyr </li></ul><h4>Castles, Boroughs and Religious Houses</h4> <p><i>Castles/The Motte &amp; Bailey Castle</i> </p><p>"Eleven of the motte castles show traces of a bailey, rather a small number compared with those listed in the Inventories of other counties in Wales. The bailey is frequently absent from Wales, but in some cases it has been obliterated by the plough; this has happened at Llangeler....... Both types are present in the parishes of .....and <b>Penboyr</b> ....."" </p><p>"Another interesting group (of castles) --- ......and <b>Penboyr</b> --- stand along the ancient frontier of Dyfed. A portion of the boundary dyke may still be seen on the way from Carmarthen to <b>Penboyr.</b> " </p><hr /><p> </p><p><i>[Gareth Hicks  13 July 2003]</i> </p></div></div></div>
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