Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, England. Geographical and Historical information from 1835.
Geographical and Historical information from the year 1835.
[Transcribed information from A Topographical Dictionary of England - Samuel Lewis - 1835]
(unless otherwise stated)
"CAMBRIDGE, , a borough and market-town and university, having separate jurisdiction, and forming a hundred of CAMBRIDGE, in the county of CAMBRIDGE, on the river Cam, 51 miles (N.by E.) from London. This ancient town was the Gmntan-brycge, Granta-bricge, or Grante-brige, of the Saxon Chronicle, signifying the bridge over the Granta, the ancient name of the river Cam. By the substitution of cognate letters, the Saxon compound was altered after the Norman conquest into Cantebrige, since contracted into Cambridge. The earliest authenticated fact in its history is its conflagration by the Danes, in 871, who established on its desolated site one of their principal stations, which they occasionally occupied until the year 901. When the Danish army quartered here had' submitted to Edward the Elder, that monarch restored the town; but, in 1010, the Danes again laid it waste. During the period that the Isle of Ely was held against William the Conqueror^ by- the Anglo-Saxon prelates and nobles, William built a castle at Cambridge, on the site, as it is supposed, of the Danish, fortress, including also the sites of twenty-seven other houses, that, according to Domesday-book, were then destroyed. In 1088, the town and county were ravaged by Roger de Montgomery, Earl of Shrewsbury, who had espoused the cause of Robert, Duke of Normandy. Upon the agreement made in 1201, during the absence of Richard I. in Palestine, between Princo John and Chancellor Longchamp, the castle was among those which the chancellor was allowed to retain. The town was taken and despoiled by the barons in 1215. King John was at Cambridge about a month before his death: soon after his departure, the castle was taken by the barons, and on his decease a council was held here between them and Louis the Dauphin. In 1265, the inhabitants of the Isle of Ely being in rebellion against Henry III., the king took up his abode in this town, and began to fortify it; but being suddenly called away by the tidings of the Earl of Gloucester's success, he left Cambridge without a garrison, in consequence of which it was plundered by the rebels in the isle, the townsmen having fled at their approach. On the death of Edward VI., the Duke of Northumberland, at that time chancellor of the university, aiming to place Lady Jane Grey on the throne, came hither with an army to seize the Lady Mary, who, being at Sir John Huddleston's house at gawston, and receiving intelligence of his design, escaped into Suffolk. The duke advanced towards Bury, but finding himself almost deserted by his forces, he returned with a small party to Cambridge, and proclaimed Queen Mary in the market-place, but yras arrested for high treason the same night in King's College. In 1643, Cromwell, who, before he acquired any celebrity as a public character, was for some time an inhabitant of the Isle of Ely, and twice returned for the borough of Cambridge, took possession of it for the parliament, and placed in it a garrison of a thousand men. In August 1645, the king appeared with his army before Cambridge, but it continued in the possession of the parliamentarians until the close of the war. The. town has suffered several times from accidental calamities: in 1174, the church of the Holy Trinity was destroyed by fire, and most of the other churches injured; in 1394, another conflagration destroyed St. Mary's church, and many of the adjoining houses; and, in 1630, the plague raged so violently that the summer assizes were held that year at Royston; the university commencement was postponed till October, and there was no Stourbridge fair. Situated in a fenny agricultural district, Cambridge owes its chief picturesque attractions to the number and variety, and in several instances to the magnitude and beauty, of the buildings connected with the university, and the walks and gardens attached to them. The town, upwards of a mile in length, and in its greatest breadth more than half a mile, lies chiefly on the south-eastern side of the river: on the south it is entered by two principal streets, one forming a continuation of the road from London, the other of that from Colchester; these unite at a short distance from the iron bridge over the Cam, which connects them with the principal northern entrance, being that from Ely, Godmanchester, and Huntingdon. Notwithstanding recent alterations, the streets in general are narrow and irregularly formed; but on the whole, the town has been much improved by many elegant additions to the several colleges and university buildings; and other improvements on a very extensive scale are in contemplation, and will shortly be commenced. The town was paved under an act passed in 1787, and has lately been drained at a great expense; the streets and many of the public buildings are lighted with gas. Water is obtained from a conduit in the market-place, erected in 1614 by the eccentric and benevolent Thomas Hobson, carrier, and supplied by a small aqueduct communicating with a spring about three miles distant. Dramatic exhibitions are not permitted within nine miles of the town at any other period than that of Stourbridge fair, when, for three we.eks, the Norwich company of comedians perform in a commodious theatre lately erected at Barnwell: several public concerts are held in Termtime, usually at the town-hall, when the best performers are engaged; and at the Public Commencements, which generally take place every fourth year, there are grand musical festivals. A choral society on an extensive scale has recently been formed. There are several book societies upon different plans, the most consider* able of which has been established many years, and possesses a very good library, with globes, maps, &c. Cambridge has lately become a considerable tho* roughfare, particulaiirly since the draining of the fens, and the formation of excellent roads towards the east and north-east coasts, over tracts previously impassable. There is no manufacture; but a considerable trade in corn, coal, timber, iron, &c., is carried on with the port of Lynn, by means of the Cam, which is navigable ta this town. A great quantity of oil, pressed at the numerous mills in the Isle of Ely, from flax, hemp, and cole-seed, is brought up the river; and butter is also conveyed hither weekly from Norfolk and the Isle of Elyj and sent by wagons to London. The markets, which are under the sole control of the university, though the tolls belong to the corporation, are held every day in the week, Saturday's market being the largest, and are excellently supplied with provisions: the market-place consists of two spacious oblong squares. A practice peculiar to this market is that of making up the butter in rolls of such a thickness that a pound of it shall be a yard in length, in order that the butter may be more^ easily divisible into certain portions, called sizes, forthe use of the collegians. There are two fairs; one of them, for horses, cattle, timber, and pottery, beginning on the 22nd of June, and commonly called Midsummer or Pot fair, is held on a common called Mid-r summer Green, between Jesus' College and Barnwell, and is proclaimed by the heads of the university and the mayor and corporation successively: the other, called Stourbridge fair, anciently one of the largest and most celebrated in the kingdom, is held in a large field a short distance to the east of Barnwell, and is proclaimed on the 18th of September by the vice-chancellor, doctors, and proctors, of the university, and by the mayor and aldermen of the town, and continues upwards of three weeks; the staple commodities exposed for sale are leather, timber, cheese, hops, wool, and cattle j the 25th is appropriated to the sale of horses: both these fairs have been for some years declining. The town, though a borough by prescription, was first incorporated by Henry I., in the early part of his reign; and many valuable and important privileges have been granted by John, Henry III., Edwardll., Richardll., and succeeding sovereigns. The officers of the corporation are a mayor, high steward, recorder, twelve aldermen, twenty-four common council-men, four bailiffs, a town-clerk, two treasurers, two coroners, with five serjeants at mace, and other inferior officers. The mayor, bailiffs, and coroners, are elected annually on the 16th of August: the mayor and his counsellors nominate one freeman, and the freemen at large another; these two then choose twelve others, and these twelve six more, by which eighteen the election is made. The aldermen and common council-men are elected in the same manner, but hold their places for life, as do also the high steward, recorder, and town-clerk, elected by the freemen at large, vi-lio also choose the treasurers annually on Hock-Tuesday. The freedom is acquired by birth, servitude, and gift: the last is vested in the freemen at large, who are entitled to take part in the transaction of all other corporation business. The justices of the peace for the town are appointed from time to time under a commission from the king, in which the names of the chancellor, vice-chancellor, and high steward of the university, with the heads of colleges and halls, and the mayor, high steward, recorder, and aldermen, of the borough, are always inserted: they have exclusive jurisdiction, and hold a court of session quarterly. By charier of Henry III. the mayor and bailiffs hold a court of pleas, taking cognizance of actions, real and personal, arising within the town, but few actions are commenced in it: they likewise hold a court leet annually, for the appointment of constables, &c. The town-hall, rebuilt in 1782, is obscurely situated behind the shire-hall. The steward of the university holds a court leet twice a year, .for enquiring into matters connected with weights' and measures, and for licensing victuallers in- the town and the adjoining village of Chesterton. The Bishop and the Archdeacon of Ely hold their courts and have their registries here; and both the spring and the summer assizes and the quarter sessions for the county are held in the shire-hall, a handsome building standing in the market-place, containing two courts: it rests upon arches faced with stone, beneath which are shops' let to butchers and fruit-sellers. Under the powers r.at an act of parliament recently obtained, a new and commodious town gaol, on the radiating principle, has been erected in the parish of St. Andrew the Less, on the north-east of the road to Colchester: it contains cells for forty-eight prisoners, with separate day-rooms and a tread-mill. The borough has returned members to parliament since the 23rd of Edward I.: the right of election is vested in the freemen not receiving alms, in number about one hundred and eighty, about half of whom are non-resident: the mayor is the returning officer. The privilege of sending two representatives was conferred upon the university by charter in the 1st of James I.: the right of election is vested in the members of-the senate, in number about one thousand nine hundred: the vice-chancellor is the returning officer. The origin of the university is enveloped in great obscurity: it is, however, probable that Cambridge first became a seat of learning in the seventh century, when, as Bede in his Ecclesiastical History informs us, Sigebert, King of the East Angles, with the assistance of Bishop Felix, instituted within his dominions a school in imitation of some that he had seen in France, and this is thought to have been established here. It is certain that at a very early period this town was the resort of numerous students, who at first resided in private apartments, and afterwards in irins, where they lived in community under a principal, at their own charge. Several of these houses were at length deserted and fell into decay; others were purchased in succession by patrons of literature, and, obtaining incorporation with right of mortmain, received permanent rich endowments. It is believed that a regular system of academical education was first introduced in 1109, when the abbot of Crowland having sent some monks, well versed in philosophy and other sciences, to his manor of Cottenham, they proceeded to the neighbouring town of Cambridge, whither a great number of scholars repaired to their lectures, which were arranged after the manner of the university of Orleans. The first charter known to have been granted to the university is that in the 15th of Henry III., conferring the privilege of appointing certain officers, called tuxors, to regulate the rent of lodgings for students, which had been raised exorbitantly by the townsmen: this was about fifty-years before the foundation of Peter- House, the first endowed college. In 1249, the discord between the scholars and the townsmen had arrived at such a pitch as to require the interference of the civil power; and, in 1261, dissensions arose in the university between the northern and the southern men, which were attended with such serious consequences that a great number of scholars, in order to pursue their studies without interruption, withdrew to Northampton, where a xiniversity was established, and continued four years. In 1270, Prince Edward came to Cambridge, and caused ah agreement to be drawn up, by virtue of which certain persons were appointed by the town and the university, to preserve the peace between the students and the inhabitants. In 1333, Edward III, granted some important privileges to the university, making its authority paramount to that of the borough, and ordaining that the mayor, bailiffs, and aldermen, should swear to maintain its rights and privileges. These eminent favours caused the townsmen to be more than ever jealous of its authority: their discontents broke out into open violence in the succeeding reign, when, taking advantage of the temporary success of the rebels of Kent and Essex, in 1381, the principal townsmen, at the head of a tumultuous assemblage, seized arid destroyed the university charters, plundered Benedict College, and compelled the chancellor and other members of the university to renounce their chartered privileges, and to promise submission to the usurped authority of the burgesses. These lawless proceedings were put an end to by the arrival of the Bishop of Norwich with an armed force; and the king soon after punished the burgesses, by depriving them of their charter, and bestowing all the privileges which they had enjoyed upon the university, together with a grant that no action should be brought against any scholar, or scholar's servant, by a townsman, in any other than the chancellor's court. In 1430, Pope Martin V. decided, from the testimony of ancient evidences, that the members of the university were exclusively possessed of all ecclesiastical and spiritual jurisdiction over their own scholars. Richard II. restored to the burgesses their charter, with such an abridgment of their privileges as rendered them more subordinate to the university than they had previously been. On the first symptoms of an approaching war between King Charles and the parliament, the university stood forward to demonstrate its loyalty,by tendering the college plate to be melted for his majesty's use. In 1643, the Earl of Manchester, at that time chancellor of the university, came to Cambridge, and, after a general visitation of the colleges, expelled all the members that were known to be zealously attached to the king and to the church discipline. In March 1647, Sir Thomas Fairfax visited the university, and was received with ail the honours of royalty at Trinity College:1 on the 11 th of June he kept a public fast at this place. Queen Elizabeth visited Cambridge, August 5th, 1564, and stayed five days, during which she resided at the provost's lodge, Bang's College, and was entertained with plays, orations, and! academical exercises. On the 7th of March, 1615, James I., with his son Henry, Prince of Wales, was here, and was lodged at Trinity. College, which has ever since, on the occasion of royal visits, been, .the residence of -the sovereign. King James honoured the university with another visit, in 1625; and Charles I. and his queen.were there in 1632, when they were en-, tert'ained with dramatic exhibitions. It has also been visited by Charles II., October 14th, 1671, and September 27th, 1681 j by William III.,, October 4th, 1689; by. Queen Anne and the Prince, of Denmark, April 16th, 1705; by George I., October 6th, 1717;:and-by George II., in April 1728: on all these occasions the royal guests were entertained by. the university in the hall of Trinity College; and it was customary for the corporation of the town to present them with fifty broad pieces of gold. The University of Cambridge is a society of students in all the liberal arts and sciences, incorporated in the 13th of Elizabeth, by the name of the "Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge." It is formed by the union of seventeen colleges, or societies, devoted to the pursuit of learning and knowledge and for the better service of the church and state. Each, college is. a body corporate, and bound by its own statutes, but is likewise controlled by the paramount laws of the university. The present university statutes were given by Queen Elizabeth, and, with former privileges, were sanctioned by parliament. Each of the seventeen departments, or colleges, in this literary republic, furnishes members both for the executive and the legislative branch of its government; the place of assembly is the senate-house. All persons who are masters of arts, or doctors in one of the three faculties, viz., divinity, civil law, and physic, having their names upon the college boards, holding any university office, or being resident in the town, have votes in this assembly. The number of those who are entitled to the appellation of members of the senate, is at present upwards of nineteen hundred. The senate is divided into two classes, or houses; and according to this arrangement they are denominated regents, or non-regents, with a view to some particular offices allotted by the statutes to the junior division. Masters of arts of less than five .years' standing, and doctors of less than two, compose the regent or upper house, or, as it is otherwise called, the white hood house, from its members wearing hoods lined with white silk. All the rest constitute the non-regent or lower house, .otherwise called the black hood house, its members wearing black silk hoods. But doctors of more than two years' standing, and the public orator of the university, may vote in either house, according to their pleasure. Besides the two houses, there is a council called the Caput, chosen annually upon the 12th of October, by which every university grace must be approved before it can be introduced to the senate; This coxmcil consists of the vice-chancellor, a doctor in each of the three faculties, and two masters of arts, the last representing the regent and non-regent houses. A few days before the beginning of each term the vicechancellor publishes a list of the days on which congregations will be held for transacting university businessthese fixed days occur about once a fortnight, but, in case of emergency, the vice-chancellor calls a meeting, of the senate, for the despatch of extraordinary affairs: Any number of members of the senate not less than twenty-five, including the proper officers, or their legal deputies, constitute a congregation. There are also statutable congregations, or days of assembling enjoined by the statutes, for the ordinary routine of affairs: a congregation may also be held without three days' pre-' vious .notice, provided forty members of the senate be present. No degree is ever conferred without a gracefor that purpose; after the grace has passed, the vice-: chancellor is at liberty to confer the degree. The university confers no degree whatever, unless the candidate has previously subscribed a declaration that he is bonafide a member of the church of England, as by law established; for all other degrees, except those of B.A., M.B., and B.C.L., it is necessary that persons should subscribe to the 36th canon of the church of England, inserted in the registrar's book. The executive branch of the university government , is committed to the following officers:- A Chancellor, who is the head of the whole university, and presides over all cases relative to that body: his office is biennial, or tenable for such a length of time beyond two. years as the tacit consent of the university chooses to allow. A High Steward is elected by a grace of the senate, who has special power to try scholars impeached of felony within the limits of the university (the juris-, diction of which extends a mile each way from any part of the. suburbs), and to hold a court leet, according to the established charter and custom; he has power; by letters patent, to appoint a deputy. A Vice-chancellor is annually elected on. the 4th of November by the senate: his office, in the absence of the chancellor, embraces the government of the university, according to the statutes; he acts as a magistrate both for the university and the county, and must, by an order made in 1587, be the head of some college. A Commissary is appointed by letters patent under the sig-. nature and seal of the chancellor; he holds a court of record for all privileged persons, and scholars under1 the degree of M. A. A Public Orator is elected by thesenate, and is the oracle of that body on all public occasions 5 he writes, reads, and records the letters to and from the senate, and presents to all honorary degrees with an appropriate speech: this is esteemed one of the most honourable offices in the gift of the university: The Assessor is an officer specially appointed, by a grace of the senate, to assist the vice-chancelk>r in his court/ in causis forensibus et domesticis. Two Proctors, who are peace-officers, are elected annually on the 10th of October by the regents only, and are chosen from the different colleges in rotation, according to a fixed cycle: it is their especial duty to attend to the discipline and behaviour of all persons in statu pupillari, to -search houses of ill fame, and take into custody women of loose and abandoned character, and even those suspected of being so: they are also to be present at all congregations of the senate, to stand in scrutiny with the chancellor, or vice-chancellor, to take the open suffrages of the house, both byword and writing, to read them, and to propounce the assent or dissent accordingly; to read the graces in the regent house, and to take secretly the assent or dissent, and openly to pronounce the same: they must be masters of arts of two years' standing at least, and; of whatever standing in the university, are regents by virtue of their office: they determine the seniority of all masters of arts, at the time of their taking that degree. Two Librarians are chosen by the senate, to whom the regulation and management of the univer? sity library are confided. A Registrar, elected also- by the senate, is obliged, either by himself or deputy, properly- authorized, to attend all congregations, to, give requisite directions for the due form of such graces as are to be propounded, to receive them when passed in both houses, and to register them in the .records; to register also the seniority of such as,proceed yearly in any of the arts and faculties,, according to the schedules delivered to him by the proctors. Two Taxors are elected annually on the 10th of October by the regents only, who must be masters of arts, and are regents by virtue of their office: they are appointed to regulate the markets, examine the assize of bread, the lawfulness of weights and measures, and to lay all the abuses and deficiencies thereof before the commissary. Two Scrutators are chosen at the same time by the non-regents only, who are non-regents, and whose duty it is to attend all congregations, to read the graces in the lower house; to gather the votes secretly,- or to take them openly in scrutiny, and publicly to pronounce the assent and dissent of that house. Two Moderators are nominated by the proctors, and appointed by a grace of the senate: they act as the proctors' substitutes in the philosophical Schools, superintending alternately the exercises and disputations in philosophy, and the examinations for the degree of bachelor of arts; they are: also generally deputed to officiate in the absence of the proctors. Two Pro-proctors are appointed, in consequence of the in-- creasing magnitude of the university, to assist the proctors in that part of their duty which relates to the discipline and behaviour of those who are in statu pupillari, and-the preservation of the public morals. This, office was instituted by a grace of the senate, April 29th, 1.818, and bachelors in divinity, as well as masters of arts, are eligible: they are nominated by the vice-chancellor and proctors, and elected by a grace of the senate. The Classical Examiners are nominated by the several colleges, according to the cycle of proctors, and the election takes place at the first congregation after October 4th. There are three Esquire Bedells, whose duty it.is to attend the vice-chancellor, and walk before him with their silver maces on all public occasions. The University Printer, the Library-keeper, and Under Library-keeper, and the School-keeper, are elected by the body at large. The Yeoman .Bedell is appointed by letters patent under the signature and seal of the chancellor. The University Marshal is appointed by letters patent under the signature and seal of the vice-chancellor. The Syndics are members of the senate chosen to transact all special affairs relating to the university, such as the framing of laws, the regulating of fees, inspecting the library, buildings, printing, &c. The professors have stipends allowed from various sources; some from the university chest, others from, ais Majesty's government, or from estates left for that purpose; Lady Margaret's Professorship of Divinity was founded in 1502, by Margaret, Countess of Richmond, mother of- Henry VII., the election. to be every two years: the electors are the chancellor, or vice-chancellor, doctors, inceptors, and bachelors in divinity, who have been.regents in arts: the same person maybe re-elected, but the; professor usually continues in office without the observance of that ceremony. The Regius Professorship of -Divinity was founded by Henry VIII., in 1540; the candidates must be either a-bachelor or a doctor, in divinity: the electors are the vice-chancellor, the master and the two senior fellows of Trinity, the.provost of King's, and the masters of St. John's and Christ's Colleges. The Regius Professorship of Civil -Law ' was founded also by Henry VIII., in 1540: the professor is appointed by the king, and continues in office during his Majesty's pleasure. The Regius Professorship of Physic, founded at the same time, maybe held for life: the appointment is by the king. The Regius-Professorship of Hebrew was founded also at the same time; the electors are the same as to the Regius Professorship of Divinity: a candidate must not be under the standing of M. A. or B. D., but doctors of all faculties are excluded. A Professorship of Arabic was founded by Sir Thomas Adams, Bart., in 1632; the electors are the vice-chancellor and the heads of colleges: among persons qualified/ heads of houses, fellows, and masters of arts being gremials of the university, are to be preferred. The Lord Almoner's Reader and Professorship of Arabic is appointed to by the lord almoner, and the stipend is paid out of the almonry bounty. The Lucasian Professorship of Mathematics was founded in 1663, by Henry Lucas, Esq., M. P. for the university; the electors are the vice-chancellor and the masters of colleges: a candidate must be M. A. at least, and well skilled in mathematical science. The Professorship: of Casuistry was founded in 1683, by John Knightbridge, D.D., fellow of St. Pe-> ter's: the electors are, the vice-chancellor, the Regius Professor of Divinity, the Lady Margaret's Professor, and the master of St. Peter's; in case of an equality of votes, the casting vote belongs to the last: a candidate must be a bachelor or doctor in divinity, and not less than forty years of age. The Professorship of. Music was founded by the university, in 1684: the election is by a grace of the senate. The Professorship of Chemistry was founded by the university, in 1702: the election was originally by a grace of the senate, but, by a grace dated October 24th; 1793, it was determined that all subsequent elections should be more burgensium. The Professorship of Astronomy. and Experimental Philosophy was founded in 1704} by-Dr. Plume, Archdeacon of Rochester: the electors are, the vice-chancellor, the masters of Trinity, Christ's, and Caius Colleges, and the Lucasian professor; when any one of these masters is vice-chancellor, the master of St. John's is entitled to vote: the candidates may be single or married, Englishmen or foreigners. The Professorship of Anatomy was founded by the university, in 1707: the election is by a majority of the members of the senate. The Professorship of Modern History was founded by George I., in 1724: the professor is appointed by the king, and holds the office during his Majesty's pleasure: he must be either a master of arts, bachelor in civil law, or of a superior degree. The Professorship of Botany was founded by the university, in 1724, and has since been made a patent office. The Professorship of Geology was founded by Div Woodward, in l727r on the decease of the four executors of the founder's will, the election became vested in the members of the senate, in addition to whom the following persons were allowed to give their votes by proxy; viz., the chancellor of the university, the archbishop of Canterbury, the bishop of Ely, the president of the Royal Society, -the . president of the College of Physicians, and the members of parliament for the university: only unmarried men are eligible. The Professorship of Astronomy and Geometry was founded by Thomas Lowndes, Esq., in 1749: the appointment is vested in the lord high chancellor, the lord president of the privy council, the lord privy seal, the lord high treasurer, and the lord high steward of the king's household'. The Norrisian Professorship of Divinity was founded by John Norris, Esq., of Whitton, in the county of .Norfolk, in 1768: the electors must be a majority of ten heads of houses: the professor-cannot continue in office longer than five years, but may be re-elected; he may be a member of cither university, may be lay or clerical, but cannot be elected under his thirtieth,nor re-electedafter his sixtieth, year. The Professorship of Natural and Experimental Philosophy was founded in 1783, by the Rev. Richard Jackson, M,A.: the election is by those regent masters of arts who have been resident the greater part of the year previously to the day of election, excepting such as are under one year's standing, who may vote though they have not been resident for that period: a member of Trinity College is to be preferred, and next a Staffordshire, Warwickshire, Derbyshire, or Cheshire man. The Downing Professorship-of the Laws of England and the Downing Professorship of Medicine, were founded in pursuance of the will of Sir George Downing, Bart., K.B., in 1800: the electors are the archbishops of Canterbury and York, and the masters of St. John's College, Clare Hall, and Downing College. The Professorship of Mineralogy was founded by the university, in 1808, and afterwards endowed by his Majesty's government. The title of Professor of Political Economy was conferred by a grace of the senate, in May 1828, on George Pryme, Esq., M. A., late Fellow of Trinity College, and is to be a permanent professorship. Lady Margaret's Preachership Was founded in 1503: the electors are the vice-chancellor and the heads of houses: doctors, inceptors; and bachelors of divinity, are alone eligible, one of Christ's College being preferred. The Barnaby Lectureships, four in number, viz., in mathematics, philosophy, rhetoric, and logic, are so called from the annual election taking place on St. Barnabas' day, June llth: the mathematical lecture was founded at a very early period, by the university; and the other three were endowed in 1524, by Sir Robert Rede Lord Chief Justice of the court of common pleas in the reign of Henry VIII. The Sadlerian Lectureships in Algebra, seventeen in number, were founded by Lady Sadler, and the lectures commenced in 1710: the lecturers, who are required to be bachelors of arts at least, are appointed by the heads of colleges, who are the trustees^ and by the vice-chancellor for the time being, from all the colleges; the lectureships are tenable only for ten years, and no one can be elected unless previously examined and approved by the Mathematical Professor. The Rev. John Hulse, who was educated at St. John's College, and died in 1789, bequeathed his estates in Cheshire to this university, for the advancement and reward of religious learning. The purposes to which he appropriated the income are, first, the maintenance of two scholars at St. John's College; secondly; to recompense the exertions of the Hulsean prizemen; thirdly, to found and support the office of Christian Advocate; and, fourthly, that of the Hulsean Lecturer, or Christian Preacher. The Christian Advocate must be a learned atid ingenious person, of the degree of master of arts, or of bachelor or doctor of divinity, of thirty years of age, and resident in the university; he has to compose yearly, while in office, some answer in English to objections brought against the Christian religion, or the religion of nature, by notorious infidels. The office of the Hulsean Lecturer, or Christian Preacher, is annual; but the same individual may, under certain circumstances,be re-elected for any number of successive years not exceeding six: the preacher is afterwards ineligible to the office of Christian Advocate: his duty is to preach and print twenty sermons in each year, the subject of them being to shew the evidences of revealed religion, or to explairt some of the most obscure parts of the Holy Scriptures. William Worts, M.A., of Caius College, formerly one of the esquire bedells of the university, gave two pensions, of £ 100 per annum each, to two junior bachelors of arts, elected by the senate, who are required to visit foreign countries, to take different routes, and to write, during their travels, two Latin letters each, descriptive of customs, curiosities, &c.: the annuity is continued for three years, the period they are required to be absent. The prizes for the encouragement of literature, the competition for which is open to the university at large, amount annually to nearly & 1200 in value, three-fdurthg of which are given for the classics and English composition, the remainder for mathematics. The amount of the annual prizes in the different colleges is upwards of £300, two-thirds of which are given for the encouragement of classical literature. Two gold medals, value £15. 15. each, are given annually by the chancellor to two commencing bachelors of arts, who, having obtained senior optimes at least, shew the greatest proficiency in classical learning: these prizes were established in 1751, by his Grace, Thomas Holies, Duke of Newcastle, then chancellor of the university. His Royal Highness the Duke of Gloucester, the present chancellor, gives annually a third gold medal, to be conferred upon a resident undergraduate, who shall compose in English the best ode or best poem in heroic verse. The members of parliament for the university give fbur annual prizes, of & 15.15. each, to two bachelors of arts and two under-graduates, who compose the best dissertations in Latin prose: these prizes were established by the Hon. Edward Finch and the Hon.Thomas Townshend. Sir Edward Browne, Knt., M.D., directed three gold medals, value £5.5. each, to be given yearly to three under-graduates on the commencement day; the first to him who writes the best Greek ode in imitation of Sappho; the second for the best Latin ode in imitation of Horace; the third for the best Greek and Latin epigrams, the former after the manner of the Anthologia, the latter on the model of Martial. The Rev. Charles Burney, D.D., and the Rev. John Clearer Bankes, M.A., only surviving trustees of a fund raised by the friends of the late Professor Person, and appropriated to his use during his lifetime, did, by deed bear.- ing date. November 27th, 1816, transfer to the university the sum of £400 Navy five per cents, upon .trust, that the interest should be annually employed in the purchase of one or more Greek books, to be given to such resident under-graduate as shall make the best translation of a proposed passage selected from the works of Shakspeare, Ben Jonson, Massinger, or Beaumont and Fletcher, into Greek verse. The Rev. Robert Smith, D.D., late master of Trinity College, left two annual prizes, of £25 each, to two commencing bachelors of arts, the best proficients in mathematics and natural philosophy. John Morris, Esq., founder of .the divinity professorship, bequeathed a premium of £12 per annum, £7- 4. of which is to be expended on a gold medal, the remainder in books, to the author of the best prose essay on a sacred subject, to be proposed by the Norrisian professor. The Rev. John Hulse directed that, put of the rents and profits of-the estates which he bequeathed to the university for the advancement of religious learning, an annual premium of £40 should be given to any member, under the degree of M.A., who should compose the best dissertation on any argument proving the truth and excellence of the Christian religion. The Rev. Thomas Seaton, M.A., late fellow of Clare Hall, bequeathed to the university the rental of his estate at Kislingbury, producing a clear income of £40 per annum, to be given yearly to a master of arts who shall write the best English poem on a sacred subject. The university scholarships are as follows:- John, Lord Craven, founded two classical scholarships, tenable for fourteen years, of £25 per annum each, arising from estates vested in trustees: by a decree of the court of Chancery in 1819, the income of the scholars has been augmented to £50, and three additional scholarships founded, which are tenable for seven years only. Wil* lianx Battie, M.D., fellow of King's College, left an estate, producing £18 per annum, to endow -a scholarship similar to the preceding. Sir Willam Browne, Knt, M.D., left a rent-charge of £21 for endowing a scholarship tenable for seven years. The Rev. J. Davies/D.D., formerly fellow of King's College, and afterwards provost of Eton College, bequeathed, in July 1804, to the vice-chancellor for the time being, and the provost of King's College, in trust, the sum of £1000 three per cents., to found a scholarship similar to Lord Craven's> for the greatest proficient in classical learning. The Rev. William Bell, D.D., prebendary in the collegiate church of Westminster, and late fellow of Magdalene College, in 1810, transferred £15,200 three per cents, to the university in trust, to found eight new scholarships, for sons or orphans of clergymen of the church of England, whose circumstances prevent them bearing the whole expense of sending them to the university: two of these scholarships become vacant every year. By a grace of the senate, December pth, 1813, it was directed that the sum of £ 1000, given by the subscribers to Mr, Pitt's statue, for the purpose of founding the Pitt scholarship, and afterwards augmented by a donation of £500 from the Pitt club in London, should be placed in the public funds until the syndics were able to vest ft in land, the clear annual income to be paid to the Pitt, scholar. The Rev. Robert Tyrwhitt, M.A., late fellow of Jesus' College, who died in 1817, bequeathed £4000 Navy five per cents, for the promotion and encouragement of Hebrew learning, leaving the mode of appropriating it ,to the discretion of the university; in 1818 the senate decreed the foundation of three Hebrew scholarships, which number, in 1826, was increased to .six, two scholars to be elected annually, and called scholars of the first and second classes; a scholar of the first class receiving an annual stipend of £30,-and one of the second class a stipend of £20, for three years. The annual income of the university chest is about £16,000, including about £3000 of floating capital: this arises from stock in the funds, manors, lands, houses, fees for degrees, government annuity (for the surrender of the privilege of printing almanacks)) profits of the printing-office, &c. The annual expenditure is about £12,000, disbursed to the various officers, the professors, the library and schools, the university press, and in taxes, donations to charities, &c. &c. The whole is managed by the vice-chancellor for the year, and the accounts are examined by three auditors appointed annually by the senate. The right of presentation to the rectory of Ovington, in the county of Norfolk, and of nomination to the vi* carage of Burwell, in the county of Cambridge, belongs to the university at large; in addition to which the chancellor and scholars are entitled, by act of parliament passed in the 3rd of James I., and confirmed in the 1st of William and Mary, the 12th of Anne, and the llth of George II., to the nomination, presentation, collation, and donation to every benefice, prebend, or ecclesiastical living, school, hospital, and donative, belonging to any popish recusant convict, in the follow+ ing twenty-seven counties of England and Wales:- Bedfordshire, Cambridgeshire, Cheshire, Cumberland, Derbyshire, Durham, Essex, Hertfordshire, Huntingdon shire, Lancashire, Leicestershire, Lincolnshire, Norfolk, Northumberland, Nottinghamshire, Rutlandshire, Shropshire, Suffolk, Westmorland, Yorkshire, Anglesey, Caernarvonshire, Denbighshire, Flintshire, Glamorganshire, Merionethshire, and Radnorshire. The Whitehall Preach>- erships were established by George I., in 1721: twelve of the twenty-four are appointed from this university; the preachers must be fellows of colleges the whole time they hold the office, to which they are appointed by the Bishop of London, as dean of his Majesty's chapel.. There are two courts of law in the university:- the consistory court of the chancellor, and the consistory court of the commissary. In the former, the chancellor, or vice-chancellor, assisted by some of the heads of colleges, and one doctor or more of the civil law, administers justice in all personal pleas and actions arising within the limits of the university, wherein a member of the university is a party, which, excepting only such as concern mayhem and felony, are to be here solely heard and decided: the proceedings are according to the course of the civil law: from the judgment of this court an appeal lies to the senate, who commit the examination of it to certain delegates, in number not lees than three, nor exceeding five, with power to ratify or reverse it. In the commissary's court, the commissary, by authority under the seal of the chancellor, sits both in the university, and at Midsummer and Stourbridge fairs, to proceed in all causes, excepting those of mayhem and felony, wherein one of the parties is a membf-r of the university, excepting that within the university all causes and suits to which one of the proctors or taxors, or a master of arts, or any one of superior degree, is a party, are reserved to the sole jurisdiction of the chancellor or vice-chancellor: the manner of proceeding is the same as in the chancellor's court, to which an appeal lies, and thence to the senate. The university council are.appointed by a grace of the senate, and the solicitor by the vice-chancellor. The terms, three in number, are fixed: October, or Michaelmas, term begins on the 10th of October, and ends on the 16th. of December; Lent, or January, term begins on the 13th of January, .and ends on the Friday before Palm- Sunday; and Easter, or Midsummer, term begins on the eleventh day after Easter-day, and ends on the Friday after Commencement day, which last is always the first Tuesday in July. The several orders in the different colleges are as follows:- Head of a college or house, who is generally a:doctor in divinity; Fellows, who generally are doctors in divinity, civil law, or. physic, bachelors in divinity, masters or bachelors of arts: the total number, of the fellowships is four hundred and eight. Noblemen Graduates, Doctors in the several faculties, Bachelors in Divinity (who have been masters of arts), and Masters of Arts, who are not on the foundation, but whose names are kept on the boards for the purpose of being members of the senate. Graduates, who are neither members of. the senate nor in statu pupillari, are bachelors in di- vinity denominated four-and-twenty men, or ten-year men; .they are allowed by the ninth statute of Queen Elizabeth, which permits persons who are admitted at any college, twenty-four years of age and upwards, to: take: the degree of bachelor in divinity, when their names have remained on the boards ten years. Bachelors in Civil Law and in Physic, who sometimes keep their names upon the boards until they become doctors. Bachelors of Arts who are in statu pupillari, and pay for tuition whether resident or not, and generally keep their names on the boards, either to shew their desire to become candidates for fellowships, or members of the senate. Fellow Commoners, who are generally the younger sons of the nobility, or young men of fortune, and have the privilege of dining at the fellows' table; they are here equivalent to gentlemen commoners at Oxford. Pensioners and Scholars, who pay for their respective commons, rooms, &c., but the latter are on the foundation, and, from the enjoyment of scholarships, read the graces in hall, the lessons in chapel, &c. The number of scholarships and exhibitions in the university is upwards of seven hundred. Sizars are generally men of inferior fortune; they usually have their commons free, and receive various emoluments. The terms required by the statutes to be. kept for the several degrees are as follows:- A bachelor of arts must reside the greater part of twelve several terms, the first and last excepted. A master of arts mustbe a bachelor -of three years' standing. A bachelor in divinity must be M. A. of seven years' standing. A bachelor in divinity (ten-year, man) is allowed, by the 9th statute of Queen Elizabeth, to take the. degree of B. D. at the end of ten years, without having,taken any other. A doctor in divinity must be a bachelor in divinity of five years', or a master of arts of twelve years', standing. A bachelor in civil law must be of six years' standing complete, and must reside the greater part of nine several terms: a bachelor of arts of four years' standing may be admitted to .this degree. A doctor in civil law must be of five years' standing from the degree of B.C.L., or a master of arts of seven years' standing. A bachelor in physic must reside the greater part of nine several terms, and may be admitted any time in his sixth, year. A doctor in physic is bound by the same regulations as a doctor in civil law. A licentiate in physic is required to be M.A. or M.B. of two years' standing. A bachelor in music must enter his name at some college, and compose and perform a solemn piece of music as an exercise before the university. A doctor in music is generally a bachelor in music, and his exercise is the same. By an interpretation made May 31st, 1?86, it was determined that the following persons are entitled tp honorary degrees; viz.- 1. Privy Counsellors; 2. Bishops; 3. Noblemen - Dukes, Marquises, Earls,-Viscounts, Barons; 4. Sons of Noblemen; 5. Persons related to the King by consanguinity or affinity, provided they be also Honourable; 6. The eldest sons of such persons; 7. Baronets, but only to the degree of M.A. y 8. Knights, to the same degree. By a grace of the senate/passed March 18th, 1826, all the above persons, before admission to any degree, are to be examined and approved of in the same manner as the other candidates; but they have the privilege of being examined after keeping nine terms, the first and last excepted: they are then entitled to the degree of master of arts. Sometimes, however, the university confers degrees without either examination or residence, on such individuals of mature age as are illustrious, not by their birth only, but also for the services they have rendered to the state, or to literature. No person taking a degree in right of nobility is entitled to a vote in the senate, unless he have previously resided three terms. The ordinary course of study preparatory to the degree of bachelor of arts may be considered under the three heads of Natural Philosophy, Theology and Moral Philosophy, and the Belles Lettres. On these subjects^ besides the public lectures delivered by the several professors, the students attend the lectures of the tutors of their respective colleges; and the instruction under each of the three general heads above named may be thus stated:- the first comprehends Euclid's Elements, the principles of algebra, plane and spherical trigonometry, conic sections, mechanics, hydrostatics-, optics, astronomy, fluxions, Newton's Principia, Increments, &c.-; the second, Beausobre's Introduction, Doddridge's and Paley's Evidences, the Greek Testament, Butler's Analogy, Paley's Moral Philosophy, Lockers Essay, and Duncan's Logic; the third, the most cele^ brated Greek and Latin classics. Besides a constant! attendance on lectures, the under-graduates are examined in their respective colleges, yearly or half-yearly, on those subjects which have engaged their studies; andy according to the manner in which they acquit themselves in these examinations, their names are arranged in classes, and those who obtain the honour of'a place in the first class receive prizes of books, differing-in va* lue, according.to their respective merits. By this course the students are prepared for those public examinations and exercises which the university requires of all candidates for degrees: The first of these takes place in the second Lent term after the commencement of academical residence, at the general public examination held annually in the senate-house in the last week- of that term, and continues for four days; two classes, eacharranged alphabetically, are formed, out of those examined, the first consisting of those who have passed their examination with credit, and the second of those to whom the examiners have only not refused their certificate of approval. Those who are not approved by the examiners are required to attend the examination of the following year, and so on; and no degree of B.A., M.B., orB.C.L., is granted unless a certificate be presented to the Caput that the candidate for such degree has passed, to the satisfaction of the examiners, some one of these examinations. The student having passed this preparatory step, has next to perform the exercises required by the statutes for the degree which he has in view. By a late regulation of the court of directors of the Honourable the East India Company, with the approbation of the Board of Commissioners for the affairs of India, an examination has been appointed for those candidates for writerships in the service of the Company, who have not resided in the college at Haileybury. An examiner is appointed by each university, and the examination takes place at the India House. The candidates are examined in the Greek Testament, and in some of the works of the following Greek authors, me. Homer, Herodotus, Demosthenes, or in the Greek plays; and in some of the works of the following Latin authors, viz. Livy, Cicero, Tacitus, and Juvenal; which part of the examination includes collateral reading in ancient history, geography, and philosophy: they are also examined in mathematics, including the four first and sixth books of Euclid, algebra, logarithms, plane trigonometry, and mechanics; in modern history, chiefly taken from Russel's "Modern Europe;" and in Paley's Evidences of Christianity. The number of members of the university, in 1828, was five thousand one hundred and four, of whom one thousand nine hundred and seventy-four were members of the senate; the number of the resident members, at the close of the year 1829, was one thousand seven hundred and seventy-one, of whom six hundred and seventy-three were in licensed lodgings. The principal public buildings belonging to the university are, the senate-house, and the public schools and library: the former, of these forms the north, and the latter the west, side of a grand quadrangle, which has Great St. Mary's church on the east, and King's College chapel on-the south. The senate-house is an elegant building of ^Portland stone, erected from a design by Sir James Burrough, at the expense of the university, aided by an extensive subscription: the foundation was laid in 1722, but it was not entirely completed until 1766: the exterior is of the Corinthian order, and the interior of the Doric, with wainscot and galleries of Norway oak, the latter capable of accommodating one thousand persons; the room is one hundred and one feet long, forty-two broad, and thirty-two high, with a double range of windows: near the centre of one side is a marble statue of George I., by Rysbrach, executed at the expense of Lord Viscount Townshend; and opposite to it is that of George II. by Wilton, executed in 1766, at the expense of Thomas Holies, Duke of Newcastle, then chancellor, of the university: at the east end, on one side of the entrance, is a statue of the Duke of Somerset, by Rysbrach; and on the other that of the Right Hon. William Pitt, by Nollekins, erected by a subscription among the members of the university, amounting to upwards, of £7000. The public schools, in which dis- putations are held and exercises performed, were commenced on their present site in 1443, at the expense of the university, aided by liberal benefactions: they form three sides of a small court, the philosophy school being on the west, the divinity school on the north, and the schools for civil law and physic on the south; on the east is a lecture-room for the professors, fitted up in 1795: connected with the north end of the philosophy school is an apartment containing the valuable mineralogical collection presented to the university by Dr. Woodward, in 1727. The public library occupies the whole quadrangle of apartments over the schools, and consists of four large and commodious rooms, containing upwards of one hundred thousand volumes; at the commencement it occupied only the apartment on the east side, but was afterwards extended to the north side also: its most important acquisition was in the early part of the last century, when George I. having purchased of the executors of Dr. Moore, Bishop of Ely, that prelate's collection of books, amounting to upwards of thirty thousand volumes, for £6000, gave them to this university, at the same time contributing the sum of £2000 towards fitting up rooms for their reception: among the objects of the greatest curiosity in this extensive library are, a valuable and very ancient manuscript on vellum of the Gospels, and Acts of the Apostles, in Greek and Latin, presented to the university by Theodore Beza; and a large collection of the earliest printed books by Caxton, and from the foreign presses. The library has also received valuable donations of oriental books and manuscripts, chiefly from Dr. George Lewis, late archdeacon of Meath, the late Rev. Dr. Buchanan, and the Rev. C. Burckhardt. The upper part of a mutilated colossal statue, from the temple of Ceres at Eleusis, the gift of Messrs. Clarke and Cripps, of Jesus' College, by whom it was brought to England, is placed in the vestibule. The rents of the university's estate at Ovington, in the county of Norfolk, are appropriated to the purchase of books for the library, that estate having been bought with money given to the university, in 1666, by Tobias Rustat, Esq., to be so applied. William Worts, M. A., fellow of Caius College, bequeathed the annual surplus of the produce' of his estate at Landbeach, in this county, to be applied to the use of the public library. A quarterly contribution of one shilling and sixpence from each member of the university, excepting sizars, is also made towards its support. This is one of the eleven libraries entitled by act of parliament to a copy of every new publication. The management is entrusted to syndics, who are the vice-chancellor, the heads of houses, all doctors in each faculty, the public orator, and all public professors, the proctors, and the scrutators. All members of the senate, bachelors in law and physic, and bachelors of arts, under certain restrictions, are entitled to the use of the library. The superintendence of the university press is committed by the senate to syndics, who meet to transact business in the parlour of the printing-office, and cannot act unless five are present, the vice-chancellor being one. Richard, Viscount Fitz-William, formerly of Trinity Hall,: who died in 1816, bequeathed to the university his splendid collection of books, paintings, drawings, engravings, &c., together with £ 100,000 South Sea annuities, for the erection of a museum to contain, them: the old free school, in Free School-lane, has been fitted up to serve the purpose temporarily. The collection has since been augmented by many valuable donations of paintings, prints, books, .&c. The Botanical Garden/occupies between three and four acres on the south-east side of the town, conveniently disposed and well watered: this piece of ground, with a large old building that formerly belonged to 'the Augustine friars, was purchased for £1600 -by the late Dr. Richard Walker, vice-master of Trinity .College. The old building having been sold, a new one has been erected for the use of the lecturers in chemistry and botany. The garden is under the government of the vice-chancellor, the provost of King's College; the masters of Trinity and St. John's. Colleges, and the Professor of Physic. The Anatomical School, situated near Catharine Hall, contains a large collection of. rare and valuable preparations, including the museum of the late professor, Sir B. Harwood, and a set of models beautifully wrought in wax, recently imported from Naples: it is a small building conveniently fitted up, with a theatre for the lectures on-anatomy and medicine, which are delivered annually in Lent term. Measures for the establishment of the Observatory Were first adopted in 1820, when a sum of £6000 was subscribed by the members of the university, to which £5000 was added out of the public chest by a grace of the senate. The building was commenced in 1822, and is now completed: it stands on an eminence, about a mile from the college walks, on the road to Madingley, and is in the Grecian style; the centre, surmounted by a dome, is appropriated to astronomical purposes, and the wings for the residence of the observers. The superintendence is vested in the Plumian professor, under whose direction are placed two assistant observers, who must be graduates of the university, and are elected for three years, being capable of re-election at the expiration of that term. The observations are printed and published annually, and copies are presented to the principal European observatories, viz., those of Greenwich, Oxford, Dublin, Paris, and Palermo. The Philosophical Society was instituted November 15th, 1819, for the .purpose of promoting scientific enquiries, and of facilitating the communication of facts connected with the advancement of philosophy and natural history: it consists of fellows and honorary members, the former being elected from such persons only as are graduates of the university, and no graduate or member of the university can be admitted an honorary member: attached to the society is a reading-room, supplied with the principal literary and scientific journals, and the daily newspapers. St. Peter's College, commonly called Peter-house, was founded in 1257, by Hugh de Balsham, Bishop of Ely. There are fourteen fellowships on the foundation, to which no person can be elected who is M. A., or of sufficient standing to take that degree; and there cannot be more than two fellows from any one county, except those of Cambridge and Middlesex, each of which may have four: one-fourth of the foundation fellows are required to be in priest's orders. By Queen Elizabeth's license the five senior clerical fellows may hold, with their fellowships, any livings not rated higher than £20 in the king's books, and within twenty miles of the university. There are ten bye-fellows distinct from the former, and not entitled to any office or vote in the affairs of the college, but eligible to foundation fellowships. There are fifty-two scholarships, of different value, which are paid according to-residence, The Bishop of Ely is visitor, and appoints to the mastership one of two candidates norni* nated by the society. The livings in the patronage of the master and fellows are the perpetual curacy of Little St; Mary, in the town of Cambridge -, the vicarage of Cherry-.Hinton, in the county of Cambridge; the vicarage of Ellington, ha the county of Huntingdon; the rectory of Stathern, in the county of Leicester; the rectory of Exford, in the county of Somerset; and the rectory and vicarage of Freckenham, and the -rectories of Newton, Norton> and Witnesham, in the county of Suffolk: annexed to the mastership is the rectory of Glaston, in the county of Rutland; and the master and Lord Suffield are alternate patrons of the rectory of Knapton, in the county of Norfolk. The college, which stands on the west side of Trumpington-street, consists of three courts, two of which are separated by a cloister and gallery: the largest of these is one, hundred and fortyfour feet long, eighty-four broad, and cased with stone; the lesser, next the street, is divided by the chapel, and has on the north side a lofty modern building faced with stone, the upper part of which commands an extensive prospect of the country toward the south: the third was completed in 1826, by means of a donation from a late fellow, the Rev. Fras. Gisborne, from whom it is called the Gisborne court. The chapel, a handsome structure erected by subscription in 1632, is chiefly remarkable for its fine east window of painted glass, representing the Crucifixion. Among the eminent persons who have been members of this society, or educated at the college, may be enumerated Cardinal Beaufort; Archbishop Whitgift; Andrew Perne, Dean of Ely; Bishops Wren, Cosin, Walton (editor of the Polyglott Bible), and Law; Moryson, the traveller; Crashawe, the poet; Dr, Sherlock, Dean of St. Paul's; Sir Samuel Garth; the learned Jeremiah Markland, the poet Gray; and Lord Chief Justice Ellenborough. Clare Hall was founded, in 1326, by Dr. Richard Badew, afterwards chancellor of the university, by the name of University-hall; but having been burned to the ground about the year 1342, it was rebuilt and munificently endowed, through the interest of Dr. Badew, by Elizabeth de Burgh, one of the sisters and co-heiresses of Gilbert, Earl of Clare, and from, her received its present name. The society consists of a master, ten senior, or foundation fellows, nine junior, and three bye-appropriation fellows: the senior and junior fellowships are open to all counties. The master is elected by the senior and junior fellows, and must be either a bachelor or a doctor in divinity. The seniors must all be divines, except two, who, with the consent of the master and a majority of the fellows, may practise law and physic. Of the nine junior fellowships, two^ may be held by laymen: the other seven require priest's orders after a certain standing. The three bye-appropriation fellows hold no college office, nor haye they any vote in college business, and are ever after ineligible to any other fellowship: they must take priest's orders within seven years after they are bachelors of arts. There are thirty-four scholarships, eight of which have been lately increased, four of the value of £50 per annum each, and the other four £20 each, besides a weekly allowance in the buttery- of .three -shillings and threepence, during residence. Four exhibitions of £20 per annum each were founded by Archdeacon Johnson, with-preference to persons educated at OaKham and Uppirigham schools. The visitors are, the chancellor, and two persons appointed by a grace of the senate. The livings in the patronage of the master and fellows are, the -vicarages of Duxford St. John and Littlington, in the county of Cambridge; the rectory of Datchworth, in the county of Hertford; the rectory of Brington, with the perpetual curacies of Bythorn and Old Weston annexed, and the vicarages of Everton with Tetworth and Great Gransden, in the county of Huntingdon; the vicarage of Wrawby with the curacy of Brigg, in the county of Lincoln; the rectory of Hardingham, in the county of Norfolk; the rectories of Elmsettj Fornham All Saints with that of Westley, and Great,Waldingfield, in the county of Suffolk; the rectories of Qckley and Rotherhithe, in the .county of Surrey; the.rectory of Orcheston St. Mary, in the county of Wilts; the rectory of Patrington, in 'the East riding, and the vicarage of Warmfield in the West riding, of the county of York. This hall, one of the most uniform buildings of.the university,-is very pleasantly situated on the eastern bank of the Gam; over which it has an elegant stone bridge, leading to a shady walk opening into a beautiful lawn surrounded by lofty elms. It was rebuilt in 1638, of Ketton stone, and consists of one grand court, one hundred and fifty feet long, and one hundred and eleven broad: the front towards the fields is very handsome, being adorned with two rows of pilasters, the lower in the Tuscan, the upper in the Ionic, order. The chapel, the rebuilding of which, from an elegant design by Sir James Burrough, was completed in 1769, at an expense of £7000, is remarkable for the neatness of its stucco-work. Among its eminent members, &c., were Thomas Philipot, the herald and antiquary; Archbishops Heath and Tillotson; Bishops Hugh Latimer, Gunning, Moore, and Henchman; George Ruggle, author of Ignoramus; Dr. Burnet, author of the Theory of the Earth; John Parkhurst, the lexi- cographer; Dr. Cudworth, author of the Intellectual System; William Whiston; Martin Folkes; Dr. Langhorne; Whitehead, the poet laureat; Thomas Cecil, Earl of Exeter; Thomas Holies, Duke of Newcastle; and the late Marquis Cornwallis. Pembroke College was founded, in 1343, by Mary, Countess of Pembroke, and its endowment greatly enlarged by Henry VI. There are fourteen foundation and two byefellowships, open to all counties, but no county to have more than three; six of the fellows must be in deacon's or priest's orders. There are twelve scholarships, varying in value from £12 to £50 per annum each, besides several of smaller amount: the lord high chancellor is visitor. The livings in the patronage of the master and fellows are, the vicarage of Soham with the curacy of Barraway, and the vicarage of Linton, in the county of Cambridge; the rectory of Rawreth, in the county of Essex; the rectory of Orton- Waterville, and the vicarage of Waresley, in the county of Huntingdon; the rectories of Cawston and Sail, and the vicarage of Saxthorpe, with the consolidated vicarages of Tilney All Saints and Tilney St. Lawrence,' in the county of Norfolk; and the rectories' of Framlingham and Earl-Stonham, in the county of Suffolk. The college, or hall, is situated on the east side of Trumpington-street; nearly opposite to St. Peter's College, and consists of two courts of nearly equal dimensions, being about ninety-five feet by fifty-five, with the hall between them. On the east.side of the inner court is a small detached building, erected for the purpose of containing a'hollow sphere, eighteen feet in diameter, turning round with ease, and having the constellations painted inside, constructed by Dr. Long, Lowndean Professor:of Astronomy, and formerly master of this college: the interior is so contrived as to form, an excellent astronomical leqture-room, being capable of containing conveniently about thirty persons. Among the college plate is preserved a curious gilt silver cup, of considerable antiquity, the gift of the foundress in the reign of Edward III. The chapel, built by Dr. Matthew Wren, Bishop of Ely, from a design by his nephew Sir Christopher, and. consecrated by that bishop in 1665 is one of the most elegant and best proportioned in the university. Among the more eminent members, &c., may be reckoned, Archbishops Grindal and Whitgift; Bishops Lindwood, Fox, Ridley, and Andrews; the martyrs, Rogers and Bradford; the poets, Spenser, Gray, and Mason; Dr. Long, the astronomer; Stanley, editor of JJschylus; and the late illustrious statesman, the Right Hon. William Pitt. Gonville and Caius College, originally styled Gonville Hall, was founded in 1347, by Edmund, son of Sir Nicholas Gonville, of Terrington, in the county of Norfolk; in 1558, the hall was consolidated with the new foundation by Dr, John Caius, and under the charter then obtained the united foundations received the name There are twenty-nine fellowships, of which twenty-one are open to all counties, and seventeen to laymen: two of the fellows must be physicians. There are twenty-six scholarships, open to all counties; three are of the value of £56 per annum each, six of £40, six of £36, six of £30, one of £24, one of £22, and three of £20: there is also a scholarship in chemistry, of the value of £20 per annum, and four studentships in physic, of upwards of £100 per annum each; in addition to these scholarships are fourteen exhibitions of different value. The visitors are, the master of Corpus Christi College, the senior doctor in physic, and the master of Trinity Hall. The livings in the patronage of the master and fellows are, the rectory of Beachampton, in the county of Buckingham; the rectory of Bratton-Fleming, in the county of Devon; the rectory of Broadway with that of Bincombe, in the county of Dorset; the rectory of Ashdon, in the county of Essex; the rectories of Blofield, Denver, Hethersett, Kirstead, the vicarage of Mattishall with the rectory of Pattesley, the rectories of Great Melton All Saints' and St. Mary's with St. Michael's Coslaney, Norwich, the rectory of St. Clement's (Norwich) with that of Long Stratton, the rectory of Oxborough with the vicarage of Foulden, the rectories of Weeting All Saints and Weeting St. Mary, the rectory of Wheatacre All Saints with the vicarage of Mutford and the perpetual curacy of Barnaby, and the vicarage of Wilton with the rectory of Hoekwold, in the county of Norfolk; and the rectory of Lavenham, in the county of Suffolk. This college stands on the west side of Trumpington-street, having Trinity College on the north, Trinity Hall on the west, and the senate-house on the south: it consists of three courts; the south court, and three remarkable gates of Grecian architecture, built by Dr. Caius, are supposed to have been designed by John of Padua, architect to Henry VIII., and to be the only works of his now remaining in the kingdom; of the principal court, part has been rebuilt, and the rest cased with stone and elegantly sashed. The chapel, though small, is admired for its beauty: on the south wall is the monument of Dr. Caius, whose body lies in a sarcophagus, under a canopy supported by Ionic columns; on the same wall is the monument of Stephen Perse, M.D., a great benefactor to the university, who died in 1615; in the ante-chapel is the gravestone of Sir James Burrough, Knt., formerly master, an ingenious architect, who designed the senate-house and other public buildings in Cambridge, and died in 1774. The library is small, but contains some exceedingly valuable books and manuscripts, particularly in heraldry and genealogy. The college has been a celebrated seminary for professors of medicine and anatomy, ever since the time of its second founder, the learned physician, Dr. Gaius: of those who have most eminently conferred honour on the society in this faculty may be enumerated Dr. Francis Glisson; Sir Charles Scarborough; Dr. William Harvey, the discoverer of the circulation of the blood j and Dr. William Hyde Wollaston. Among other distinguished members, or students, were Dr. Branthwaite, one of the translators of the Bible; Sir Thomas Gresham; Sir Peter le Neve, the herald and antiquary; Richard Parker, author of the SKsXtrA? Cantabrigiensis; Dr. Brady, the historian; Henry Wharton, author of the Anglia Sacra; Sir Henry Chauncy and Francis Blomefield, the historians of Hertfordshire and Norfolk; the celebrated Bishop Taylor; Bishop Skip, one of the compilers of the Liturgy; Jeremy Collier; the learned Dr. Samuel Clarke; Shadwell, the poet; and Lord Chancellor Thurlow. Trinity Hall was founded, in 1350, by William Bateman, Bishop of Norwich. There are twelve fellowships, which are ordinarily held by graduates in civil law; ten of the fellows are usually laymen,andtwoinholy orders. The lord chancellor is visitor. The livings in the patronage of the master and fellows are, the perpetual curacy of St. Edward, in the town of Cambridge; the vicarage of Weathersfield, in the county of Essex; the vicarage of Fenstanton with the perpetual curacy of Hilton, and the vicarages of Great Stukeley and Grey-Hemingford, in the county of Huntingdon; the rectory of Swannington with the vicarage of Wood-Dalling, in the county of Norfolk; and the perpetual curacy of Cowling, and the perpetual curacy of Kentford with the vicarage of Gazeley, in the county of Suffolk. This hall stands behind the senate-house, near the river and on the northern side of Clare Hall: the principal court is very neat, being faced with stone both within and without; the second is a convenient and handsome pile of brick and stone, recently erected for the accommodation of the under-graduates. The chapel is chiefly worthy of notice for its finely-painted altar-piece. The library contains, among other valuable books, a complete body of the canon, Roman, and common law. Among remarkable persons who have been members, or students, were Bilney, the martyr; Gardiner, Bishop of Winchester; Bishops Barlow (of Lincoln), Halifax, and Horsley (of St. Asaph); Thomas Tusser, the writer on husbandry; Sir Peter Wyche, the traveller; Dr. Haddon, master of the requests to Queen Elizabeth.; Sir Robert Naunton, secretary of state to James I.; Philip, the celebrated earl of Chesterfield; Sir William de Grey, Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, and several other eminent lawyers, who have recently filled distinguished offices in that profession. Corpus Christi College was founded, in 1351,bythe brethren of two guilds in Cambridge, bearing the names of Gilda Corpora Christi, and Gilda Beat<£ Marice Virginis. There are twelve fellowships, four of which are appropriated, two for pupils from the school at Norwich, and two for na- tives of the county of Norfolk; the rest are open, with the restriction only that four of the candidates shall (if it maybe) be natives of Norfolk: all the fellows are required to take orders within three years after their election. The visitors are, the vice-chancellor, and the two senior doctors in divinity; in extraordinary cases the king is visitor. The livings in the patronage of the master and fellows are the perpetual curacy of St. Benedict in the town of Cambridge; the rectory of Duxford St. Peter, the vicarage of Grantchester, and the rectories of Landbeach and Little Wilbraham, in the county of Cambridge; the rectory of Stalbridge, in the county of Dorset;. the rectories of Great Braxted and Lambourne, in the county of Essex; the rectory of St. Mary Abchurch with the perpetual curacy of St. Lawrence Pounteney, in the city of London; and the rectory of Fulmodeston with the vicarage of Croxton, and the rectory of Thurning, in the county of Norfolk. This college, frequently called Bene't College, from its proximity to the church of St. Benedict, is situated in Trumpington-street, opposite to Catharine Hall; the extent and magnificence of its buildings give it a high rank among the recent improvements which have added so much to the splendour of the university. It consists of two large courts, the old and the new, the latter having been lately erected out of the funds which had accumulated for that purpose, from the munificent bequests of Archbishop Herring, and Bishops Mawson and Green, formerly masters of the college. The new buildings were commenced in July 1823; the grand west front of the new court is two hundred and twenty-two feet long, with a lofty massive tower at each extremity, and a superb entrance gateway in the centre, flanked by towers corresponding with the former; the exterior is built of Ketton stone, ana richly ornamented: the court is one hundred and fiftyeight feet long, and one hundred and twenty-nine broad, having the chapel on the east side, the library On the south, and the hall on the north. The chapel, begun in 1579 by the Lord Keeper Bacon, is sixty-six feet long, and its exterior is richly adorned with sculpture. The library is a fine lofty room eighty-eight feet long, and contains the valuable manuscripts bequeathed to the college by Archbishop Parker, comprising a collection of papers relative to ecclesiastical affairs, made on the dissolution of .religious houses by Henry VIII., with other interesting documents relating to the Reformation, and the original record of the Thirty-nine Articles. The old court, situated behind the hall, is a very ancient pile of building, entirely appropriated to the accommodation of the students. Among the college plate is a curious ancient drinking horn, which belonged to the guild of Corpus Christi. Of the distinguished members were, Archbishops Parker,Tenison, Herring, and Sterne; Bishops Allen, Fletcher,Jegon, Greene (Thomas), Bradford, Mawson, Green (John), Ashburhham, and Yorke; Sir Nicholas Bacon; Roger Manners, fifth earl of Rutland; Philip, second earl of Hardwicke; his brother, the Right Hon. Charles Yorke; Sir John Cust, Bart., Speaker of the House of Commons; Jojm Fletcher, the dramatic poet; Stephen Hales, the natural philosopher; Nathaniel Salmon, the topographer; and Dr. Stukeley, Robert Masters (the historian of the college), and the late Richard Gough, three celebrated antiquaries. King's College was founded, in 1441, by King Henry VI. The society consists of a provost and seventy fellows and scholars; the latter are supplied by a regular succession from Eton College, and, at the expiration of three years from the day of their admission, they are elected fellows. This college possesses some remarkable privileges and exemptions: by charter it appoints its own coroner; no writ of arrest can be executed within its walls; the provost has absolute authority within the precincts; by special composition between this society and the university, the members are exempt from the power of the proctors and the university officers, within the limits of the college; neither by usage do they keep any public exercises in the schools, nor are they in any way examined for the degree of bachelor of arts. The Bishop of Lincoln is visitor. The livings ia the patronage of the provost and fellows are, the rectory of Kingston, and the sinecure rectory and vicarage of Milton All Saints, in the county of Cambridge; the rectory of Sampford-Courtenay, and the curacy of Tiverton (Priors-quarter), in the county of Devon; the rectory of Stower-Provost with that of Todbere, in the county of Dorset; the rectory of Dunton, in the county of Essex; the rectory of Chalton with that of Clanfield, the rectory of Monkston, and the vicarages of Fordingbridge and Ringwood, in the county of Hants; the rectories ofBucklandandWalkern, in the county of Hertford; the vicarage of Prescot, in the county of Lancaster; the rectory of Hemingby, and the vicarage of Willoughton, in the county of Lincoln, of which latter, Lord Scarborough possesses the alternate patronage; the rectory of Great Greenford, in the county of Middlesex; the rectory of Coltishall with that of Horstead, the rectory of Hempstead with that of Lessingham, and the 'rectory of Monks-Toft with that of Haddiscoe, in the county of Norfolk; the vicarage of Weedon-Loys, in the county of Northampton; the perpetual curacies of Great Bricett and Little Finborough, the rectory of Hepworth, and the perpetual curacies of Kersey, Lindsey, and Wattisham, in the county of Suffolk; the vicarage of Kew with that of Petersham, the vicarage of Kingston on Thames with that of Richmond, and the perpetual curacies of East Moulsey and Thames-Ditton, in the county of Surrey; the rectory of Ewhurst, in the county of Sussex; the vicarage of Wootton-Waven, in the county of Warwick; and the vicarage of Broadchalk, in the county of Wilts. The buildings stand on the west side and near the centre of Trumpington-street, between it and the river, over which is a handsome stone bridge, communicating with the shady walks on the other side: they consist principally of the old court, now uninhabited, and purchased by the university to be taken down, in order to enlarge the public schools, and the- grand court, recently completed, having Gibbs' building on the west, the magnificent chapel on the north, the library and hall on the south, and a grand entrance from Trumpington-street 'on the east, forming altogether the most superb groupe-of buildings in Cambridge. The old court, built of stone, about one hundred and twenty feet' by ninety, appears to be coeval with the foundation. A little to the south of it -stands the chapel, the chief architectural ornament of the town, and one of the finest specimens of the later style of English architecture in the kingdom. This splendid structure was begun by King Henry VI., in 1441; continued by Edward IV., Richard III., and Henry VII.; and completed with money bequeathed by the latter for that purpose, in the year 1515: it forms the north side of the grand court: its extreme length is three hundred and sixteen feet, its breadth eighty-four feet, its height to the summit of the battlements ninety feet, to the top of the pinnacles one hundred and one, and to the summit of the corner towers one hundred and fortysix feet: about the middle of the interior is a wooden screen, supporting the organ gallery, and separating the ante-chapel from the choir, erected in 1534, and very curiously carved: the choir is paved with marble; the present altar-piece was erected about the year 1780. One of the most striking features of this edifice is the magnitude and beauty of its painted windows, of which there are twelve on each side, nearly fifty feet high, which, together with the east window, are enriched with various subjects from Scripture history: this beautiful glass was put up in the early part of the reign of Henry VIII,, and is further interesting as presenting one of the very few instances in which this species of church decorations escaped, in such complete preservation, the destruction to which they were doomed in the time of the Commonwealth. On each side are nine small chapels, seven of which on the south side contained, until recently, the college library, to which the late learned Mr. Bryant bequeathed his valuable collection, in 1804. It was the intention of the royal founder that the chapel should form the south side of a large court, and for this purpose he granted two quarries of stone, in Yorkshire, besides £1000 per annum payable out of the duchy of Lancaster, until the college should be completed; but Edward IV. deprived the college of this money, together With nearly two-thirds of its possessions, in consequence of which nothing further was done towards completing the design, until the new building, an edifice of Portland stone, two hundred and'thirty-six feet long, and intended to form the west side of the great court, was begun in 1724, and completed- from a design by Mr. Gibbs. The provost's -lodge,' adjoining the bridge leading to the college walks, is very spacious and magnificent. The'new buildings are from designs by William Wilkins, Esq. M.A. Amongst its eminent members and students may be enumerated Archbishop Rotherham; Bishops Fox, West, Aldrich, Cox, Guest, Wickham, Montagu, Pearson, FleetwoQd, Hare, Weston; and Dam'pier; the martyrs, Fryth, Saunders, Glover, and Fuller; the statesmen, Sir John Cheke, Dr. Thomas Wilson, Sir Francis Walsingham, Walter Haddbn, Sir William Temple, Sir Albert Moreton, Sir Robert; Walp'ole, Horatio Lord Walpole, and Lord Chancellor. Camden; Anthony Wooton, provost of Eton; Edward Hall, the historian; William Oughtred, the mathematician; Dr. Cowell, the civilian; Dr. Castell, author of the.Heptaglott Lexicon; Waller, the poet; Dean Stanhope; Christopher Anstey; Jacob Bryant; and Horace, Earl of Orford. Queen's College was founded by Margaret of Anjou, consort of Henry VI., in 1446, and re-founded by Elizabeth Widville, consort of Edward IV., in 1465. There are nineteen foundation fellowships, the number of which may be increased or diminished according to certain circumstances declared by the statutes. In general there can be only one fellow from a county, and two from a diocese, the' diocese of Lincoln excepted, from which there may be three; there may also be one fellow beyond the prescribed number from Middlesex, and from those counties and dioceses in which the college has property sufficient for the maintenance of a fellow: two fellows may remain laymen, and, within twelve years from M.A., one of the two must proceed to D.C.L., the other to M.D. The vice-president and the -five senior fellows hold their fellowships with property; the others quit the society when possessed of! a stated annual income. The five senior divines may hold livings rated in the king's books at not higher than £'20 per annum, and within twenty miles of Cambridge. There is one bye-fellowship which is perfectly open, may be held by a layman, and is tenable with any property or preferment; but the holder has no vote in the society. The scholarships have recently been consolidated into twenty-six, and augmented by college grants, many of them having previously been inconsiderable: they are payable weekly according to residence. The president must be elected by a majority of the whole existing body, must have graduated B.D. at least, and must possess property to the amount of £20 per annum. The-King is visitor. The livings in the patronage of the President and Fellows are, the rectory of St. Botolph's in the town of Cambridge; the rectory of Little Eversden, and the vicarage of Oakington, in the county of Cambridge: the rectory of Sandon, in the county, of Essex; the rec- tory of Seagraw, in the county of Leicester; the rectories of Roekland and South Walsham, in the county of Norfolk; the rectory of Hickling, in the county of Nottingham; and the rectory of Newton -Toney; in the county of Wilts: the rectory of Grimstone, in the county of Norfolk, is in the patronage of the president, who must nominate one of the eight senior fellows. The buildings are situated to the west of Catharine Hall, on the banks of the river, and consist of three courts of considerable magnitude; the entrance to the outer, or principal court, which is ninety-six feet by eighty-four, is through an elegant tower gateway: the inner court is furnished with cloisters about three hundred yards in circumference, and extends to the bank of the river; Walnut-tree Court has buildings on one side only: the front of the college, next the river, has been recently rebuilt in an elegant style: the grove and gardens are particularly beautiful, and, lying on both sides of the river, are connected by a wooden bridge of one arch, built in 1746, and much admired for the ingenuity of its construction. Amongst emir nent members, or students, of this college are Arch-> bishop Grindal; Bishops Fisher, Davenant, Sparrow, and Patrick; Sir Thomas Smith, the statesman; Dr. Thomas Smith, the ecclesiastical historian'; Thomas Brightman, author of the treatise on the Revelations; John Weever, author of the Funeral Monuments; Dr. Thomas Fuller, author of the Worthies of England; and Dr. John Wallis, the mathematician: the celebrated Erasmus was for some time a student of this college. Catharine Hall was founded, in 1475, by Robert Woodlark, D.D., chancellor of the university, and provost of King's College. There are six fellowships on the foundation, the number of which may be increased or diminished in proportion to the revenue of the college: there cannot be more than two fellows from any one county at the same time; and two of them at least must be in priest's, and one in deacon's, orders. There are also eight other fellowships; in filling up six of which, a preference is to be given to persons born in the county of York, if duly qualified. There are forty-three scholarships, varying in value from £2 to £35 per annum each, of which thirteen are appropriated, and to several of which chambers rent-free .are attached. The livings in the patronage of the master and fellows are, the rectory of Coton, in the county of Cambridge; the vicarage of Ridgwell, in the county of Essex; and the rectory of Gimingham with that of Trunch, in the county of Norfolk. The buildings form three sides of a quadrangle, one hundred and eighty feet by one hundred and twenty, the fourth side being open towards Trumpington-street, ana having iron palisades, and a piece of ground planted with lofty elm-trees: the front is toward the west, and has an elegant portico in the centre. The library, a very handsome room, was fitted up at the expense of the late Dr. Thomas Sherlock, Bishop of London, who bequeathed to the college his large and valuable collection of books: he also left a stipend for the librarian. Amongst eminent members and students were Archbishops Sandys and Dawes; Bishops Overall, Brownrigg, Leng (author of the Cambridge Terence), BlackaU, Hoadley, and Sherlock; John Bradford, the martyr; John Strype, the antiquary; Ray, the naturalist; and Dr. Lightfoot, the orientalist, and author of the' Horce Hebraicte. Jesus' College, was founded by John Alcock, Bishop of Ely, in 1406, on the site of a Benedictine nunnery, established about the year 1130, and dedicated to St. Rhadegund, the endowment of which was augmented by Malcolm, fourth king of Scotland, and the possessions of which on its dissolution, in the reign of Henry VII., were granted to the bishop; there are sixteen foundation fellowships: eight of the fellows are to be natives of the northern, and eight of the southern, counties, and six in priest's .orders; but by a recent statute, granted by the Bishop of Ely, and with the king's license, the society will, from and after the 7th of Jan., 1833, be able to elect fellows from any part of Englancfand Wales, without restriction. On each vacancy the master and-Mlbws nominate two candidates, of whom the Bishop of Ely appoints one. There is one fellowship to which the' bishop has an exclusive right both to nominate and appoint: he is also visitor, and appoints the master. There are forty-six scholarships and exhibitions, varying in value from- £9 to £70 per annum each, of which twenty-seven are 'appropriated. The livings- in the patronage of the master and fellows are, the vicarage of All Saints', and the perpetual curacy of St. Clement's, in the town of Cambridge; th6 vicarages of Comberton and Fordham, the rectory of Graveley, the vicarage of Guilden-Morden, the rectory of Harlton, and the vicarages of Hinxton, Swavesey, and Whittlesford, in the county of Cambridge; the vicarage of Elmstead, in the county of Essex; the rectory of Tewin, in the county of Hertford; the rectory of King's Stanley, in the county of Gloucester; and the rectory of Cavendish, the vicarage of Hundon, and the rectory of Whatfield, in the county of Suffolk. The buildings, which are situated at the extremity of the town, con? sist of a principal court, one hundred and forty-one feet by one hundred and twenty, which is built on three sides; and a small court surrounded by a cloister; an addition has lately been made to the eastern side of the college. The grand front looks toward the south, and is one hundred and eighty feet long, being regularly built and sashed; both the master and fellows have spacious gardens. The library contains many scarce and valuable editions of the classics. The chapel, anciently the conventual church of St. Rhadegund, exhibits, particularly in the chancel and the interior of the tower, considerable remains of the original structure; the altar-piece, representing the Presentation in the Temple, was given, in 1796, by Dr. Pearce, master of the college: in the south transept of what is now the ante-chapel are the tombs of one of the nuns, named Berta Rosata, and of Prior John He Pykenham, the latter of which is supposed to have been removed hither from the neighbouring convent of Franciscans: in the north transept is the monument of Tbbias Rustat, yeoman of the robes to king Charles II., a benefactor to the college, remarkable for his great wealth and extensive charities. Amongst eminent members and students may be reckoned Archbishops Cranmer, Sterne, Herring, and Hutton; Bishop Bale, the.biographer; Dr. John Nalson, the historian; Roger Nqrth the biographer; John Flamsteed, the astronomer; and twelve fellows. Fenton, the poet; Dr. Jortin; the witty Lawrence Sterne; Tyrwhitt, the founder of the Hebrew scholarships; Gilr berfr Wakefield, the classical editor and critic 5 and the celebrated traveller, Dr. Edward Daniel Clarke. Christ's .College was originally founded in 1456,by King Henry VI., under the name of God's House; but in 1505, the Lady Margaret, Countess of-Richmond and Derby, changed the name, incorporated the former society with the present college, and endowed it liberally for the maintenance of a master. This foundation is for divinity, and the fellows are required to take priest's orders within twelve months after they have attained the requisite age. The only appropriation is to the'counties of England and Wales; the restrictions are, that there shall not be two of the same county, and that there shall be six, and only six, from nine specified counties in the north of England collectively. Edward VI. added another fellowship, the holder of which participates in the emolument of the original foundation: he may be from any county, and is not obliged to take holy orders. There are two other fellowships tenable by laymen, with independent revenues, and preference to the kindred of the founders. These fifteen fellows have an equal claim to the college patronage, and are allowed by the statutes to hold preferment with their 'fellowships, provided it does not exceed the value of ten marks, after the deductions found in the king's books. Lady Margaret founded forty-seven scholarships, now augmented to 15s. per week during residence; there can only be three scholars of one county: three others were, added by Edward VI. Various other scholarships arid exhibitions have been founded by private benefactors; and. four divinity studentships, the present value of which is £113. 8. per annum each, were founded by C. Tancred, Esq. The visitors are the vice-chancellor and the two senior doctors of 'divinity; or, if the vice-chancellor be of this 'college, the provost of King's. The livings in the patronage of the master and fellows are, the vicarage of Bourn, the vicarage of Caldecote with the rectory, of Toft, and the perpetual curacy, of Fen-Drayton, in the county of Cambridge; the rectory of .Little Canfield, in the county of Essex; the rectory of Anstey, in the county of Hertford; the rectory of Kegworth, in the county of Leicester; the rectories of Ingoldsby and Navenby, in the county of. Lincoln; the rectory of Brisley with the vicarage of Gateley, the rectory of Burnham St. Mary, the vicarage of Croxton All Saints, and the perpetual curacy of Hapton, in the county of Norfolk; the rectory of Clipston (-which is divided into portions), and the vicarage of Helpstone, in the county of Northampton; the vicarage of Manerbier, in the county of Pembroke; and the rectory of Moulton, in the county of Suffolk. The buildings stand north of Emanuel College, and opposite to St. Andrew's church: they consist of the principal court, a handsome quadrangle, one hundred and thirty feet by one .hundred and twenty, and a second court built on two sides, that next the garden and fields being an elegant and uniform pile of stone, about one hundred and fifty feet long. The chapel is eighty-four feet long, with a floor-of marble: in the east window are portraits of King Henry VII., and some others of the family of the foundress: within the rails of the altar is the gravestone of Dr. Ralph Oudworth, author of the Intellectual System, and master of the college, who died in 1688. The garden has a bowling-green, and a cold bath, and contains a large mulberry-tree, planted by Milton, .when a student here. Besides the great poet just mentioned, the following eminent persons have been members of this society, or students at the college: Leland, the antiquary; Archbishop John Sharp; Bishops Latimer, Law, and Porteus; Hugh Broughton, and Dr. Lightfoot, the Orientalists; the poets, John Cleland, and Francis Quarks; Dr. Joseph Mede, an eminent divine; Dr. Thomas Burnet, author of the Theory of the Earth; Dr. Lawrence Echard, the historian; Dr. Saunderson, the mathematician; and Archdeacon Paley. St. John's College was founded, in 1511, by the executers of Margaret, Countess of Richmond and Derby: the original endowment was for fifty fellows, but part of the foundation estates having been seized by Henry VIII., the funds were found to be sufficient only for thirty-two. These, by letters patent from King George IV., are now open to the natives of England and Wales, without any restriction of appropriation whatsoever; one of them is in the appointment of the Bishop of Ely. This being a divinity college, the fellows are obliged to be in priest's orders within six years from the degree of M. A., except four, who are allowed by the master and seniors to practise law and physic; the electors are the master and eight senior resident fellows, in whom is vested the entire management of the college concerns. Of the appropriated fellowships, twenty-one have all the privileges of the foundation fellowships, and an equal claim to the college patronage; besides these there are nine fellowships, founded by Mr. Platt, which are open to all can-- dictates; but the fellows are not allowed to hold any college preferment. There are one hundred and fourteen scholarships, nine of which, founded by the Duchess of Somerset, have been augmented by the society to sixteen, which are appropriated to Manchester, Hertford, and Marlborough schools; and four, founded by Mr. Platt, have been increased by the college to nine. There are numerous exhibitions, varying from £70 each downwards. All livings under £30 in the king's books are tenable with the college preacherships, of which there are thirteen. The Bishop of Ely is visitor. The livings in the patronage of the master and fellows are, the rectories of Brinkley and Fulbourn, and the perpetual curacy of Horiiingsea, in the county of Cambridge; the rectories of Houghton-Conquest,Houghton-Gildable,Marston-Moretaine, and Meppershall, in the county of Bedford; the vicarages of Aldworth.and Sunninghill, in the county of Berks; the rectory of Aberdaron, in the county of Carnarvon; the rectory of Morton, in the county of Derby, alternately with William Turbett, Esq.; the .rectory of. Marwood., in the county of Devon; the rectories of Lawford; Great Oakley, Great Warley, Moreton, and Thorrington with that of Frating, in the county of Essex; the vicarage of Great Hormead, and the rectories of Lilley and Little Hormead, in the county of Hertford; the rectory of Freshwater, in the Isle of Wight; the rectories, of Murston and Staplehurst, and the vicarages of Higham and Ospringe, in the county of Kent; the vicarage of Barrow upon Soar, and the rectory of Medbourne with the curacy of Holt, in the county of Leicester; the vicarage of Minting, in the county of Lincolnthe vicarage of Cherry-Marham, and the rectories of Aidborough, Ditchingham, Forncett St. Mary and St. Peter, Great Snoring, Holt, and Starston, in the county of Norfolk; the rectory of Ufford with the curacy of Bainton, in the county of Northampton; the vicarage of North Stoke, and the rectory of Souldern, in the county of Oxford; the rectory of St. Florence, in the county of Pembroke; the rectories of Barrow, Cockfield, and Layham, in the county of Suffolk; the rectory of Wootton-Rivers, in the county of Wilts, alternately with the principal and fellows of Brasenose College, Oxford; the rectory of Brandsburton, and the vicarage of Holme upon Spalding-Moor with the rectory of Holme, in the East riding of the county of York; and the vicarage of Marton with Grafton, in the West riding of the ctiunty of York. Of these livings, five rectories in Norfolk are in the nomination of the Duke of Norfolk, but can be given only to the foundation fellows of the college, The buildings are situated to the north of Trinity College, and occupy the whole space between Trinity-street * and the river, consisting of three courts, built for the most part of brick: the first, which is the most ancient, is about two hundred and twenty-eight feet by two hundred and sixteen, and is entered from the street by a handsome gateway, with turrets coeval with the foundation: the second court, about two hundred and seventy feet by two hundred and forty, is very handsome^ and chiefly consists of the fellows' apartments; it was built by the benefaction of Mary, Countess of Shrewsbury i the third, next the river, is of smaller dimensions than the others. The north side of the first court is occupied by the chapel, that of the second by the master's lodge, and that of the third by the library; extending altogether the whole length of the college from east to west, about four hundred and eighty feet. The chapel is one hundred and twenty feet long: in the ante-chapel is the tombstone of Thomas Baker, the antiquary, sometime fellow of this college, who wrote its history; and in the chapel is a tablet, in memory of the learned Dr. Whitaker, master, who died in 1595. In the master's lodge is a spacious ancient gallery, nearly one hundred and fifty-five feet long, with a richly ornamented ceiling, now divided into a suite of rooms containing numerous portraits of benefactors and members of the college. The library, built by Archbishop Williams, is a spacious room, containing one of the most valuable and extensive collections of books in the university, among which are those presented to the college by Matthew Prior, consisting chiefly of the works of the French historians. This college suffered severely during the civil war in the reign of Charles I., having been plunr dered, amongst other valuable articles, of the communion plate, and of a large collection of silver coins and medals: the outer court was at the same time converted into a prison for the royalists. The spacious gardens and walks lie on the west side of the river, over which -is a stone bridge of three arches, leading from the inner court: the fellows' garden has a .bowling-green. A large and splendid addition to this college has been nearly completed, from a design by Rickman and Hutchinson, on the western side of the river, consisting or a spacious court, united to the three, ancient courts by a covered stone bridge. The inner and the eastern and western fronts are all varied: the cloister extends from the east to the .west wing, and has a lofty entrance in the centre; this building will afford additional accommoda^ tion for one hundred and seven students, including ten suites of apartments for the fellows of the college. Amongst eminent members, &c. were Roger Ascham; Sir John Cheke; Sir Thomas Wyat; Lord Treasurer Burleigh; Lord Keeper- Williams; Dr. John Dee; Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Stafford; Lord Falkland; Dr. William Whitaker; Dr: William Cave; Archbishop Williams; Bishops Day, Gauden, Gunning, Stillingfleet, and Beveridge; Dr. Jenkins, who wrote on the reason-, ableness of Christianity; Dr. Powell; Dr. Balguy; Dr. Ogden; Thomas Stackhouse, author of the History of the. Bible; Dr. William Wotton, Dr. Bentley, and Dr. Taylor, the critics; Ben Jonson; the poets, John Cleland, Ambrose Philips, Prior, Otway, Broome, Hammond, and Mason; Martin Lister, the naturalist; Francis Peck, and Thomas Baker, the antiquaries; and the late Dr. Heberden. . Magdalene College was begun, in 1519, by Edward Stafford, Duke of Buckingham, by the name of Buckingham House, but was not completed at the time of his attainder, after which it was granted to Thomas, Baron Audley, Lord High Chancellor, who in 1542 endowed for a master and four fellows. There are thirteen bye-fellowships; two of them are appropriated, one of the two being a travelling fellowsnip. All the fellows, except those of the two lastmentioned fellowships, must take orders.within three years after election, if the master thinks fit. The mastership is in the appointment of the possessor of the estate at Audley End, now belonging to Lord Braybrooke. There are thirty-nine scholarships, varying, in value from £3 to £70 per annum each, twelve of which are .appropriated. The possessor of Audley End is visitor. The livings in the patronage of the master and fellows are, the rectory of Long Stanton St. Michael, in the county of'Cambridge; the rectory of Anderby withthat of Comberworth, and the perpetual curacy of Grainthorpe, in the county of Lincoln; the vicarage of St. Katherine Cree church, London; the rectory .of Aldrington, in the county of Sussex; the vicarage of Steeple- Ashton (annexed to the Mastership), in the county of Wilts; and the rectory of Ellingham, in the county of Norfolk. This is the only college which stands on the north side of the river: it consists of two courts, the larger being about one hundred and ten feet by seventy- eight. On the north side of the. second court is a stone building, the body of which contains the Pepysian library, and in the wings are the apartments of the fellows. This library was given to the college by Samuel Pepys, Esq., secretary to the admiralty in the reigns of Charles II. and James II.: in this repository, amongst other valuable curiosities, are preserved many very.rare portraits and engravings, a large collection of ^ancient ballads, many of which are not elsewhere to.be found, and the original narrative of the escape-of Charles II., after the battle of Worcester, taken in short hand by Mr. Pepys, from the oral communication of the king himself: but the most valuable M.S. is the diary of Mr. Pepys, consisting of three thousand pages, chiefly in short hand, and relating to the maritime affairs of the kingdom from 1659 to 1669, copious extracts from which have recently been published, under the title of Memoirs of Samuel Pepys, Esq., F.R.S., &c. Among distinguished members, &c. were Archbishop Grindal; Dr. Thomas Nevile, who erected the beautiful court in Trinity College which bears his name; Pepys,' the founder of the library; Dr. Duport, the celebrated Greek professor; the Lord Keeper Bridgeman; Bishop Walton, editor of the Polyglott Bible; Bishop Rainbow; Dr. Howell, the historian j Bishop Cumberland; Dr. Waterland; and the celebrated mathematician, Professor Waring. Trinity College stands on ground formerly occupied by seven hostels and two colleges (Michael House and King's Hall): the former college was founded, in 1324,by Hervey de Stahton, chancellor of the exchequer to Edward II, the buildings of the latter, founded by Edward III., in 1337, for a master and thirty-two scholars, are said to have been of sufficient magnitude to accommodate Richard II. and his court, when he held a parliament at Cambridge, in 1381. Both these colleges were suppressed in 1546, and in the same year the present magnificent one was founded by Henry VIII., for a master and sixty fellows: the endowment was considerably augmented by his daughter, Queen Mary. The fellows are chosen from the scholars, ineligible if M.A., or of sufficient standing to take that degree; they are all required to go into priest's orders within seven years after they commence masters of ar,ts, except two appointed by the master, one of whom is supposed to study law, the other physic. There are sixty-nine scholarships, which, except four or five, are open to men of any county. The government is vested in the master and eight seniors; and to so many of these as are absent the resident fellows next in seniority act as deputies: the matership is in the gift of the King, who is visitor. All livings within twenty miles of Cambridge, or such, in any part of the kingdom, as may have passed through the society; or livings from external patronage,'the value of which in the king's books; after certain deductions, does not exceed £30, are tenable with college preacherships, of which there are sixteen. The livings in the patronage of the-master and fellows are, the vicarages of Cardington, Eaton-Bray, Felmersham with the perpetual curacy of Pavenham, Great Barford with that of Roxton, and the vicarages of Keysoe, Shitlington, and Stotfold, in the county of Bedford; the rectory of Loughton, and the vicarage of Marsworth, in the county of Buckingham; the perpetual curacies of Great St. Mary's and St. Michael's, in the town of Cambridge; the vicarages of Arrington, Barrington, Bottisham, Chesterton, Over, Shudy-Camps, and Trumpington, and the rectories of Orwell and Papworth St. Everard, in the county of Cambridge; the vicarage of Gainford, in the county of Durham; the vicarages of Bumpstead-Helion and Hatfield- Broad-Oak, in the county of Essex j the vicarage of Great Wymondley with that of St. Ippolitts, the vicarage of .Hitchin, and the vicarage of Ware with that of Thundridge, in the county of Hertford; the vicarage pf Brading, in the Isle of Wight 5 the vicarage of Wimeawould, in the county of Leicester; the vicarage of East Ravendale (sequestrated), and those of East Randal, Little Coates, and Swineshead, in the county of Lincoln; the vicarage of Enfield, in the county of Middlesex; the rectories of Dickleburgh, Fakenham, and North Runcton, in the county of Norfolk; the vicarage of Grendon, in the county of Northampton; the vicarages of Blyth and Flintham, the perpetual curacies of Hoveringham, Thurgarton, and Langford, and the vicarages of Tuxford and Walkeringham, in the county of Nottingham; the rectory of Cheadle, in the county of Stafford; the rectory of Grundisburgh, in the county of Suffolk; the vicarages of Kirby-Monks and Withybrook, in the county of Warwick; the vicarages of Heversham, Kendal, and Kirkby-Lonsdale, in the county of Westmorland; the vicarage of Aysgarth, in the county of York; the rectory of Gilling, and the vicarage of Pickhill, in the North riding of the county of York; and the rectory and vicarage of Darfield, the rectory of Guiseley (one turn in three), the vicarage of Kel- Jington, the vicarage of Kirkby-Malzeard with that of Masham, and the vicarages of Normantori All Saints, Sedbergh, and Whitkirk, in the West riding of the county of York. The extensive buildings of this college are situated between those of St. John's and Caius Colleges, occupying the space between Trumpington-street and the river, and consisting of three spacious quadrangular courts. The first court, which is the largest, forms a magnificent assemblage of buildings: its form is a trapezium, approaching to a square, about six hundred and thirty yards in circuit; on s the north side is the chapel; on the west the hall and the master's lodge: the other two sides comprise apartments for the fellows and students; the south end of the west side has been 'rebuilt in a handsome style. This court is entered from Trumpington-street by a turreted gateway, supposed to have been anciently the entrance to King's Hall. la the middle of it is a large conduit, which supplies the college and the neighbouring inhabitants with excellent water, brought by a subterraneous channel from a spring about a mile west of the town. The second court, called Nevile's Court, built in 1600, chiefly by the benefaction of Dr. Thomas Nevile, master of the college and Dean of Canterbury, is more elegant than the former, though less spacious; the length of its sides, which, like those of the first court, are unequal, vary from one hundred and thirty-two feet to two hundred and twentyeight: the library, forming the west side, is of later date, the building having been projected by Dr. Barrow, and the north and south sides, containing fellows' and students' apartments, have been almost wholly rebuilt: £he library and the cloisters, which extend along the porth, west, and south sides, were designed by Sir Christopher Wren. Beyond Nevile's Court is the new- }y erected and magnificent quadrangle, called King's Court, in honour of King George IV., the building of which was commenced in 1823, and completed in 1825, at an expense of upwards of £40,000, a considerable part of which was defrayed by a subscription, headed by a donation of £2000 from that monarch; the buildings are from designs by William Wilkins,Esq.,M.A., and the principal front, with a fine tower gateway, faces the college walks, in a line with the library. The chapel, upwards of two hundred feet long, is in the later style of English architecture, begun by Queen Mary, and finished by Queen Elizabeth; on each side of the choir are rows of very elegant stalls for the masters and scholars, with carved work by Gibbons; and the thrones for the master and the vice-master are remarkably grand-and beautiful. Among the monuments in the ante-chapel, the most interesting are, a statue of Sir Isaac Newton, by Roubilliac, presented to the society by Dr. Smith, master of the college; a tablet in memory of the eminent mathematician, Roger Cotes, Plumian professor, who died in 1716; a tablet in memory of Isaac Hawkins Browne, Esq., celebrated for his poem on the Immortality of the Soul, and other works, who died in 1762; and a bust and tablet, by Chantrey, in memory of the late professor Porson. The hall, built in the later English style, is about one hundred feet long and fifty high. The master's lodge, which contains some magnificent apartments, has, ever since the reign of Elizabeth, been the residence of the sovereign, when the university has been honoured with a royal visit; and the judges always reside in it during the assizes. The library, a magnificent room two hundred feet long, and proportionately lofty, was built by a subscription amounting to nearly £20,000, procured chiefly by the exertions of Dr. Barrow. The collection of books is large and valuable, and amongst the manuscripts are some of Milton's pieces in his own handwriting; among the busts are those of Bacon, Newton, Ray, and Willoughby, by Roubilliac; that of Roger Cotes; and: one, by Scheemaker, of Edward Wortley Montagu, Esq., who presented to the society the celebrated Sigean inscription: there is also a statue of Charles Seymour, Duke of Somerset, for sixty years .chancellor of the university, executed by Rysbrach in 1754; and at the upper end is a curious statue of jEsculapius, found at Samas, about fourteen miles from Rome. Among the portraits the most interesting are, an original half-length of Shakspeare, by Mark Garrard, and an original full-length, in the hall, of Sir Isaac Newton, by Valentine Ritts. The room is paved with marble; and at the south end, opposite to the entrance, is a window of painted glass, from a design by Cipriani, representing the presentation of Sir Isaac Newton to his Majesty George II., for the execution-of which £500 was bequeathed by Dr. Robert Smith, formerly master. The walks are spacious and particularly pleasant, and are connected with the college buildings, by a bridge over the Cam. Amongst eminent members and students were, Archbishops Whitgift and Fowler; Bishops Powell, Wilkins, Pearson, Pearce, Hinchliffe, and Watson; Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex; Sir Francis Bacon; Sir Edward Coke; Fulke Greville; Lord Brooke; Charles, Earl of Halifax; Sir Isaac Newton; William Outram; Dr. Isaac Barrow; Dr. Bentley; Ray, the naturalist; Roger Cotes; Dr.WilliamWhitaker; Bishop Hacket; the poets Cowley and Dryden; Dr. Donne, the satirist; Nathaniel Lee, the dramatist; George Herbert; Richard Duke; Lord Lansdowne; Sir Robert Cotton; Sir Henry Spelman5 Dr.Gale; John leNevej Francis Willoughby; Philemon Holland; Andrew Mar-, veil; Robert Nelson; Dr. Samuel Knight; Dr. Conyers. Middleton; the late professor Porson; and the late Lord Byron. Emanuel College was founded, in 1584, by Sir Walter Mildmay, chancellor of the exchequer and privy counsellor in the reign of Elizabeth; it occupies the site of a Dominican friary, founded about the year 12SO,and subsequently enriched by Alice, widow of Robert Vere, second Earl of Oxford, which, after the dissolution, was purchased by Sir Walter, prior to the establishment of the college. The number of foundation fellowships is twelve, besides one, the holder of which receives a dividend arising from a distinct estate, but is in most respects on an equality with the foundation fellows. These thirteen fellowships are open to Englishmen of all counties, but there cannot be more than one from the same county. All the fellows must proceed to the degrees of M.A. and B.D., as soon as they are of sufficient standing; and the four seniors must take priest's orders. In addition to the above there are two fellows on the foundation "by Sir Wolstan Dixie, who must proceed in their degrees equally with those on the original foundation, but have no vote in the society, nor any claim to the offices or dividends of the college. There are likewise- four scholarships of the same foundation, and subject to the same restrictions. The foundation scholarships are open to Englishmen of all counties, but there can only be three from the same county: the scholars receive upwards of £12 per annum, in addition to the weekly payment of fs. 6d. during residence. Besides these there are many scholarships and exhibitions, founded by various benefactors, to be given to the candidates most distinguished for learning and exemplary conduct. The visitor^ are, in some cases, the vice-chancellor and the two senior doctors in divinity, in others, the master of Christ's College and the two senior doctors. The livings in the patronage of the master and fellows are, the rectory of Wallington, irt the county of Hertford; the vicarage of Standground -with the curacy of Farcett, and the rectory of Thurning, in the county of Huntingdon; the rectories of Loughborough and Thurcaston, in the county of Leicester; the vicarage of Little Melton, in the county of Norfolk; the rectory of Boddington, in the county of Northampton; the rectory of North Luffenham, in the county of Rutland; the rectories of Aller, and North Cadbury, and the vicarages of King's Brompton and Winsford, in the county of Somerset; and the vicarage of Ilketshall St. Andrew, and the rectories of Preston St. Mary, and Withersdale with the vicarage .of Fressingfield, in the county of Suffolk: they also nominate to the rectory of Twyford, in the county of Southampton, which is in the presentation of Lady Mildmay. This college is very pleasantly situated in St. Andrew's street, near the south-eastern entrance into the town; the greater part of it is modern, and elegantly built of stone. It consists of one principal court, one hundred and twenty-eight feet by one hundred and seven, to which a range of buildings for the accommodation of students has recently been added, forming, with the horary and the north side of the hall, a second court. The chapel, which is eighty-four feet long, and has a Warble floor, was designed and commenced by Archbishop Sancroft,in I668,and completed inl677,thepringpal contribution to which was £1040, given by Sir Gilbert Gayer, K.B. The old chapel has been fitted up as the library, to which Archbishop Sancroft 'gave his own collection of books: among the works, which are principally on divinity, is a curious copy of Cicero's Offices, printed by Faust in 1465, in fine preservation. The hall is furnished with great elegance: at the upper end is a fine painting of Sir Wolstan Dixie, Knt., the founder of two bye-fellowships and two scholarships. The gardens are spacious, and have a bowling-green and a cold bath. Among eminent members were, Archbishop Sancroft; Bishops Hall, Bedell, Kidder, Hurd, Percy, and Bennet; Matthew Poole, author of the Synopsis Criticorum; Joshua Barnes; Dr.Wallis, the mathematician; Sir Robert Twiston, the antiquary; John Morton, the historian of Northamptonshire; Sir Francis Pemberton; Sir William Temple; Anthony Blackwall, author, of "The Sacred Classics Defended and Illustrated;" Dr. Farmer, the sagacious commentator on Shakspeare, to whose memory there is-a tablet in the cloister, near the entrance into the chapel; and the late Dr. Samuel Parr. Sidney Sussex College was founded, in 1598, pursuant to the will of Frances Sidney, Countess of Sussex, who died in 1589. There are nine foundation fellowships, open to natives of any part of his Majesty's dominions; besides which there are two appropriated to the scholars of this college, and one, the nomination to which is vested in the Warden and Company of Fishmongers: the two former have nearly the same privileges as those on the foundation. This being a divinity college, all the fellows must take orders within three years from the time of their election. There are twenty foundation scholarships, value seven shillings per week during residence, and two appropriated. Sir John Shelley Sidney, Bart, is visitor, as the representative of the foundress; but, by the statutes, the vice-chancellor and the two senior doctors in divinity are visitors in some cases, and the vicechancellor, with the masters of Christ's and Emanuel, Colleges, in others. The livings, in the patronage of the master and fellows are, the rectory of Week St. Mary, in the county of Cornwall; the rectory of Swanscombe, in the county of Kent; the rectory of Gayton, in the county of Northampton; the vicarage of Peasmarsh, in the county of Sussex; and the rectory of South Kilvington, in the North riding of the county of York: the rectory of Rempstone, in the county of Nottingham, is in the patronage of the master. The buildings are situated on the east side of Sidneystreet, and consist of two courts built of brick, and completed in 1598. The chapel and the library were rebuilt in 1780. The hall and the master's lodge have lately been cased with stone and greatly improved, and the whole college is, intended to be beautified under the direction of Sir Jeffrey Wyatville. The grounds are spacious, and the fellows' garden has a large bowlinggreen. Amongst eminent members or students may be recorded Oliver Cromwell; Archbishop Bramall; Bishops Seth Ward, Montagu, and Garnet; Thomas Fuller, the historian; Lord Chief Baron Atkins; Sir Roger L'Estrange; Gataker, the critic; Dr. Comber, Dean of Durham; Thomas Woolston,who wrote against miracles; and William Wollastpn, author of " The Religion of Na- ture Delineated." In the master's lodge is a portrait in crayons of Cromwell, by Cooper, and in the library, a bust by Bernini, from a cast taken after his death. Downing College was founded by Sir George Downing, Bart., of Gamlingay Park, in this county, who, by will dated in 17 IT; devised his estates in the counties of Cambridge, Bedford, and Suffolk", first to Sir Jacob Garrard Downing, and afterwards to other relatives, in succession, and, in failure thereof, to found a college in this university upon a plan to be approved by the two archbishops and the masters of St. John's College and Clare Hall. Sir Jacob died in 1764, the other devisees having died previously without issue; but the estates being held by Lady Downing, and afterwards by her devisees, though without any real title, the university was obliged to sue in Chancery for the establishment of the college, a decree in favour of which was obtained in 1769. The persons named as trustees m the founder's will having died in his lifetime, the trust devolved upon the heirs-at-law, who, after combating a long series of opposition and litigation, and overcoming obstacles of various kinds, petitioned the Crown for a charter, which passed the great seal in September, 1800. By this charter the college is incorporated, with all the privileges belonging to any college in the university, and endbwed with the estates devised by the founder, with power to hold landed property in addition thereto, to the value of £ 1500 per annum. Statutes for its government were framed in July 1805, and shortly afterwards the stipends of the members began to be paid. It is provided that no new foundation shall ever be engrafted on this college that shall be inconsistent with the charter and statutes; but the college may accept any additions to its property, in augmentation of the number or value of its present appointments, or to be applied in any other manner consistent with its constitution. A piece of laud comprising nearly thirty acres, situated between Emanuel and Pembroke Colleges, having been purchased for the site, the first stone was laid May 18th, 1807, since which time the building has proceeded at intervals, at an expense of more than £60,000. The society will consist of a master, professors of law and medicine, sixteen fellows (of whom two are to be clerical), and six scholars. The object of the foundation is stated in the charter to be the study of law, physic, and other useful arts and learning. At present only the master, the professors, and three fellows are appointed, to take possession of the estates, administer the revenues, superintend the building of the college, &c.; the appointment of the remaining fellows is reserved until the completion of the buildings. The scholars will also be elected after that period, but not more than two in each year. There are two chaplains nominated by the master, who is to be elected by the archbishops of Canterbury and York, and the masters of St. John's College and Clare Hall, from among those who are, or have been, professors or fellows. The electors to the professorships are the same as to the masterships, with the addition of the master. The professor of law must be, at the time of his election, D.C.L., M.A., or B.C.L., of Cambridge or Oxford, of ten years' standing from matriculation, and a barrister at law. The professor of medicine must be an M.A., who has been licensed for two years to practise physic, or M.D. or M.B. of Cambridge or Oxford, or a member of a Scotch university, of seven years' standing, twentyfive years of age,' and who shall have attended the medical lectures in one of the Scotch universities for four years. The'electors'to the fellowships are the master, the professors, and fellows of the degree of M. A. All graduates of Cambridge or Oxford are eligible; but after the completion of the buildings, lay fellows must be under the age of twenty-four, and clerical under thirty, at the time of election: there must not be eight fellows from'one county. The clerical fellowships will be tenable for life, and subject to residence for a certain part of each term. The lay fellowships are tenable only for twelve years, and are not subject to any residence. Every lay fellow must declare either for law or physic: those who declare for law must be called to the bar within eight years after their election, and the medical fellows must take the degree of M.D. within two years after they are of sufficient standing. The visitor is the King, by the Lord Chancellor. The livings in the patronage of the master' and fellows are, the rectory of East Hatley, and the vicarage of Tadlow, in the county of Cambridge. In May 1821, a portion of the buildings, sufficient for opening the college, being completed, under-graduates were admitted to reside and keep terms. The whole, when completed, will form a quadrangle, larger than the principal court of Trinity College, in the Grecian style, and faced with Ketton stone. The master's lodge is of the Ionic, and the entrance to the college will be of the Doric, order; the designs are by William Wilkins, Esq., M.A. The late Mr.Joh'n Bowtell, of this town, bequeathed to the college a collection of books, manuscripts, fossils, and antiquities, with a request that the cases containing them should be placed in the college library. H The town is divided into four distinct wards, named respectively Bridge ward, Market ward, High ward, and Preacher's ward, and contains the fourteen parishes of All Saints, St. Andrew the Great, St. Andrew the Less, St. Benedict, St. Botolph, St. Clement, St. Edward, St. Giles, St. Mary the Great, St. Mary the Less, St. Michael, St. Peter, St. Sepulchre, and the Holy Trinity, all (except the precincts of King's College, which are in the diocese of Lincoln) in the archdeaconry and diocese of Ely, excepting St. Andrew's the Less, which, being a donative, is exempt from all ecclesiastical authority. The university, by custom and composition, is exempt from episcopal and archidiaeonal jurisdiction. The living of All Saints' is a discharged vicarage, rated in the king's books at £5. 6. 3., endowed with £400 parliamentary grant, and in the patronage of the Master and Fellows of Jesus College. The living of St. Andrew's the Great is a discharged vicarage, endowed with £200 private benefaction, and £400 royal bounty, and in the patronage of the Dean and Chapter of Ely. The church was repaired and a great part of it rebuilt in 1643, chiefly by the benefaction of Christopher Rose, Esq.: in the north transept is a cenotaph in memory of the celebrated navigate? Captain Cook, and his three sons. The living of St. Andrew's the Less, or Barnwell, is a donative, in the patronage of the owner of the priory at Barnwell. The church stands eastward from the town, and is supposed to have been built from the ruins of the priory. The village of Barnwell has suffered from repeated fires: the last, and most destructive of these was on the 30th of November 1731, when the greater part of the houses was:cpnsumed.. A chapel of ease to the church of this parish has been recently erected. The living of St. Benedict's is a perpetual curacy, rated at £4.7. 11., endowed -with £200 private benefaction, £400 royal bounty, and £1200 parliamentary grant, and in the patronage of the Master and Fellows of Corpus Christi College. In the church was interred Thomas Hobson, the celebrated Cambridge carrier. The living of St. Botolph's is a discharged rectory, rated at £2. 14. 4., endowed with £400 private benefaction, £600 royal bounty, and £200 parliamentary grant, and in the patronage of the President and Fellows of Queen's College. The living of St. Clement's is a perpetual curacy, rated at £4.' 5. 7f-, endowed with £400 private benefaction, £200 royal bounty, and £1100 parliamentary grant, and in the patronage of the Master and Fellows of Jesus' College. The church stands a little south of the great bridge. The living of St. Edward's is a discharged rectory, rated at 3s. 4d., and in the patronage of the' Master and Fellows of Trinity Hall.- ^The church stands a little to the west of Trumpington-street. The living of St. Giles' is a vicarage not in charge, to which the perpetual curacy of St. Peter's is united, endowed with £200 royal bounty, for St. Giles', and £800 royal bounty for St. Peter's, and in the patronage of the Bishop of Ely. St. Giles' church stands at the north end of the town: St. Peter's, opposite to it, has been disused for many years. The living of St. Mary's the Great is a perpetual curacy, endowed'with £400 private benefaction, £200 royal bounty, and £ 1300 parliamentary grant, and in the patronage of the Master and Fellows of Trinity College. The church, commonly called the . University church, is situated nearly in the centre of the town, on the- east side of Trumpington-street, and opposite to the public schools and library. It is in the later style of English architecture, and consists of a nave, the dimensions of which are about one hundred and twenty feet by sixty-eight, two aisles, and a chancel, with a lofty tower surmounted by pinnacles, and containing twelve bells, which are rung on all state holidays, &c. The rebuilding of this church, by contribution, was begun in 1478, and finished in 1519, except the tower, which was not completed until 1608. In it was interred the celebrated reformer, Martin Bucer, whose body was taken up in the reign of Mary, and burned, with that of Paul Phagius, in the marketplace. Academical exercises were formerly performed, and public orations delivered, here; and, in 1564, Queen Elizabeth was present at the disputations held ? '*' ^e university sermons are still preached here: the vice-chancellor, heads of colleges, noblemen, professors, and doctors, sit in a handsome gallery raised between the nave and the chancel; the proctors, masters of arts, and fellow commoners, have seats in the area of the nave, called the pit; and the bachelors and under-graduates are provided with places in the side galleries: William Worts, Esq., who died in 1709, left the sum Of £ 1500, to accumulate for the purpose of building the galleries, and £20 per annum for keeping them in repair. The churchwardens, of this parish were m,?de a body corporate bv Henry VHI., in 1535. The living of St. Mary's the Less is a perpetual curacy, endowed with £ 1200 .parliamentary grant, and in the patronage of the Master arid Fellows of St. Peter's College. The church was-built in 1327, on the site of a former church, dedicated to St. Peter, which gave name to the adjoining college of Peter-House. The living of St. Michael's is a perpetual curacy, endowed with £800 royal bounty, and in the patronage'of the Master and Fellows of Trinity College. The church stands on'the east side of Trumpington-street, opposite to Caius College: in the spacious chancel are held the bishop's visitations and confirmations. In 1556, this church was placed under an interdict, as being the burialplace of Paul Phagius, then esteemed an arch-heretic, and was re-consecrated by the Bishop of Chester, acting as the deputy of Cardinal Pole. The living of St. Sepulchre's is a vicarage, rated at £6. 11. Of., endowed with £200 private benefaction, £1000 royal bounty, and £200 parliamentary grant, and in the gift of the churchwardens and parishioners. St. Sepulchre's, or the church of1 the Holy Sepulchre, stands on the east side of Bridge-street, and is remarkable for the antiquity and peculiarity of construction of the older part of it, which is believed to be the oldest remaining specimen of the circular churches erected by the Knights Templars, on the model of that of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem, and to have been built in the reign of Henry I.': it'is forty-one feet in diameter, and has a peristyle of eight rude massive pillars, supporting circular arches with chevron mouldings. This church contains a tablet in memory of Dr. Ogden, the eminent divine, who died in 1778. The living of Trinity parish is a discharged vicarage, rated at £7. 6. 8., endowed with £800 royal bounty, and £1000 parliamentary grant, and in the patronage of the Bishop of Ely. The church stands at the south end of Bridge-street. There are meeting-houses for Baptists, the Society of Friends, Independents, and Primitive and Wesleyan Methodists. The free grammar school, situated near Corpus Christi College, was established in pursuance of the will of Stephen Perse, M.D., senior fellow of Caius College, who, in 1615, bequeathed certain property in trust for its erection and endowment; the master's salary is £40 per annum, and the usher's £20, with apartments for each; the number of free scholars is sixteen, who must be natives of Cambridge, Barnwell, Chesterton, or Trumpington, and, besides a knowledge of the Greek and Latin languages, and of Greek, Latin, and English composition, they are instructed in the ordinary branches of education, and in the elements of the mathematics: scholars educated for three years at least at this school are eligible, before all others, to the Perse fellowships and scholarships at Caius College. The new free school, situated in St. Peter's parish, founded in 1808, for the instruction of the poor of the town and the adjacent villages, was, in 1813, placed under the control of the National Society: the school-room is calculated to hold three hundred boys. The old charity schools, for both sexes, commonly called Whiston's charity schools, were instituted in 1703, chiefly by the exertions of the distinguished William Whiston, at that time Lucasian professor of the Mathematics, and to which William Worts, Esq., in 1709, bequeathed £30 per annum. On the union of the new free school with the Na- tional society, the boys from these schools also were transC ferred to that institution, to which, in consequence, the . sum of £30 is annually allowed from the funds of the old charity schools. In 1816, a new school-room for three hundred girls was built in King-street, and the establishment put on the plan of the National society, to which it was then united. There are three infant schools. The general hospital, or infirmary, commonly called Addenbrooke's hospital, situated at the entrance into the town from London, was founded by John Addenbrooke, M.D., fellow of Catharine Hall, who, in 1719, bequeathed about £4000 to erect and maintain a small physical hospital. The building was begun about 1753, and opened for the reception of patients in 1766, when the funds being found insufficient for its support, an act of parliament was obtained to make it a general hospital, since which it has been supported, in addition to the funds left by the founder, by donations and subscriptions. Mr. John Bowtell, late a bookbinder and stationer in this town, by will dated.in September 1813, bequeathed to this institution £7000 three per cent, con* solidated Bank Annuities, between £3000 and £4000 of which has been appropriated to the addition of two ex? tensive wings: the building is faced with stone, and has a handsome colonnade in front. The number of patients annually cured or relieved is now about one thousand; and the annual expense has of late years been about £1700, of which about £600 is paid from the permanent funds. By act of parliament, the chancellor, the vice-chancellor, and the two- representatives of the university, the bishop of Ely, the lord lieutenant of the county, the county members and the high sheriff, and the members for the town, the high steward, and the mayor, are perpetual governors. There are almshouses for upwards of fifty, poor persons, founded and endowed by different individuals, the inmates of which receive allowances, varying from £2 to £20 per annum. John Crane, apothecary, who died in 1654, bequeathed money to purchase an estate, now producing upwards of £300 per annum, to be settled on the five following corporations, viz., the university of Cambridge, and the towns of Wisbeach, Cambridge, Lynn, and Ipswich; the rents to be received in order, and to be applied by the university, in its turn, towards the relief of sick scholars. The gift to the town was to accumulate until it amounted to £200, which sum was to be disposed of in loans of £20 each, bearing no interest for twenty years, to ten young men, to set them up in trade. After the sum of £ 200 had been set apart, Mr. Crane directed that the rents of the estates should be applied to the relief of persons confined for debt, and of poor men and women of good character. Cambridge is also one of the twenty-five cities and towns to which Sir Thomas White gave, in rotation, the sum of £104, of which £100 was to be lent, in sums of £25 each, to five young freemen for ten years, without interest, preference being given to clothiers. William Worts, Esq., besides his other benefactions to the town and the university, left £1500 of the produce of his estates, bequeathed in trust, for making a causeway towards Gogmagog hills^ which was done before the year 1767; and Thomas Hobson, by will dated in 1629, left houses to trustees, for the maintenance of a house of correction, for setting the poor to work, and other charitable objects, at the discretion of the corporation, which bequest has been increased by one of £5.00 by the late Mr. John Bowtell. The religious houses at Cambridge were numerous: the most ancient was that of Augustine canons, founded near the castle, in 1092, by Picot, the sheriff, and aug, mented and removed to Barnwell, by Payne Peverel, standard-bearer to Robert, Duke of Normandy; its revenue, at the dissolution, was valued at £351. 15. 4.; some remains of the conventual buildings have beea converted into farm offices. The Benedictine nunnery of St. Rhadegund appears to have been founded about the year 1130: it was originally dedicated to St. Mary, but was re-dedicated to St. Rhadegund by Malcolm IV.j King of Scotland, who augmented its revenue, and rebuilt the conventual church about the year 1160, the remain* ing portion of which forms the chapel of Jesus' Collegefor the purpose of founding this college it was granted to Bishop Alcock by Henry VII., having, escheated to the Crown in consequence of its being 'deserted by the nuns. The monastery of the Grey friars, or Franciscansj the site of which is occupied by Sidney-Sussex College; was founded about 1224, and was very flourishing. The Bethlemite friars settled in Cambridge, in 1257, in a house in Trumpington-street, of which they had procured a grant. The friars De sacco, or De pcenitentid Jesu Christi; whose, order was suppressed in 1307, settled hi the same street in 1258. The brethren of St. Mary settled in the parish of All Saints, near the castle, about 1274. The priory- of the Black friars, the site of which is occupied by Emanuel College, was founded before 1275. The Augustine friars are supposed to have settled here about 1290: their convent, which was in the parish of St< Edward, was founded by Sir Geffrey Pitchford, Knt, The White friars, or Carmelites, the site of whose con* vent is occupied by the garden of the provost of King's College, settled first at Chesterton, and afterwards at the adjoining hamlet of Newenham, about 1249, from which they removed, in 1316, to a spot of ground just within the walls, given them by Edward II. A small priory of Gilbertines was founded by Bishop Fitzwalter, in 1291i the society occupied the old chapel of St. Edmund; opposite to Peter-House. The castle, built in the reign of William the Conqueror, on the site of a Roman station, afterwards occupied by a Danish fortress, was, in early times, an occasional residence of the English sovereigns: afte? it had ceased to be so occupied, the buildings, which were extensive, went to decay: during the civil war it was made a garrison for the parliament. The county was in possession of it, subject to a fee-farm rent, so early as 1660; and the quarter sessions were regularly held in it from .that time until after the building of the shire-hall: all that remains of the ancient building is a gate-house, which was long used as a prison, until the erection, about twenty-five years ago, of a new county gaol within the limits of the castle. Some of the earthworks that surround it are undoubtedly Roman. A somewhat curious piece of architectural antiquity exists in the ancient mansion-house of Merton Hall, in the parish of St. Giles, which has long borne the name of Pythagoras' School, though for what reason is unknown; the most remarkable part of the building is a large hall, measuring sixty-one feet by twenty-two: it had formerly an undercroft, with circular arches and plain pillars, apparently constructed in the early part of the twelfth century. There are several springs ifl the parish of All Saints, the water of which is strongly impregnated with iron. Amongst eminent natives of Cambridge were, Sir John Cheke, tutor, and afterwards secretary of state, to Edward VI.; Dr. Thirlebye, first and only bishop of Westminster, and afterwards, successively, bishop of Norwich and Ely; Bishop Jeremy Taylorj Dr. Goldisborowe, Bishop of Gloucester; Dr. Townson, Bishop of Salisbury; Dr. Love, Dean of Ely; Thomas Bennett, who suffered martyrdom at Exeter, in 1530; and Richard Cumberland, the dramatist. Prince Adolphus Frederick, fifth and youngest surviving son of King George III., was created Duke of Cambridge, November 27th, 1801."
[Description(s) transcribed by Mel Lockie ©2010]