[Transcribed from The National Gazetteer of Great Britain and Ireland 1868]
by Colin Hinson ©2013

"CAMBRIDGE, comprises the parishes of All Saints, Holy Sepulchre, Holy Trinity, St. Andrew the Great, St. Andrew the Less, St. Benedict, St. Botolph, St. Clement, St. Edward, St. Giles, St. Mary the Great, St. Mary the Less, St. Michael, and St. Peter, it is the county town of Cambridgeshire, seat of a university, municipal and parliamentary borough, and market town, forming a hundred of itself. It is 51 miles to the north-north-east of London, or 57½ miles by the Great Eastern railway, on which it is a chief station. A branch line from Hitchen, on the Great Northern railway, joins the Great Eastern line here. The town is connected by other branch lines with St. Ives and Huntingdon to the north-west, and with Newmarket, Bury St. Edmund's, and Ipswich to the east The East Angliae, meeting the Great Eastern railway at Ely, connects Cambridge with Lynn Regis; and a branch line from Ely connects it, through March, with Peterborough." (There is more of this description).

[Transcribed and edited information from The National Gazetteer of Great Britain and Ireland - 1868]


  • "Cemeteries:- The Cambridge Cemetery, on the north side of the Mill road, consecrated in 1848, is an inclosure of about 15 acres: each parish in the borough has a portion of the ground allotted to it and placed under the management of its own officers or servants: near the centre of the ground is a chapel, with a tower and spire added at the sole cost of the late Rev. Dr. Whewell, master of Trinity College, 1841-66. There is also a cemetery on the Histon road, in the parish of Chesterton, under the management of a company, and used principally by Dissenters.
  • SS. Giles' and Peter's Parochial Burial Ground, off the Huntingdon road, opened in March, 1869, at a total cost of £437 10s. consists of 1a- 2r. 26p. 339 links of ground, including the roadway, and has a chapel and a house for the curator." [Kelly's Directory of Cambridgeshire - 1900]
  • Transcripts of the Monumental Inscriptions for Histon Road Cemetery 1880-1991 and St. John's College are available from the Cambridgeshire Family History Society Publications list (search). Monumental Inscriptions for the churchyard of Cambridge St. Paul for the years 1850-61 are held at the Cambridgeshire Archives.



Church History

  • From Kelly's Directory of Cambridgeshire - 1900
    • "St Matthew's is an ecclesiastical parish, formed June 28, 1870, out of the parish of St. Andrew the Less: the church, in St. Matthew's street, Barnwell built in 1866, is an octagonal structure of brick, opening into transepts on four sides, the roof being surmounted by an octagonal lantern: the eastern arm forms an apsidal chancel and there are north and west porches and a western belfry containing 3 bells: the church affords 580 sittings. The register dates from the year 1870. The living is a vicarage, net yearly value £220, with residence and half an acre of glebe, in the gift of the vicar of St. Andrew the Less, and held since 1887 by the Rev. Joseph Hargrove M.A. of Clare College, Cambridge, and surrogate.
    • St. James's, a wooden church in Ainsworth street, in this parish, is served by the vicar and curates of St. Matthew's.
    • St. Paul's ecclesiastical parish was formed 4 July, 1845, out of the parishes of SS. Andrew the Great and the Less the church, on the Hills road, is a large edifice of red brick, faced with cut stone, in the Early English style and consists of chancel, nave, aisles, transepts, south porch and an embattled western tower containing a clock and one bell: there are 1,100 sittings, 500 of which are free. The register dates from the year 1845. The living is a vicarage, net yearly value £300, with residence, in the gift of trustees, and held since 1891 by the Rev. Henry Paine Stokes LL.D. of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, and surrogate.
    • St. Barnabas is an ecclesiastical parish, formed in 1889 from the parishes of St. Andrew the Less, St. Paul and St Matthew: the church, in the Mill Road, built in 1878 at a cost of £7,000 and consecrated May 5, 1880, is an edifice of stone in the Early English style, consisting of chancel, nave of five bays, aisles, north porch and a bell cote on the north side containing one bell: it was enlarged in 1887-90, at a cost of £4,662, and now affords 800 sittings. The living is a vicarage, gross yearly value £250, in the gift of the vicar of St.Pauls and held since 1892 by the Rev. Thomas William Thomas, M.A. of St John' s College, Cambridge.
    • The ecclesiastical parish of St John, taken principally from Cherry Hinton civil parish and including a small part of Trumpington, will be found under Cherry Hinton.
    • St Philip' s mission church, Mill road, Romsey town erected in 1890 at a cost, including site, of £2,500 as a chapel of ease to St. Barnabas, is an edifice of red brick, consisting of chancel, nave and western porch.
    • The Rev. Charles Howard, M.A. of Corpus Christi College, has been curate in charge since 1897. The population of St. Barnabas ecclesiastical parish is now (1900) 8,700.
    • St. John the Evangelist's mission church in Wellington Street, erected in 1874, is a plain edifice of brick, consisting only of nave and a belfry with one bell: there are 200 sittings: the services are conducted by the vicar and curates of Christ Church. Cambridge is included in the Catholic diocese of Northampton. The Catholic church of "Our Lady of the Assumption and the English Martyrs," at the corner of Hills road and Lensfield road and immediately opposite the grounds of Downing College, was erected in 1887-90, at a total cost of over £50,000, and is an edifice of Ancaster and Bath stone, in the Early Decorated style, from designs by Messrs Dunn, Hansom and Dunn, architects, of Newcastle-on-Tyne. The church, built at the sole expense of the late Mrs. Yolande Marie Louise Lyne Stephens, consists of chancel, nave, aisles, ante-chapel, a central embattled tower with pinnacles, and a tower with spire 220 feet high, at the north angle, containing 8 bells, provided in 1896, at a cost of over £1,000; a clock was also erected at the same date: the exterior is enriched with carving and statues, and the windows are stained: there are sittings for 300 persons. Attached to the church is a rectory, arranged as an open quadrangle, and treated in the Early Collegiate style.
    • The ancient but now desecrated chapel of St. Mary, on Sturbridge Green, a little north of the river Sture and about half a mile east of Barnwell, is a small edifice of the Norman period, consisting only of chancel and nave, but exhibits a good deal of rich workmanship, especially about the chancel arch, and has open timbered Perpendicular roofs: it appears to have belonged to a hospital for lepers.
    • St. Columba's Presbyterian Church of England, in Downing street, erected in 1890-1, at a cost of £9,000, will seat 500 persons: the organ was the gift of Lady Bruce, wife of Sir G. B. Bruce kt. of Newcastle-on-Tyne: the oak pulpit and chairs were given by Mrs. Gibson.
    • Eden Baptist chapel, in Fitzroy street, rebuilt in 1874, will hold about 600 persons. Zion Baptist chapel, in the East road, erected in 1877 in place of an earlier structure built in 1837, is of brick with stone dressings, and will seat 950 persons.
    • The Baptist chapel, St. Andrew's street, erected in 1837, seats about 800 persons. Emmanuel Congregational church, in Trumpington street, built in 1875, at a cost of £13,000, is an edifice of Yorkshire stone, with a lofty tower, and affords about 800 sittings.
    • There are four Primitive Methodist chapels, all of which are plain structures of brick; that in St. Peter's street was erected in 1841 and rebuilt in 1863, and will seat about 400: the chapel in Panton street, erected in 1866, seats about 500: Newmarket Road tabernacle, erected in 1876, has 550 sittings, and that in Sturton street, built in 1875, about 150.
    • The Wesleyan chapel, in Hobson street, built, in 1849, is of brick with a stone portico, and will seat about 1,000 persons: the other, in Hills road, erected in 1870, has 800 sittings.
    • The Friends' Meeting House is at 12 Jesus lane.
    • The Railway Mission Hall, in Devonshire road, erected in 1889, is a structure of brick, used by various religious denominations, and will seat about 500 persons." [Kelly's Directory of Cambridgeshire - 1900]
  • The current St Philip Howard Catholic Church, 33 Walpole Road, Cambridge, CB1 3TH has its own parish website.
  • The history of Eden Baptist church can be found on the church website.

Church Records

  • Church of England
    • St Barnabas: Ecclesiastical parish formed from St Andrew the Less, St. Paul and St. Matthew in 1889. Registers are at the Cambridgeshire Archives for baptisms 1889-1962, marriages 1878-1948 and Banns for the years 1889-1980.
    • St James: Ecclesiastical parish formed from Cherryhinton and St. John Cherryhinton in 1972. Registers are at the church for baptisms from 1955 and marriages from 1959.
    • St James Mission Church: Records exist for baptisms 1878-1914.
    • St Matthew: Ecclesiastical parish formed from St. Andrew the Less in 1870. Records exist for baptisms 1870-1952 and marriages 1870-1935.
    • St Mark: Ecclesiastical parish formed from Cambridge St. Giles and Grantchester in 1918. Registers are at the church for baptisms from 1884, marriages from 1903 and burials from 1923.
    • St Martin: Ecclesiastical parish formed from St Barnabas, St Paul and St Philip (Cambridge), Cherryhinton and St John Cherryhinton in 1961. Registers are at the church for baptisms from 1956 and marriages from 1959.
    • St Paul: Ecclesiastical parish formed from Cambridge St. Andrew the Great and St. Andrew the Less in 1845. Registers held at the Cambridgeshire Archives for baptisms 1845-1950, marriages 1845-1944, burials 1848-1924 and banns 1845-1947. A register of graves in Mill Road cemetery is also held for the years 1848-1953. The Bishop's Transcripts are held at the Cambridge University Library for the years 1845-51.
    • St Philip: Ecclesiastical parish formed from St Barnabas in 1903. Registers are in the Cambridgeshire Archives for baptisms 1903-1949, marriages 1903-1948 and banns 1903-1964. All other registers are at the church. St Stephen: Conventional district formed from St Andrew the Less, 1948, abolished 1955; added to the parish of St Philip in 1982-83. Registers at the church for baptisms 1948, and marriages 1951.
  • Roman Catholic
    • Our Lady and the English Martyrs (formerly St Andrew): Records exist at the Cambridgeshire Archives for baptisms 1856-1942, marriages 1849-1918 and burials 1881-1955. In addition indexed transcripts exist for births 1856-1900, marriages 1849-1918 and burials 1881-1908. Transcripts of the registers are available on microfiche from the Cambridgeshire Family History Society bookstall.
  • Independent
    • Independent, Downing Street: Records exist at the Cambridgeshire Archives for baptisms 1688-1837 on microfilm and these also exist as indexed transcripts.
    • Independent: Records exist on microfilm at the Cambridgeshire Archives for Independent baptisms 1739-80.
  • Methodist Church
    • Wesleyan Methodist Church, Barnwell: Records exist on microfilm for baptisms 1818-32.
    • Cambridge Wesleyan Methodist Church: Records exist for the Cambridge Wesleyan Circuit of which Cambridge is part.
    • Irvingite: Records exist on microfilm for baptisms 1834-40 and reside at the Cambridgeshire Archives.
    • Primitive Methodist Church: described as at Magdelene Street in 1837, later at St Peter's Street/Castle Street, microfilm of the original baptism registers, a transcription and the original register exist for 1824-37.
    • Cambridge Primitive Methodist Church: Records exist for the Cambridge Primitive Circuit of which Cambridge is part.
    • Cambridge Primitive Methodist Second Church: Records exist for the Cambridge Primitive Second Circuit of which Cambridge is part.
    • Cambridge Wesleyan Methodist Church, Hills Road: Records exist for baptisms 1870-1972 and marriages 1908-72.
    • Cambridge Wesleyan Methodist Church, Romsey Town: Records exist for marriages 1908-75.
    • Cambridge Primitive Methodist Church, Tabernacle, Newmarket Road: Records exist for marriages 1928-41.
  • Quakers
    • Cambridge Quakers were attached to the Cambridge (later Sutton) or Cambridge and Huntingdon (later Cambridge, Huntingdon and Lynn) Monthly Meetings.

Description & Travel

  • "The Guildhall, on the Market hill, was erected at various periods, but much enlarged and improved in 1862, at a cost of about £12,000; the principal assembly room, a lofty and spacious apartment, 120 by 52 feet, is admirably adapted for concerts and public meetings, and has been re-decorated in the Italian style by Mr. F. Leach, of Cambridge, and an organ erected at a cost of £1,7900; further alterations and extensions made about 1896 included the erection of municipal offices and a new police court, at a cost of about £13,000: the council chamber is now (1900) being enlarged and the offices extended.

    The Cambridge Free Public Libraries, established 1 Mar. 1853, and formally opened June 28, 1855, were removed in June, 1862, to the Guildhall, and now occupy a suite of rooms, consisting of a reading room, built in 1885 from designs by Mr. George McDonell, architect, of London, library, issue office and librarian's apartments: the libraries contain 46,000 volumes and have reference and lending departments: the issue of books during the year 1898-99 from the Central and branch libraries amounted to 110,878 volumes, the number of borrowers being over 3 000: a large number of books are kept for ready reference in the reading room, and for these no written orders are required: the Reference Library includes a good selection of works relating to the county, town and University of Cambridge, and also a Shakespeare Memorial Library, of 1,824 volumes, nearly the whole of which were presented by the late Henry Thomas Hall esq.: the reading room is well supplied with periodicals and with newspapers both daily and weekly: in 1897 a branch library was erected in Mill road, from designs by Mr. Frank Waters; and there are evening reading rooms at Castle End and East Road. The selection of books and management of the library is entrusted to a committee appointed by the Town Council, one half of whom are members of the Town Council and the other private inhabitants of the town.

    The Shire Hall, on Castle Hill, is a structure of brick and stone in the Italian style, with a portico supported on columns; the interior comprises two courts, with grand jury and magistrates' rooms and the usual offices, and here also are the offices of the Inspector of Weights and Measures. The assizes for the county, the Isle of Ely and Huntingdonshire and sessions for the county are held here and the magistrates also meet in quarter sessions to transact all magisterial business and matters relating to county affairs. The Police Station, erected in 1879, near the Assize Courts, is a plain building of stone, with a residence for the Chief constable, rooms for unmarried constables, cells for prisoners, stabling and a parade ground.

    Her Majesty's Prison and House of Correction, on Castle Hill, in the parish of Chesterton, was erected in 1804, on the site of the old Castle, and has been much improved and enlarged. Prisoners are received here from the counties of Cambridge, Huntingdon, Herts, Suffolk and Essex.

    The Theatre Royal, in St. Andrew's street, erected in 1896, is the property of a limited company.

    The chief trade of Cambridge consists in supplying the wants of the University, but there is also a considerable trade in corn for the supply of the town and for the London markets, and the town is also the centre of a large and prosperous agricultural district, which it supplies: there are iron and brass foundries, a tobacco manufactory, brick and tile works, breweries, maltings, some large flour mills, and in the immediate neighbourhood several extensive nurseries.

    The Market place, in the centre of the town, was greatly enlarged and improved about 1857: there is a daily market, but the principal market is on Saturday, and the corn market is held on the same day in the Corn Exchange, a large building at the back of the Guildhall, near the centre of the town and erected in 1876, at a cost of about £20,000; it contains a statue of Jonas Webb, the eminent breeder of sheep, by the late Baron Marochetti. The Cattle Market, formed by the Corporation, at a cost of about £19,000, on land situated between the station and Cherry Hinton road, was opened in 1885.

    Several fairs are held during the year, the principal of which are Midsummer fair, commencing on 24th June and continuing three days, for horses, cattle and earthenware; and Sturbridge fair, commencing on the 25th of September; this fair, founded 31 Elizabeth (1588-9), was formerly one of the largest in England, and beginning on the feast of the Nativity of the Virgin Mary (September 8) lasted six weeks; the fair was held on a large space of ground bounded by the Cam on the north and on the east by a small stream called the "Stour" or "Sture," over which there was a bridge, and hence the name of the fair: the whole area was covered with shops or booths arranged in rows like streets, for various trades and handicrafts, with taverns, coffee houses &c. and there was a great open quadrangle from 240 to 300 feet square, called "The Duddery," especially assigned to woollen drapers and clothes dealers; in the centre of this square a pulpit was erected, from which the minister of Barnwell preached on the two chief Sundays of the fair. This fair has now much fallen off and lasts for one week only: there are cattle fairs three times in the year.

    Hobson's Conduit, erected in the Market place in 1614 by the well-known and eccentric carrier, Thomas Hobson, but removed in 1856 to Trumpington street, is a several-sided structure with a niche in each face and a cornice supporting a domical roof which are placed on the royal arms and other adorments: this conduit and the streams running down on either side of St. Andrew's and Trumpington streets are supplied from nine wells at Great Shelford, about 4 miles south-east. In 1865 a handsome drinking fountain was erected on the old site of the conduit in the Market place.

    Sturton Town Hall, in the Mill road, built by and the property of a limited liability company, is now used by the Salvation Army and the Working Men's Liberal Club. The Beaconsfield Club, Gwydir street, is a structure of brick, erected in 1884 by a limited liability company as a working men's club: there were in 1900 500 members: political meetings are also held here. The Henry Martyn Memorial Hall in Market street, adjoining Trinity church, and erected in 1887 at a cost of £4,500, is intended both to commemorate the distinguished career and services of the Rev. Henry Martyn M.A. the first Cambridge missionary to India, and to afford a local habitation for the University Church Missionary Union, the meetings of which are held here weekly, besides furnishing at the discretion of the trustees, a place of meeting for other missionary and religious societies: it comprises a large hall, seating 175 persons, committee room with missionary library, care-taker's apartments, and a room below, now let as a shop.

    The premises of the Church of England Young Men's Society are in St Edward's passage; the Cambridge Young Men's Christian Association has premises in Alexandra street, erected in 1870, on a plot of freehold land purchased by the association: these associations each possess a library and reading and class rooms.

    The Cambridge Technical Institute, East road, opened in 1894, is a structure of brick, containing ten class rooms and workshops, and was acquired, adapted and furnished from funds provided by the County Council: the institute is a vailable for 500 students and had in 1900 about 350: Mr. Austin Keen, organizing sec.

    The Good Templar Mission Hall, Victoria street, erected at a cost of nearly £400, and opened early in 1885, is a building of red brick with Bath stone dressings: the hall will hold 50 persons.

    The Working Men's Institute and Mission Room, in Pound hill, Castle end, erected in 1884 at a cost of about £700 is an edifice of red Suffolk brick and Bath stone dressings in the English Domestic style: the large room will hold 300, and attached is a reading room furnished with papers and periodicals, and a small gymnasium." [Kelly's Directory of Cambridgeshire - 1900]

  • Railway Stations
    • "Great Eastern Railway, G. Kimm, district superintendent; J. Holdich, station master; William Roper, district goods manager; Francis C. Hayward, goods agent; parcels office, 5 Market hill.
    • Great Northern Railway, Frederick B. Kelly, district superintendent; Robert Fenn, station master; parcels office, Guildhall street.
    • London & North Western Railway, Thomas Smith, passenger agent; Edward Thomas Hazlewood, goods agent; parcels office, 4 Market hill.
    • Midland Railway, James Cairns, agent; parcels office, 18 Market hill.
    • Barnwell Junction, Henry Leeds, station master.
    • Sutton's Parcels Express Office, William Bennett Peak agent, 13 Sussex street. Omnibuses to & from the Railway station, conveying passengers to all parts of the town.
    • Tramcars about every 10 minutes to & from Railway station to Market hill & omnibuses to & from Railway station to Old Chesterton, Huntingdon road, Mill road, Rock estate & Market hill." [Kelly's Directory of Cambridgeshire - 1900]
    • Cambridge 2000 Project. There are photographs taken in Cambridge, in the year 2000, mainly of buildings of some interest or representative of a certain style of architecture. There is a CD of the project available for purchase. The photographs are organised by: photograph category, date property built, architect or builder, date photographed, location map. The location map is a good way to navigate based on geographical location but is large (almost 300k) and requires (basic) Java so there is a simple search facility also. There are some additional photographs taken from on high (which require Java to view): aerial photographs, views from top of Great St Mary's. There is also some documentation: introduction, references, acknowledgements, dedication, legal notice. Finally there are some specific lists: 100 notable buildings, sites for tourists , most important architects.






  • Hospitals and Almshouses.
    • "Addenbrooke's Hospital, in Trumpington street, founded by a bequest of John Addenbrooke, M.D. of St. Catharine's College, and first opened at Michaelmas, 1766, consists of a long pedimented central block with advanced wings, united in front by an open colonnade with balustrading: the hospital was further endowed in 1813, by John Bowtell, a book-binder in this town; and has an income of £1,421 from invested funds, but it derives its chief support from the voluntary contributions of the public. During the years 1864 and 1865 the hospital was, almost rebuilt and greatly enlarged from the designs of Sir M. Digby Wyatt, at a cost of about £15,000: in 1878 additional wards were built at a cost of £3,590; and in 1883 a dormitory was provided at a cost off about £1,200: it has now upwards of 153 beds and affords relief to a large number of out-patients. The hospital has a present income of £6,700. Certificates of attendance on the practice, in this hospital are recognized by the University, by the Royal Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons, and by the Society of Apothecaries. During term, clinical lectures are delivered weekly by the physicians, and a course of lectures on the principles of surgery. In 1884 the Corporation built a hospital for infectious diseases, on a site purchased for that purpose, in Mill road, Romsey town. The Royal Albert Benevolent Soceties Asylum, Mill road, for decayed tradespeople and others: was established in 1846; and is a structure of white brick in the Gothic style, consisting of twenty-five houses: its finds were augmented in 1868 by a legacy of upwards of £6,000, left by the late Mr. J. Reynolds, of this town; and it is generally supported by members' contributions and donations and subscriptions.
    • The Priory of Barnwell, dedicated to SS. Giles and Andrew, was first founded in Cambridge in 1092 by Picot, a Norman, for six canons of the Augustinian order, and translated to Barnwell in 1102 by Payn Peverell, standard bearer in the Holy Land to Robert Curthose, Duke of Normandy, who refounded the priory, increasing the number of canons to 30, and dying in 1112, was buried in the priority church. The last prior, John Badcock, surrendered the monastery Nov. 8, 1539, when the revenues were estimated at £256. The existing remains, situated about 1 ½; miles east of Cambridge market place, consist only of part of the north-west angle of the cloisters, with traces of arcading, and a portion of the boundary wall; the site has at one time been quarried, and more recently has been excavated by the Cambridge Antiquarian Society, but with slight results: it is now laid out with streets." [Kelly's Directory of Cambridgeshire - 1900]

You can see maps centred on OS grid reference TL446589 (Lat/Lon: 52.209355, 0.114844), Cambridge which are provided by:



  • "Cambridge Chronicle & University Journal, 9 Market hill, Miss A. T. Naylor, publisher; published on Friday evening. See advertisement
  • Cambridge Daily Gazette, Regent house, Regent street & St. Tibb's row, Cambridge Gazette Co. Limited, proprietors & publishers; published daily; neutral
  • Cambridge Daily News, 48 St. Andrew's street, W. F. Taylor, proprietor & publisher; published daily
  • Cambridge Express Newspaper Co. Limited, 20c, King street. W. P. Spalding, publisher & managing director; published on Sat.
  • Cambridge Independent Press, 6a, Market hill, Hatfield & Co. publishers; published on Fri.
  • Cambridge Review, 30 Trinity street, Elijah Johnson, Publisher; published every Thurs. during term.
  • Cambridgeshire & Eastern Counties Weekly Gazette, Regent house, Regent street & St. Tibb's row, Cambridge Gazette Co. Limited, proprietors & publishers published Fri.; neutral
  • Cambridgeshire Weekly News. 48 St. Andrew's street, W. F. Taylor, proprietor & publisher; published on Fri. " [Kelly's Directory of Cambridgeshire - 1900]

Poor Houses, Poor Law

  • Cambridge Union Workhouse , later Public Assistance Institution and then County Hospital, records for births 1866-1935 and deaths 1877-1938 are held in the Cambridgeshire Archives.