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1868 - The National Gazetteer of Great Britain and Ireland

"JUST, (or Juest, St.), a parish in the hundred of Penwith, county Cornwall, 7 miles W. of Penzance. This parish, which is of large extent, comprising above 7,000 acres, is situated near the Land's End, and is bounded on the W. and N. by the Bristol Channel. Its surface is extremely barren, consisting chiefly of granite and slate, but there is no place of equal extent in England, or probably in Europe, that has produced so many varieties of metallic and earthy minerals, or that displays so many interesting geological features. Tin and copper are extensively worked, and bismuth, asbestos, garnet, talc, hornblende, and opal, with many other minerals, are found. The principal mines are Botallack, Levant, Parknoweth, Huel Cock, Wheat, and others, some ten of which are or have been worked under the bed of the sea, which, in stormy weather, is heard by the miners breaking above like the sound of distant thunder. Several of these mines, chiefly of tin, appear to have been worked at a very remote period, which has led to the inference that this district was the true Cassiterides of the ancients from which the Phoenicians obtained their supplies of tin, and not the Scilly Isles, which do not appear to have ever produced that metal in any great quantity. In several parts of the parish are rock basins, and at Botallack and Tregaseal are some circles of stone called the Rock Circles. The Romans also appear to have had establishments in the vicinity, for at Leswydden two Roman pateræ, besides urns, &c., were found, and in the grounds of the parsonage a bronze figure of a bull two inches high, with various Roman coins, were discovered in 1832. In the time of Dr. Borlase, the county historian, who was born at Pendeen in this parish, the amphitheatre adjoining the town of Churchtown was nearly perfect, with its six tiers of stone benches, but they are now scarcely visible. Tradition relates that upon the conquest of Cornwall in the seventh century, Ethelbert, with six other Saxon kings, dined here at a stone called the Mayne, or at Mean in Sennen. There are ruins of ancient chapels at Park-an-Capel, near Cape Cornwall, and on the summit of Carn Brea Hill. The inhabitants, who are chiefly miners, are scattered in numerous villages, one of the principal being Pendeen, or Churchtown, where a market is held on Saturdays. The living is a vicarage* in the diocese of Exeter, value £484, in the patronage of the lord chancellor. The church is an ancient structure. There are places of worship for Bryanites, Wesleyans, and Free Wesleyans, all of whom have their separate schools. There is a National school at Churchtown, established in 1828; also almshouses.