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St Just In Roseland

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St Just-in-Roseland, (Cornish: Lannsiek), is situated in the Deanery and Hundred of Powder. It is bounded on the north by Philleigh, on the east by Gerrans and Gerrans Lake, on the south by St Mawes Creek and St Anthony's Pool which separates it from St Anthony, and on the west by Falmouth harbour and the sea. As its name suggests, it is located on the Roseland Peninsula to the south of Truro. It should not be confused with St Just-in-Penwith which is near Land's End. The parish is set on the western side of the Roseland and is undulating farmland. To the west is the Carrick Roads - a large natural harbour with the port of Falmouth on its western side.

The town of St Mawes, which is the chief place of residences, lies within the parish; it stretches along the shore line on the north side of Falmouth harbour.

The parish contains a castle, called St Mawes Castle, which was built by Henry VII in 1542. It is one of a pair, commanding Carrick Roads seaway and the entrance to Falmouth harbour, the other being Pendennis Castle at Falmouth. St Mawes has its own harbour where ferry services connect it with Falmouth and St Anthony and Gerrans.

Most parish and church description(s) on these pages are from Lake's Parochial History of the County of Cornwall by J Polsue (Truro, 1867 - 1873)

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Cemeteries

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Census

Census information for this parish (1841 - 1901) is held in the Cornwall Record Office. The Cornwall Family History Society offers a census search service for its members.
Specific census information for this parish is available as follows:

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Church History

  • Anglican. There are two Anglican churches in the parish:
    • Parish Church. The parish church is located in OS Grid Square SW8435 and was dedicated to St Just. The church was dedicated on 14th August 1261. It comprises a chancel, nave, south aisle, and a short north aisle, a portion of which was used as a vestry. The arcade has seven obtuse arches of granite supported on monolith pillars of the same material. There is a south porch, the entrance arch of which is paneled, a vestry door and a priest's door. The tower, which is of two stages, is buttressed at the angles, and embattled, having a the corners stump pinnacles. It contains three bells. There are north and south entrances to the churchyard through Lych gates. The church is probably the most beautiful in Cornwall; it overlooks water and is surrounded by palm trees and other exotic tropical trees and flowers.
    • St Mawes. The ancient chapel of St. Mawes or St. Mauduit was existing as early as 1427, but the present edifice, used as a chapel of ease to St. Just, was erected on the same site in 1812 by Richard, 2nd Marquess and afterwards Duke of Buckingham K.G., though it was not used until 1837. The extant chapel was again rebuilt in 1883-4 of local elven stone in the Early English style, at a cost of £1,500, and consists of chancel, nave, south porch and a western turret containing one bell; all the windows are stained, the west window being a memorial to the late Capt. Wm. Vincent R.N., d. 1882, and to his wife, d. 1869. The east window is a memorial to Miss Cullen, who died in 1881 whilst on a visit here. The old font is still in use, and the handsome brass lectern was presented by Wm. Notting esq. of London at the reformation. The old chapel contained a picture of St. Mawe or Machutus, and a stone chair said to have belonged to him. There are 300 sittings.
  • Roman Catholic. The Roman Catholic Church is located in St Mawes. The church is dedicated to honouring Our Lady Star of the Sea and also St. Anthony, the saint popularly invoked by those in danger of shipwreck and renowned for his intercession in the recovery of lost things. St. Anthony's feast day is kept on 13th June. The Foundation stone for this Church was laid on May 6th 1875 by the Bible Christians. They held their first service on Christmas Day in the same year. In 1937 a group of St. Mawes' Catholics got together and raised enough funds, seven hundred and fifty pounds, to buy this Church. After some restoration and an extension the building was ready for use. The first Mass was celebrated in 1938 and the parish was served then from Falmouth. A presbytery was added eight years later. It was not until 1956 that St. Mawes had its own resident Catholic priest.
  • Non-Conformist. In St Mawes were chapels belonging to the Wesleyan Methodists, Bible Christians (which eventually became the Catholic Church), and Calvinists; there was a Bible Christian chapel at Trethewell, and a Wesleyan Methodist chapel at Lane. Between 1929 and 1932 the Bible Christians decided to reunite with the Methodist Community and they removed to the Methodist Chapel in 1937.
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Church Records

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Civil Registration

The parish of St Just-in-Roseland has been in the Truro Registration District continuously from 1st July 1837. There were sub-districts at Kea, Kenwyn, Probus, St. Agnes, St. Clement and St Just-in-Roseland, but these have now been abolished. Parishes in this registration district are: Cornelly, Cuby, Feock, Gerrans, Kea, Kenwyn, Ladock, Lamorran, Merther, Perranzabuloe, Philleigh, Probus, Ruan Lanihorne, St. Agnes, St. Allen, St. Anthony in Roseland, St. Clement, St. Erme, St. Feock, St. Just in Roseland, St. Michael Penkevil, Tregavethan, Tregony St. James, Truro St. Mary, Veryan.

The address of the Registration Office is: Dalvenie House, New County Hall, Truro, TR1 3AY.
Tel: 01872 322241.

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Description & Travel

You can see pictures of St Just In Roseland which are provided by:

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Gazetteers

The National Gazetteer of Great Britain and Ireland - 1868

"ST. JUST IN ROSELAND, (or St. Jeast), a parish in the W. division of the hundred of Powder, county Cornwall, comprising the disfranchised borough of St. Mawes; it has also constant communication with Truro and Falmouth. The parish is bounded on the W. and S. by the river Fal, forming the eastern shore of Falmouth harbour, and on the S.E. by St. Mawes creek. Part of the lands formerly belonged to St. Anthony's Priory. Here stands St. Mawes Castle, built by Henry VIII. for the protection of the coast, and still kept in repair; and a little below it on the same cliff a modern battery of eight guns. The tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £520. The living is a rectory* in the diocese of Exeter, value £425. The church of St. Just stands on the coast, backed by a mass of dark rock, and mantled with ivy. There is also a chapel-of-ease at St. Mawes, built by the Duke of Buckingham in 1812. There are places of worship for Calvinistic and Wesleyan Methodists and Bryanites. There is a small free school and a National school. On Bartini Hill are traces of a circular fortification, and at Rosecassa the ruins of an ancient chapel.

"ST. MAWES, a small seaport and ancient market town in the parish of St. Just-in-Roseland, hundred of Powder, county Cornwall, 3 miles E. of Falmouth, across the harbour, and 14 from Truro. The ferry from Falmouth to Flushing is worked every half hour, from 8 A.M. to 8 P.M. in summer. Its name is supposed to be a corruption of St. Mary's, to whose priory at Plympton it anciently belonged. Other writers refer to a tradition which derives it from St. Mawe, or Machutus, a Welsh monk, who also gave name to the town of St. Malo, upon the coast of France. The former derivation, however, appears the more reasonable, and is supported by ancient records, in which the town is frequently written St. Mawes, alias St. Mary's. A castle was erected here in 1542 by Henry VIII.

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Genealogy

  • OPC Assistance. The On-line Parish Clerk (OPC) scheme operates a service to help family historians; the OPC page for this parish is available on-line, from where the OPC can be contacted by email.
  • Strays. The OPC is tracking information relating to the activities of the inhabitants of St Just-in-Roseland in other parishes. He is also recording information on St Just residents appearing in The West Briton newspaper. This has been placed on-line.
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Historical Geography

The Domesday Settlements of Cornwall, a study undertaken by the Cornwall Branch of the Historical Association, has identified and located settlements listed in the Exeter and Exchequer Domesday Survey of AD 1086. The following places have been identified in St Just-in-Roseland ecclesiastical parish:

You can see the administrative areas in which St Just In Roseland has been placed at times in the past. Select one to see a link to a map of that particular area.

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Maps

You can see maps centred on OS grid reference SW852357 (Lat/Lon: 50.182202, -5.010453), St Just In Roseland which are provided by:

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Poor Houses, Poor Law

St Just-in-Roseland parish was part of the Truro Union for Poor Law administration and parish relief.

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Population

  • Population in 1801 - 1416 persons
  • Population in 1811 - 1639 persons
  • Population in 1821 - 1648 persons
  • Population in 1831 - 1558 persons
  • Population in 1841 - 1488 persons
  • Population in 1851 - 1557 persons
  • Population in 1861 - 1546 persons
  • Population in 1871 - 1479 persons
  • Population in 1881 - 1342 persons
  • Population in 1891 - 1178 persons
  • Population in 1901 - 1121 persons
  • Population in 1911 - 985 persons
  • Population in 1921 - 1057 persons
  • Population in 1931 - 970 persons
  • Population in 1951 - 1248 persons
  • Population in 1961 - 1438 persons
  • Population in 1971 - 1329 persons
  • Population in 1981 - 1050 persons, plus 230 persons in St Just village
  • Population in 1991 - 1185 persons, plus 295 persons in St Just village
  • Population in 2001 - 1197 persons
  • Population in 2011 - 1158 persons
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Religion & Religious Life

In the May of 1641 it was agreed and ordered that every Member of the House of Commons and House of Lords should make a protestation (declaration of loyalty) to the crown. The Protestation was printed and then distributed by the Members to their counties. The Protestation was to be made by everyone and the Rectors, Churchwardens and Overseers of the Poor, had to appear before the Justices of the Peace in their Hundred to make their protestation and, on returning to their parishes, any two of them were to witness the taking of the Protestation Oath by all males over the age of 18 years. All names were listed and anyone who refused was to be noted.

The Protestation Returns of 1642 for St Just-in-Roseland are available on-line, courtesy of the OPC.

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Statistics

The parish comprises 2651 acres of land, 20 acres of tidal water and 117 acres of foreshore.

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Taxation