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1868 - The National Gazetteer of Great Britain and Ireland

"LIVERPOOL, a parish, seaport, market town, municipal and parliamentary borough, having separate jurisdiction, but locally inn the hundred of West Derby, southern division of the county palatine of Lancaster. It stands on the right bank near the mouth of the river Mersey, in lat. 53° 23' N., and long. 2° 59' 30" W., 32 miles W. by S. of Manchester, 49 S. by W. of Lancaster, and 210 from London by rail, or 206 by road. The name of this town was anciently Lyrpoole, or Litherpoole, and is probably a corruption of the Welsh Llerpwll, "the place on the pool," though the popular idea is that the first part of the word is the name of the bird which is still seen on the arms of the town, and which, it is said, was once abundant on the pool which formerly covered the neighbourhood of Whitechapel and Church-street. The town originated in a castle built on the spot by Roger of Poictiers, to whom William I. granted the country between the Ribble and the Mersey. This building was enlarged by King John, subsequently dismantled by order of parliament in 1659, and, after being rented by the town for some years, was finally destroyed in 1715. St. George's church now stands on its site. The town first began to be used as a port after the conquest of Ireland in 1172. In the following year Henry II. granted the first charter, which was confirmed by John in 1207; and in 1227 Henry III. constituted the town a free borough for ever. Its progress, however, was small; for in 1272 it only consisted of 168 houses, and during the following centuries it decreased both in size and prosperity, till, in 1561, the number of houses was reduced to 138, and the merchants of the town only owned twelve ships. The town contributed one ship only to serve in the French wars of Edward III. During the reign of that king the Stanleys, who owned land in the neighbourhood, built a tower, where Water-street now ends, for the defence of the town. This was used as a residence for a considerable period, then as an assembly room, and finally as a gaol till 1819, when it was pulled down to make room for new buildings. In 1361 and 1548 Liverpool was visited by plagues. The present series of docks was commenced in the reign of Elizabeth, by the formation of a mole to protect the shipping during the winter, and' a quay for loading and unloading their cargoes; but for long the commerce of the town was of very inferior importance, as is shown by the amount of ship-money levied by Charles I. here, which was £25, while Bristol was rated at £1,000. During the commencement of the Civil War, Liverpool was in the hands of the parliamentary party, but was taken by Prince Rupert in 1644. It was soon, however, recovered by the opposite army. A considerable portion of the town was burnt during the sieges, and the corporation petitioned parliament in 1645 for compensation; when the ferryboats were granted to them, with a sum of £10,000 to indemnify the inhabitants for their losses, and 500 tons of timber for repairs, from the parks of the Earl of Derby, Lord Molyneux, Sir William Norris, Robert Blundell, Robert Molyneux, Charles Gerard, and Edward Scaresbrick. The fortifications were destroyed about the same time. Towards the end of the 17th century the inhabited portion consisted of Castle-street, and a few other streets on the N. and N.E.; but during William III.'s reign the population increased so rapidly that it was found necessary to constitute Liverpool a distinct parish from Walton. In 1709 the first wet dock was constructed on the old pool, but was filled up in 1831, and the custom-house and post-office now stand on its site. At present the docks cover 203 acres, and possess 15 miles of quay. They consist of wet docks, which are filled with water permanently, and are used for the discharging of the cargoes from foreign merchantmen; dry docks, which are affected by the ebb and flow of the tide, and are made use of chiefly by coasting vessels; and graving docks, for the repair of vessels. The names and sizes of the principal ones are as follows, commencing from the N.:-The Canada dock, about 400 yards by 180; the Huskisson, about 1,600 feet by 400, in front of which stands a small fort; the Sandon, 930 feet by 450, with six graving docks 500 feet in length, and a basin connecting it with the river; the Wellington, 800 feet by 400, and the Wellington half-tide, 800 by 400; the Bramley Moore, 1,050 feet by 400; the Nelson, 870 feet by 400; the Salisbury, 300 feet by 500; the Collingwood, 1,500 feet by 480; the Stanley, 340 feet by 80. These three form a chain of basins, and are connected with the Leeds canal. The North Graving docks and basin are about 600 feet long; the Clarence dock and basin, built in 1830, 250 yards by 135, is appropriated to the steam vessels serving between Liverpool and other ports of Great Britain; the Trafalgar, Victoria, and Waterloo, opened 1836. Their united area is 30,674 square yards. Prince's basin and Prince's dock, opened on the day on which George IV. was crowned, 19th July, 1821, 500 yards by 106. There is an entrance to this dock at each end-that on the N. leading into the basin, that on the S. into George's basin. Sheds for the stowage of merchandise extend along the dock, and there is a dwelling-house at each end for the masters of this dock and George's respectively. The basin contains a "gridiron," a contrivance for lifting ships requiring repair so that the keel and adjacent parts may be inspected. George's dock and basin, 246 yards by 100, was built in 1767, and enlarged in 1825. A range of warehouses run along the E. side, and the W. side forms an extensive parade, and contains the public baths. The seamen's church is moored in this dock. A landing-stage projects from the parade, whence steamers start continually for Birkenhead, New Brighton, Seacombe, Eastham, and other places on the Mersey. The Manchester dock is a small irregularly shaped basin, where flats from Manchester load and unload. The Canning dock, 500 yards in length, was originally a dry dock, but has been lately converted into a wet one. It was built in 1738, and is chiefly used by vessels from the N. coast. Two graving docks and a half-tide dock are connected with it. The Salthouse dock was opened in 1753. The place where it stands was originally occupied by salt-works, from which it has taken its name. Its size is 720 feet by 290. Ships are laid up in the upper end, and the remainder is used by vessels employed in the Levant, Irish, and coasting trades. The Albert dock, between the Salthouse and the river, was opened by Prince Albert in 1846. Its size is 700 feet by 400, and it is surrounded by fireproof warehouses. The Duke's dock is a small dock built by the late Duke of Bridgewater for the use of canal boats. Wapping Dock is about 270 yards by 50, and is connected with a basin. Below this is the King's dock, 270 yards by 95, opened in 1788. It is adjacent to the Queen's Tobacco Warehouse, and is the only place where ships laden with tobacco' are allowed to unload. A floating chapel for seamen is moored in the N.W. corner. The Queen's dock, 445 yards by 100, was opened in 1796, and is used by timber ships, and Dutch, Baltic, and West India merchants. It communicates on the N. with the Queen's basin, to which are attached two graving docks, and at the S. with the Union and Coburg docks. Near the graving docks there are large shipbuilding yards. Adjoining the Union is the Brunswick dock, 430 yards by 140, opened in 1832, and used exclusively for the timber trade. A half-tide dock connects it with the river, and there are two graving docks and a ship-building yard at the southern end. Near this is the Toxteth dock, about 200 yards in length, and higher up the river the Harrington and Egerton, both about the same size as the Toxteth. They are used for rafting timber from the Baltic and from America. A dock master is appointed to superintend each dock, with a body of dock police under him, and there are two harbour masters who exercise a general supervision over the shipping. The affairs of the harbour are managed by a committee of 21 persons, called the Mersey Docks and Harbour Board, who meet weekly, or oftener if requisite. It consists of 13 trustees, elected by the common council, and 8 ratepayers, resident in Liverpool, elected by the merchants and shipowners. In October, 1862, this board agreed to apply hydraulic power to the gates at the Wellington half-tide dock, the Huskisson locks, the Sandon dock entrance, and the outer storm gates at the two last-named docks, and also to provide two hydraulic capstans on the pier heads of Sandon basin, at an estimated cost of £9,205. It was found that great advantage would result to the working of the trade of these docks by the application of hydraulic power; that the gates by this means could be opened or closed in three minutes, whereas by the old system half an hour was occupied in the performance of this operation; and that after hydraulic power was applied to the gates they could be kept open for the admission of shipping for twenty minutes longer than at present. The harbour, as defined by a royal commission, 8th November, 1723, extends "from the Redstones in Hoylake, at the point of Wirral, southerly, to the foot of the river called Ribble water, in a direct line northerly, and so upon the S. side of the river to Hesketh bank easterly, and to the rivers Astland and Douglas there, and so all along the sea-coasts of Meols and Formby, unto the river Mersey, and all over the rivers Mersey, Irwell, and Weaver." The entrance to the harbour is much obstructed by shifting sandbanks, which are marked out by buoys and lightships. There are also lighthouses on Formby point, and at Crosby, on the Lancashire coast, at Bidston and Leasowe in Cheshire, and one called the Rock lighthouse at the entrance to the river, also on the Cheshire side. The number and size of the docks enumerated above will give some idea of the extent of the commerce carried on at Liverpool. The trade with America, in cotton, tobacco, and sugar, is the chief staple of the port, but there is a very large trade with all parts of the world for every article of merchandise. The value of the exports is about one-half that of the exports of the United Kingdom, and the amount of cotton imported is greater than that imported at all the other ports. The manufactures are principally connected with shipping, but there are in addition extensive sugar refineries, tobacco and soap manufactories, potteries, glass-staining works, iron and brass foundries, and mills for grinding corn, colours, and dyers' wood. Chronometers and watches are also made in great numbers both at Liverpool and Prescot. The streets of Liverpool are mostly broad and well paved; and in the centre of the town, as Dale-street, Lord-street, Castle-street, Church-street, and Bold-street, the building and decorations of the shops are equal to the best streets of the metropolis. The district nearer the river is occupied by extensive warehouses and offices. The neighbourhood of Prince's Park, as well as Everton, Wavertree, and Aigburth, and the more remote suburbs, abound with country houses. The town is well supplied with cabs and omnibuses, and the road which runs along the side of the docks is provided with a tramway for the use of omnibuses. Liverpool possesses some very handsome public buildings. St. George's Hall, in Lime-street, is unequalled in England. It contains a large hall used for concerts, public meetings, balls, &c., a smaller concert room, two rooms used for the crown and assize courts, and numerous offices and other apartments. The size of the whole building is 500 feet in length by 175 in breadth, and 112 in height. The form is rectangular, and the style adopted is the Corinthian. The S. facade, facing St. John's-lane, is a portico consisting of twelve columns, 45 feet in height by 4½ in diameter, in two rows of eight and four. These are surmounted by a pediment containing a group of symbolical colossal figures, designed by Cockerell, and executed by W. G. Nicholls. On the entablature below the following inscription is chiselled: "Artibus Legibus Consiliis locum Municipes constituerunt. Anno Domini MDCCC-XLI." A flight of stone steps leads up to the portico. The eastern facade, facing the Lime-street railway station, is 420 feet in length. A row of pilasters is carried along the entire front, while a projecting colonnade of 17 columns occupies the central space of 200 feet. The N. front projects in the form of a semicircle, containing the concert room already mentioned. This room measures 86 feet by 70, and is 42 feet high. The stage will accommodate sixty performers, and there is space in the room for an audience of 1,200. The panels of the wall are painted to imitate rich wood, and are divided by gilding. Mirrors also form an important part of the decoration. The great hall is 169 feet by 74, and 84 in height. The vault of the roof is decorated in panels, and intersected at the sides by lateral arches, supported by columns of porphyry 31 feet in height and 3 feet in diameter, the spaces between which will be occupied by statues. The floor is composed of tiles, designed for the hall, consisting chiefly of local devices, and is raised a few inches for a considerable width round the edge of the room; but when the hall is used for dancing the centre thus sunk is brought to the same level as the circumference by covering it with a boarded floor. The largest organ in England stands in a gallery at the N. end. This instrument was built by Willis of London, under the superintendence of Dr. Wesley, organist at Winchester Cathedral. A steam engine of six horse-power works the bellows. The ventilation of the hall is very perfect, and is carried out by means of perforations in the floor, connected with a system of pipes 7 miles in length, through which either hot or cold air can be introduced. The crown and nisi prius courts are fine rooms, measuring 55 feet by 50, and 45 in height. The fittings and wainscot are of oak. The foundation stone of the hall was laid on the 28th of June, 1838, and the public opening took place on September 18, 1854. The townhall, situated at the junction of Dale-street, Castle-street, and Water-street, was built in 1749, but partially destroyed by fire in 1795, when it was rebuilt, at a total cost of £110,000. It is built in the Grecian style, and is surmounted by a dome 106 feet in height. The tablets between the capitals of the columns are decorated with bas-reliefs, but the pediment of the portico is plain. The interior arrangements are as follows:-The ground floor is occupied by committee rooms, rooms for magistrates and juries, for the general sessions, rotation office, and the offices for the town surveyor, treasurer, &c. The grand staircase, which is lighted by the dome, leads to a suite of apartments used by the mayor for receptions, balls, &c., and which consist of a saloon, 30 feet by 26; a drawing-room, 33 feet by 26; two ball-rooms, one 90 feet by 42, the other 66 feet by 30; a card-room, 33 feet by 26; a tea-room, 33 feet by 22; and a refreshment-room, 60 feet by 30. The decorations are in Scagliola marble, and the ceilings are richly panelled. The saloon contains the portraits of George III., by Lawrence, George IV., by Hoppner, and the Duke of Clarence. On the first landing of the staircase there is a statue of Canning, by Chantrey, and a colossal figure of Britannia crowns the dome. The custom-house, which includes offices for the postal service, the excise, and the decks, is situated in Canning-place, on the site of the old dock. The site, worth £90,000, was given by the corporation, who erected the present buildings at a total cost of £300,000. An arrangement was made to hand over the buildings to government in twenty years, on payment of the sum of £160,000 by annual instalments of £25,000. The ground plan is in the shape of the letter I, the E. end being occupied by the post-office, the W. by the custom-house, while the centre is occupied by the offices fer the collection of other branches of the revenue. The "long room" which occupies the centre of the building, is 146 feet in length by 70 in width, and 45 in height. The style of architecture is the Ionic. A dome stands in the centre. The total size of the building is 467 feet by 95. The foundation stone was laid in 1828. The exchange buildings were erected in 1803, and form three sides of a square, which is completed by the N. side of the townhall. The quadrangular area thus enclosed is 197 feet by 178, and is used by merchants as an exchange. A bronze statue of Nelson, by Westmacott, stands in the centre. The E. wing contains a newsroom, 95 feet by 61, where telegrams relating to shipping are exhibited. Above this is the underwriters' room. The N. and W. sides are occupied by counting-houses and warehouses, and by the offices of the Liverpool and American Chambers of Commerce. The corn exchange is a plain Grecian building in Brunswick-street similar to that in Mark-lane. Its size is 116 feet by 60. Other public buildings are-the county court, Ranelagh-street; the sessions-house, Rumford-street; the police court, Hatton-garden; the parish offices, Brownlow-hill; the bankrupts court, South John-street; and the prison at Kirkdale. There is an astronomical observatory on the Marine-parade, where chronometers are rated. In addition to the statutes already mentioned, there is one by Westmacott of George III. in the London-road, and a monument to Huskisson in St. James's cemetery. Water and gas are supplied to the town by several companies. The former is brought from a lake called Rivington Pike, a distance of several miles. According to the provisions of the Municipal Corporation Act, Liverpool consists of 16 wards, the names of which are as follows:- Scotland, Vauxhall, St. Paul's, Exchange, Castle-street, St. Peter's, Pitt-street, Great George's, Rodent, Abercromby, Lime-street, St. Anne's, Everton, West Derby, and North and South Toxteth. The last four are new wards, beyond the parish, included by the boundary commissioners in 1835. The borough has returned two members to the House of Commons since the reign of Edward I. The corporation consists of a mayor, 16 aldermen, and 48 town councillors, elected by the above wards. The mayor is by virtue of his office justice of the peace during his term of office and the succeeding year. The recorder, appointed by the crown, acts as judge at the general quarter sessions for the borough. There are also a stipendiary magistrate, who attends daily at the police court, a town clerk, coroner and other officers. The corporation regulates the lighting and cleansing of the town, the police, hackney coachmen, &c. Their income is about £370,000. The police force was formerly divided into 16 districts, each with its captain, but since the Municipal Act the whole force has been united, and is under the control of the watch committee, which consists of a body of aldermen. The fire brigade is noted for its efficiency. The total annual cost of the whole body, including the fire and dock police, is £40,000. Liverpool possesses a court of record, called the "Court of Passage," for civil cases. This was established by prescription, but has been regulated by several Acts in the present and the last reigns. The officers are as follows:-The assistant barrister, who acts as assessor, with a salary of £500; a chairman; a registrar, with £2,000, as town clerk, clerk of the peace, and parliamentary solicitor; a sergeant-at-mace, £360; with a clerk, a crier, a water bailiff, who is also harbour master to the port, a deputy water bailiff, and two sub-bailiffs. The water bailiff has no salary, and the inferior officers receive from £20 to £25. The mayor acts as judge, but the assistant barrister holds the courts for trial of issues and hearing motions for new trials and special arguments. The registrar transacts other business. The court has jurisdiction in all personal actions and in some actions of ejectment between landlord and tenant, andit extends over the borough, and the Mersey from Warrington and Frodsham bridges to a certain distance at sea beyond the mouth of the river. The proceedings are in the same form as those in the superior courts at Westminster. The Court of Requests has jurisdiction over the whole borough in actions of debt not exceeding £5. It was established in the year 2 George II. The officers are the assistant barrister, with a salary of £700; two clerks, £700 each; a treasurer, £200; two assistant clerks, a summons clerk, two execution, two assistant, and four summons officers. The recorder, the stipendiary magistrate, the assessor of the Court of Passage, and the town clerk, are also commissioners, but only act in the absence of the assistant barrister. Petty sessions are held daily by the borough magistrates, and quarter sessions are also held. The justices number 30, 15 being members of the council. The assizes for West Derby hundred now meet at Liverpool instead of at Lancaster as formerly. The population of the borough in 1861 was 375,955, and in 1861, 443,938. The 2nd Royal Lancashire militia have their headquarters here. Liverpool gives the title of earl to the family of the Jenkinsons, whose peerage dates from the year 1796. Before the dissolution of the monasteries Liverpool was a chapelry to Walton, comprising four chantries; but in 1699 the town and borough were constituted a distinct parish, the living to be a rectory in two medieties, in the diocese and archdeaconry of Chester, and the patronage to be vested in the mayor and corporation. The old chapel-of-ease, dedicated to St. Nicholas, was then constituted the parish church, and another church, dedicated to St. Peter, was built in what is now Church-street-it was commenced in 1699, and consecrated in 1704. The annual value of each of these churches is £615. St. Nicholas was first built in 1361, and rebuilt 1774, in the Gothic style. The tower and spire fell on the 11th February, 18 10, during the ringing of the bells, killing twenty-eight persons, and destroying the organ, the western gallery, and much of the pewing in the body of the church. The present tower is about 40 yards in height, and supports an open lantern of 20 yards, which was subsequently added. The following perpetual curacies were in the patronage of the corporation previous to 1836; St. George's, value £250, built in 1732 on the site of the castle, and subsequently rebuilt by Foster: this church is used by the corporation; St. Thomas's, in Park-lane, value £138, in the patronage of trustees, built 1750, with a steeple 80 yards high; St. Paul's, near the Exchange railway station, two curacies, value £220 and £180; the church was built in 1769; St. Anne's, at the end of St. Anne-street, value 199; St. John's, behind St. George's Hall, value £270; St. Michael's, Cornwallis-street, two curacies, value £250 each--this church has a steeple 201 feet high, and cost £45,267; St. Luke's, at the top of Bold-street, two curacies, value £254 each-the church was built in 1811 by Foster, and is the handsomest in the town; St. Martin's, Great Oxford-street, Vauxhall-road, value £530, built in 1828 by Foster, with a spire of 198 feet; Trinity, St. Anne-street, value £270, built in 1792; St. Andrew, Renshaw-street, built by Sir .T. Gladstone, Bart., in 1815, value 1295; St. Bridget's, Catharine-street, value £305, in the patronage of trustees; St. Catharine's, Abercrombie-square, built by Foster, value 1250; Christ Church, Hunter-street, built by gift of Mr. Houghton, value £105, in the patronage of trustees; St. David's, Brownlow Hill, value £203, in the patronage of trustees; St. Mark's, Upper Duke-street, value £380, in the patronage of trustees; St. Matthew's, Hill-street, value £107, in the patronage of trustees; St. Stephen's, Old Haymarket, value £300, in the patronage of the rector; St. Philip's, Hardman-street, built in 1822 by J. Cragg, Esq., two curacies, value £200 each. Other churches are - St. Barnabas, Parliament-street, St. Silas, Pembroke-place, St. Bartholomew, Naylor-street, curacies, in the patronage of trustees; St. Matthias, Great Howard-street, a curacy, value £300, in the patronage of the rector; St. Simon, near Copperas Hill, a curacy, value £150, All Saints, Great Nelson-street North, a curacy, value £130, both in the patronage of the crown and bishop. Also All Souls, Eaton-street, Vauxhall-road; St. Aidan's, Victoria-road, Kirkdale; St. Alban's, Limekiln-lane; St. Augustine's, Shaw-street, Everton; Christ Church, Great Homer-street; St. Chrysostom, Audley-street, Everton; St. Clement's, Stanhope-street, Toxteth Park; St. George's, Everton; Holy Innocents', Myrtle-street South; Holy Trinity, Walton Breck; St. James's, Parliament-street; St. John the Baptist, Park-road, Toxteth Park; St. Jude's, Everton; St. Mark's district, Leveson-street; St. Mary's, Edgehill; St. Mary's, Kirkdale; St. Mary's, for the blind, Hope-street; St. Matthew's, Scotland-road; North Shore Chapel, Derby-road; St. Paul's, Prince's Park; St. Peter's, Johnson-street, Everton; St. Saviour's, Huskisson-street; St. Stephen Martyr's, Crown-street; and St. Thomas-in-the-Fields, Grafton-street. There is also a church for mariners, a curacy in the patronage of trustees, held in the Tees man-of-war, in George's Dock. There are 14 Roman Catholic chapels, the principal ones being-St. Anne's, Edgehill; St. Anthony's, Scotland-road; St. Francis Xavier's, Salisbury-street; St. Nicholas's, Copperas Hill, and St. Patrick's, Park-place. There are 8 Independent chapels, the principal one being in Great George-street. It was built in 1811, and rebuilt in a more commodious and handsome style for Dr. Raffles in 1841. There are Baptist chapels in Myrtle-street and Pembroke-place, and 7 others of less size. The Presbyterians have 9 places of worship-in Oldham-street, Rodney-street, Myrtle-street, and elsewhere. The Unitarians have 3 in Hope-street, Renshaw-street, and Toxteth Park-road. The Wesleyan Methodists have 20 places of worship-in Moss-street, Mount Pleasant, Pitt-street, Grove-street, &c.; the Primitive Methodists 3, in Maguire-street, Prince William-street, and Walnut-street. There are 14 Welsh chapels, belonging to the Baptists, Independents, and Methodists. The chapels of the first-named sect are situated in Athol-street, Great Crosshall-street, Great Howard-street, and Stanhope-street; those of the Independents in Bedford-street and Great Crosshall-street; and the Methodist places in Bedford-street, Burlington-street, and elsewhere. There is a German church in Sir Thomas's Buildings, Dale-street; Jewish synagogues in Seel-street and Hope-place; a Friends' meeting-]souse in Hunter-street; and a few other miscellaneous places of worship. More than half of the population of the town are said to belong to the Roman Catholic and other Dissenting bodies. Liverpool possesses the following educational institutions:-The Collegiate Institution, in Shaw-street, a building in the Tudor style, from the designs of Lonsdale Elmes, the architect of St. George's Hall. The front, including the wings, measures 280 feet. The porch in the centre is beneath a lofty arch, and above it rise oriel windows, which are continued through two stories. The statues of Lord Derby and the late Earl of Ellesmere stand in niches on each side. The building contains 48 schoolrooms, a museum, library, picture and sculpture gallery, 218 feet in length, a laboratory, an octagonal lecture-hall, which will hold 2,300 persons, and a music-room, opening from the lecturer's platform, fitted with rising seats for 300 performers, and containing a fine organ. The first stone was laid in 1840, and the college was opened in January, 1843. Three distinct day-schools for the upper, middle, and lower classes are held here, as well as evening classes for adults. The Historical Society of Lancashire and Cheshire meets in the lecture-room. The Bishop of Chester is the visitor. The Queen's College, in Mount-street, is under the control of the Council of the Liverpool Institute, and was founded in connection with the University of London. The deaf and dumb school, in Oxford-street East, was founded in Wood-street, near Slater-street, in 1825, to give gratuitous instruction to the poor thus afflicted; but there are many pupils who pay for their education. The blind school was founded in 1791, at the corner of Duncan-street, in the London-road; but within the last few years has been transferred to Hardman-street. It has room for over 100 pupils, who are taught spinning and the manufacture of baskets, floor-cloth, mats, hearthrugs, sash-line, and other goods, which bring in nearly £2,000 annually to the institution. Music also is taught, and several pupils have been trained for and obtained situations as organists. The chapel of the school was built by Foster, and contains a painting by Hilton of "Christ giving Sight to the Blind." The blue-coat school, in School-lane and Hanover-street, was founded in 1709 as a charity day-school for the education of 40 boys and 10 girls; but in 1726 the present school was built, with sufficient room for the boarding of 250 boys and 150 girls. With a few exceptions the children are fatherless. They are received at nine years of age, and on leaving the school are either apprenticed to some trade or placed out at service. The school is open to inspection by strangers on Sunday afternoons. There is also an orphan school in Myrtle-street, for children of both sexes, founded by the late Mr. Harmood Banner. Among other schools may be mentioned the two corporation free schools, founded in 1827; two Church free schools, founded in 1837; two Old Church schools, founded in 1789; Waterworth's school, in Hunter-street; the Welsh school, founded in 1804; and an industrial school at Kirkdale. Besides these most of the churches and chapels have Sunday-schools, and many have day-schools in connection with them. The Royal Institution, in Colquitt-street, was set on foot by Roscoe in 1814, and incorporated by royal charter in 1822. It is conducted by a president and committee elected annually. The building contains a laboratory, lecture-rooms, class-rooms for classical, commercial, and medical schools, and a museum celebrated for its collection of British birds, to which visitors are admitted daily for 1s. each. The Academy of Design, the Literary and Philosophic, Natural History, Philomath, and Polytechnic Societies hold their meetings in the lecture-rooms. The Mechanics' Institute was founded in 1825; and ten years after Lord Brougham laid the foundation-atone of a new building-which, however, was burnt soon after its completion. It was quickly rebuilt in the Ionic style, covering about an acre of land, presented by the corporation. It contains a lecture-room, holding 1,500 persons, a sculpture-gallery, a museum, a library of 6,000 volumes, which are lent out to read, and schoolrooms for the "lower day," or commercial school, and the "high school," where a good classical education is given. Evening classes in almost every subject for both sexes are also held in the institute. The Medical Institution, at the corner of Hope-street and Oxford-street South, was built by subscription, the corporation contributing £1,000. It contains a lecture-room in the shape of a fan, capable of holding about 400 persons, and a library of medical works. There is also a medical school in Dover-street. Other educational institutions are:-the Church of England Institute, in Bold-street; The Jewish, in Hope-street; the Tuckerman Institute, in Bedford-street; and the Roman Catholic, in Hope-street. St. Edward's College, near the St. Domingo-road, Everton, also belongs to that sect. The Athenæum, in Church-street, was opened in 1799, and was the first institution of the kind in the country. It contains a library of 14,000 volumes, many of them very rare and curious. Among them is a copy of the treatise by Henry VIII. against Luther. There is also a club room supplied with newspapers and periodicals; the subscription is two guineas and a half. The Lyceum, in Bold-street, contains a spacious room, supplied with newspapers, magazines, maps, &c., and a library, a large circular room, with a collection of 39,000 volumes. The subscription to this institution is one guinea. There is also a law library in South John-street, and numerous circulating libraries, the principal one being the free library built by Sir William Brown, M.P., in 1857. This was commenced in 1851, in connection with the zoological collection which the Earl of Derby left to the town on condition of its being kept as a free museum. Sir W. Brown first offered to contribute very largely to the building of a suitable edifice, and finally undertook the whole expense, which was about £30,000. The books may be either consulted at the library or taken home to read. The building is in Shaw's Brow, near St. George's Hall. There is a gallery of art in Slater-street, containing some pictures by ancient masters, a statue of Roscoe by Chantrey, and a good collection of casts from celebrated statues. Periodical exhibitions of paintings are held at the Academy, in Church-street. There is a museum of antiquities in Colquitt-street. The theatres and other places of amusement areas follows: The Theatre Royal, Williamson-square; the Adelphi, Christian-street, formerly used for equestrian performances; the Royal Amphitheatre, Great Charlotte-street, principally for equestrianism, but also employed for public meetings; the Park Theatre, in Parliament-street. The Philharmonic Hall, in Hope-street, is the handsomest concert room in the town, and will accommodate 300 performers and 2,000 auditors. The Wellington Rooms, Gill-street, Mount Pleasant, consist of a ball room, card room, and supper room: they were built in 1815. The Concert Hall, Lord Nelson Street, is used for public meetings and entertainments for the working classes, which are managed by a committee of gentlemen. The Rotunda, Bold-street, was built for the exhibition of panoramas, but is now converted into a billiard-'room. Other such rooms are the Brunswick Hall, Mill-street; the Clarendon Rooms, Lord-street; the Freemasons' Hall, St. John's-lane; Hope Hall, Hope-street; Odd-Fellows' Hall, St. Anne-street; Queen's Hall, Bold-street; Royal Assembly Rooms, Great George-street; the Teutonic Hall, Lime-street; and Toxteth Hall, Mill-street. There is a botanic garden in Edge-lane, occupying about 11 acres, and containing a conservatory 240 feet long. The zoological gardens, in the West Derby-road are tastefully laid out, and there is a good collection of animals. There is also a music hall on the grounds, and fire-works, &c., are frequently exhibited. Prince's Park is situated at the end of Prince's-road. Part of it is enclosed as a garden, admission to which is restricted, but the remainder is public. There is a race-course at Aintree, about 6 miles to the N.E. of the town, where races are held in July. Liverpool is well supplied with hospitals and other charities. The Royal Infirmary in Brownlow-street is an Ionic building three stories in height. The cost of building was £27,800, and the annual expenditure is more than £5,000. The two upper stories are fitted up for patients, and contain 234 beds. The charity is managed by a committee of twenty-six gentlemen. The Northern Hospital in Great Howard-street was built by Mr. Welch in the Tudor style. It is not of great size, but is one of the best arranged in the kingdom. At the Southern and Toxteth Hospital, in Parliament-street, medicines are dispensed to the poor, as well as in-patients received. The Lock Hospital, in Ashton-street, was opened in 1834, and has room for 60 patients. In addition to these, there is a fever hospital at Mount Pleasant; a general hospital in the West Derby-road; two medical dispensaries for the poor, for the N. and S. portions of the town, in Vauxhall-road and Great George-street; a lying-in-hospital in Pembroke-place; an eye and ear infirmary in Mount Pleasant; a night asylum for the houseless poor in Naylor-street; the Lancaster County Refuge for females liberated from the county prison; a female penitentiary in Falkner-street for reclaiming prostitutes; the children's infirmary in Great George-street; the Charitable Institution House in Slater-street; the almshouses in Cambridge-street, and the Licensed Victuallers' Institution at Everton. The Lunatic Asylum on Brownlow Hill was built in 1830. It contains accommodation for sixty general patients, in addition to a few private patients for whom a payment is made. The Merchant Seamen's Hospital is an asylum for aged and decayed sailors from the town, and supports also their widows and children. Every seaman leaving the port is obliged, by Act of Parliament, to subscribe 6d. a month from his wages to this charity, which possesses also a fund of about £37,000 unclaimed prize money. The Sailors' Home in Canning-place was opened in 1850 for providing lodging for seamen on shore. It contains a chapel, library,savings-bank, and a nautical school, besides the dormitories, &c. There are also two Emigrants' Homes conducted on the same principle. The Roman Catholics have an orphanage in Mulberry-street, and a convent of sisters of mercy in Mount Vernon-street. The Liverpool parish workhouses on Brownlow Hill, and the West Derby union workhouse in the Mill-road. There are numerous societies for dispensing charity, as the Welsh and Liverpool Charitable, the Humane, the Strangers' Friend, the District Provident, and other societies. The principal cemetery is St. James's Cemetery, Upper Duke-street, the site of which was originally a stone quarry It was opened in 1829. Many of the monuments are handsome, particularly that of Mr. Huskisson. The Necropolis at Low Hill was opened in 1825. It covers about 5 acres. A cemetery was opened in 1856 in Smithdown-lane, Toxteth Park, and at Anfield Park is the Burial Board Cemetery for the Established Church, Protestant Dissenters, and Roman Catholics. The parochial cemetery is at Walton. The Roman Catholic burial-ground is at Ford, and the Jewish in Dean-street. The corporation built public baths on George's Pier in 1829, and since that time other baths and washhouses have been opened in Cornwallis-street and Paul-street. Among the celebrated natives of Liverpool may be mentioned Jeremiah Horrox, the astronomer, who lived from 1619 to 1640. He discovered the transit of Venus over the disc of the sun, and a new theory of lunar motions. Roscoe, the author, 1752 to 1831, who lived at Mount Pleasant. A large portion of his library is now at the Athenæum. Mrs. Hemans, Stubbs, the animal painter, Leigh Richmond, Deare, the sculptor, Gregson, the antiquary, and Houlston, the physician, were also born here. The following newspapers are published:-Daily Post, Journal, Liverpool Albion, Chronicle, Courier, General Advertiser, Mail, Mercantile Gazette, Mercury, Standard, and Times. The last mentioned paper was commenced in 1756. Three railways enter Liverpool-the Liverpool and Manchester branch of the London and North-Western, the Lancashire and Yorkshire and East Lancashire, and the Garston and Warrington. The passenger station of the London and North-Western is in Lime-street, opposite St. George's Hall, and was built in 1837. From the Edgehill station the way passes under the town in a tunnel 2,230 yards in length, through which the train is drawn by fixed engines. The line was opened to London in 1848. There are two goods stations in connection with the same line-one at Wapping; the other, called the Waterloo Station, in Great Howard-street. The Lancashire and Yorkshire station is in Tithebarn-street, and is known as the Exchange station. The North Dock station, a goods station belonging to the same line, is in Great Howard-street. Passengers can also come to Liverpool by the Great Western railway, via Birkenhead, whence they are conveyed to Liverpool by ferry. The Leeds and Liverpool canal has one terminus here. The following gentlemen's seats are in the vicinity,:-Knowsley, the Earl of Derby; Croxteth Hall, Earl of Sefton, the lord-lieutenant of Lancashire; Childwall Hall, Marquis of Salisbury; Ince Blundell, the Blundell family; Speke Hall, R. Watt, Esq.; Hale Hall, J. Blackburne, Esq., and others. The market days are Wednesday and Saturday, but the provision markets are open daily. The largest market in the town is St. John's, in Great Charlotte-street, which covers 8,235 square yards, being 183 yards by 45. It is divided by cast-iron pillars into five avenues, which are filled with stalls for the display of provisions of all kinds, while the sides are lined by shops. It was built in 1820 at a cost of £36,813, which was defrayed by the corporation. St. Martin's, in the Scotland-road, is a handsomer building than St. John's, but in size is less, being only 213 feet by 135. It also is divided into five avenues, and a portion is set apart for the sale of fish. St. James's, in Great George-street, is a brick building covering about £3,000 yards, and, like the other two, is a general market. The haymarket, where horses are also sold, is in Great Nelson-street North. The fish and oyster market is in Great Charlotte-street, and a pedlar's market for small wares in Elliot-street. The corn market is held in the corn exchange on Tuesdays or Fridays. There are also small markets in Cleveland-square, Pownall-square, near Tithebarn-street, and in Gill-street; in the last pigs are sold. Horse and cattle fairs are held on the 25th July and 11th November."