Hide

Manchester

hide
Hide

The National Gazetteer of Great Britain and Ireland - 1868

"MANCHESTER, a parish, municipal and parliamentary borough, township, union, and episcopal see, in the hundred of Salford, county palatine of Lancaster, 162 miles from London, situate in a low tract of ground on each side of the Irwell, at the confluence of the Medlock and Irk. Its ancient name was variously Manaurium, Manutium, or Mancunium. It was created a parliamentary borough at the passing of the Reform Bill in 1832, and contains the following parishes: Ancoats, Ardwick, Berwick, Birch, Blackley, Bradford, Broughton, Burnage, Cheetham, Chorlton-cum-Hardy, Chorlton-cum-Medlock, Crumpsall, Denton, Didsbury, Droylsden, Failsworth, Gorton, Harpurhey, Haughton, Heaton Norris, Hulme, Levenshulme, Longsight, Moss-side, Morton, Newton, Openshaw, Platt, Redbank, Reddish, Rusholme, Stretford, and Withington. Manchester is now the great seat of the cotton manufacture, and as it possesses advantageous railway communication with every important town in the kingdom, is alike prosperous and populous, and has risen to a position of the first magnitude. The chief public buildings are-the Royal Exchange, originally a semicircular structure, situated at the junction of Market- street, W. end, and St. Ann's square; was enlarged in 1838, and opened in 1840, and then further enlarged to present dimensions in 1847; principal room, 185 feet by 94; height, 60; total area, 1,668 square yards; is divided longitudinally by two light colonnades into three avenues, the columns being Ionic, copied from the Temple of Erectheus; the stone of the present edifice was laid on the 1st May, 1847; opened to subscribers 19th May, 1849. The townhall, stone, corner of King-street and Cross-street; first stone laid in 1822; erected from the designs of William Godwin; completed in 1825; copied from Temple of Erectheus; dome in great hall from the octagonal tower of Andronicus, known as Athenian Temple of the Winds; in the niches on each side of the portico are figures of Solon and Alfred the Great, and in the attic story above it are medallions of Hale, Locke, and Solon; the great hall, approached by a broad staircase, is 131 feet long and 38 feet wide, its walls, and the dome which forms the centre of the building, being covered with allegorical frescoes; in this building is situated the offices of the Chamber of Commerce, which consists of twenty-four directors, and is one of the chief mercantile institutions of the town. Post-office, situated in Brown-street, Market-street, since enlargement of the Exchange; an unpretending building, the upper part of which is used as the borough court room. Corn exchange, Hanging Ditch, a more pretentious edifice, with a front of six Ionic fluted columns; opened in 1837, and cost £4,000; holds 2,500; is supported by cast-iron pillars; chief hall contains an area of 600 yards. Branch Bank of England, Pall Mall and King-street; Doric, from designs by Cockerell; opened in March, 1847.

The Athenæum, erected in 1837, from the designs of Sir Charles, then Mr. Barry, at a cost of £18,000; projected "to afford persons of the middle classes a suitable place of meeting in which they might be informed of all advances in science and art;" contains a library of 20,000 volumes, news-room, class-rooms, lecture hall, &c., and about 1,500 members. The Manchester and Salford assize courts, in Ducie-street, Strangeways; erected from designs and under the superintendence of Mr. Waterhouse, then a local architect; the finest architectural edifice in Manchester; contains two greater courts for civil and crown business, with smaller courts for chancery proceedings; a fine library, filled with some law publications for the use of the barristers attending the courts; grand jury room, dining hall, large central hall, with a great number of ante rooms and subterranean rooms for the despatch of business connected with the assizes: the design is Gothic, and although the civil court is rather too large for the convenience of the persons chiefly interested, and for acoustic purposes, the general arrangement and construction of the building reflect great credit on the architect. The Free Trade Hall, near the Theatre Royal, in Peter-street, with massive stone front; conspicuous as containing one of the largest meeting halls of the United' Kingdom; opened 8th October, 1856; cost upwards of 140,000; erected, by a Joint- stock company in £10 shares, from designs of Mr. Edward Walters, a local architect, in pursuance of a resolution passed 19th July, 1853; it contains a chief hall, 134 feet long, 78 feet wide, and 52 feet high, capable of holding nearly 5,000 persons; an assembly room, 75 feet by 37½ feet, and 28 feet in height, accommodating 600 persons, and several other rooms of smaller dimensions; the facade in Peter-street is 75 feet in height, and has a total length of 159 feet.

Manchester contains about 50 Episcopal churches, 29 Wesleyan Methodist, 17 Methodist Associate, 10 Roman Catholic, 25 Independent, 10 Baptist, 5 Scotch Presbyterian, 6 Unitarian, 1 Catholic Apostolic, Greek, German, Welsh, and Calvinistic chapels, together with a variety of meeting-houses for the Friends and the various Methodist denominations. Of the churches the principal are the Cathedral, or old Collegiate Church, which is situated in Victoria-street, midway between the Victoria railway station and the Royal Exchange. It was erected by Thomas de la Warr, under a license from Henry V., in the ninth year of his reign, 1422, the first stone being laid in July of that year. The living had been originally, and early in the 13th century, a rectory. Otto de Grandison, in 1299, was appointed rector, by presentation of the king. Its value in the 14th century was established by a survey to be the same as at a former estimate made by inquisition in 1252, and as being 200 marks. Its endowment consisted of eight burgage tenements in Manchester and in the villages of Newton and Kirkmoneshulme, with parks, woods, and pastures; a manor, which contained within the precinct two acres of land, and a place of pasture without the gate, between the waters of the Irk and Irwell; also the wood of Alport, which might be- enclosed, and made a park at the will of the town; a manor-house, with woods and moors of turbary so many and so large that they were not measured, but esteemed, according to the custom; together with a mill upon the water of the Irk; a mill for dyers; and a common bakehouse, at which it was compulsory, by the custom of the manor, for the burgesses to bake. At the Conquest the manor of Manchester was assigned, with a large tract of land extending between the Ribble and Mersey, to Roger of Poitiers, by the Norman William; but Hugh of Poitiers having afterwards forfeited his rights by treason, the same lands were reassigned to another follower, the Baron Albert de Gredley, from whom it descended to Thomas de la Warr. This Thomas de la Warr, as will be found by a reference in Camden printed elsewhere, was lord of the manor, patronage and parson of the parish, and also parliamentary representative. In order that the spiritual duties might be properly performed, he applied to the king for a license to found a college, to be endowed with the lands of the rectory of Manchester, which license hamming been accorded, the existing edifice was commenced as a collegiate church, attached to the college, in virtue of the new endowment under the royal license. The foundation consisted of a warden keeper, eight fellow chaplains, four clerks, and six choristers. By a deed of gift and feoffment, the lands of the rectory were then assigned to Thomas Bishop of Durham, chancellor of England, and other trustees, Thomas de la Warr, the patronage presenting to the bishop of the diocese John Huntington to be master or keeper. The college was dissolved Elizabeth Edward VI., but was restored by Queen Elizabeth to train the youth of Lancashire and extend Protestantism, and in the church were uttered some of the most violent philippics of that reign against Popery. This fine old historical church remained a collegiate church till 1847, when the see of Manchester was created, and it became the cathedral of the diocese; it consists of a nave, tower, aisles, with clerestory, choir, side aisles, chapels, vestry, &c.; its style is perpendicular Gothic, and offers some features of superior excellence of its order, but the softness of the stone has led to frequent repair and the replacement of nearly the whole of the original structure by more modern work. The work of restoration has been carried on without the necessity of closing the edifice, principally by the subscriptions of parishioners, who have raised more than £8,000 for that purpose, besides nearly £5,000 towards restoring the tower, the foundation-stone of which was laid on the 4th of August, 1864. St. Ann's church, Grecian, stands in the centre of the town, and forms the southern. side of St. Ann's- square; consecrated July, 1712, the foundation-stone having been laid in May, 1709; sittings for 1,175 persons; had originally a cupola, taken (town in 1777, and a spire erected in its place. St., Mary's, near St. Ann's, in St. Mary's- street, consecrated in September, 1756, the foundation-atone having been laid July, 1753; and St. John's, at the bottom of St. John-street, leading out of Deansgate; it was founded by Edward Byrnn, Esq., April 28, 1768, and was consecrated in 1769; it contains a stained-glass window by Pickett, of York, and a marble monument by Flaxman at the back of the rector's pew, erected in commemoration of the Rev. John Clowes attaining the fiftieth year of his ministry; it also possesses a modern monument in Caen stone, of an elaborate Gothic design, to the memory of Mr. William Marsden. St. Mary's, Hulme, in Moss-lane, at its junction with Boston-street; erected in fulfilment of the last will and testament of the late Wilbraham Egerton, Esq., of Tatton parish, Cheshire, by whom it was also endowed; the spire is 224 feet high, and is surmounted by a vane of 18 feet; in all, 252 feet; the style is the early geometrical decorated, from designs by Mr. Crowther. Among other churches noticeable on account of their architectural merits, or decorations, are- Trinity Church, Salford, the oldest in the borough, with a tower of perpendicular Gothic, and fitted with dark oak pews. St. Matthew's, a large building, erected after designs by Barry, and which has a spire of 132 feet in height. St. Simon's, Salford, early English, with a spire 150 feet, a carved oak pulpit, and three well-executed coloured windows. St. Luke's, Cheetham Hill-road, perpendicular Gothic; a fine building, with a tower terminating in an elegant crocketted spire 170 feet. All Saints, Grosvenor-square, which has a fine tower, surmounted by a dome with a ball and cross, and is a very capacious building, standing on an admirable site at the point of intersection of the Stretford and Oxford roads. St. George's, Hulme, perpendicular, built by Godwin, consecrated 9th December, 1826; is handsomely fitted up, and has a tower with clock and fine bell; contains organ by Reun, and three stained- glass windows by Warrington, of London. The principal Roman Catholic chapels are, St. John the Evangelist's, a very fine crueiform structure, decorated English, situate in Chapel- street, Salford; it consists of aisles and nave, transept, choir and aisles, and is surmounted by an elegant crocketted spire, said to be the loftiest in Lancashire; opened on the 9th August, 1848, by the late Cardinal Wiseman; contains windows by Hardman, of Birmingham, and three large pictures, copied from well-known originals at Malines. St. Augustine's, Granby-row, brick, with stone front; early Gothic; opened in 1820; window by Wailes, of Newcastle. St. Marie's, Mulberry- street, Norman. St. Patrick's, in Livesey-street. St. Anne's, Junction-street, Ancoats. St. Chad's, Cheetham Hill road, near Ducie-bridge. St. Wilfred's, Bedford-street, Hulme. St. Joseph's, Guilden-street. St. Aloysius's, Ogden-street. Cavendish Street Independent Chapel has a handsome interior, a fine stained-glass window, and a tower terminating in a spire 171 feet high; its style is early English, and it was erected from the designs of Mr. Walters. The interior is handsomely fitted, and contains a gallery all round, and the building is computed to hold more than 1,500 persons. The Greek church in the Waterloo-road, Strangeways, is a small but elegant looking edifice, copied from an Athenian model.

The chief of the educational institutions and schools, in point of antiquity, is the Chatham Library and College, which is also called the Chatham Hospital, which was founded by Humphrey Chatham, the fourth son of Henry Chatham, of Crumpsal, who was baptised at the Collegiate Church of Manchester, July 10, 1580, and who died in the year 1663. Humphrey Chatham, though of good family was a commercial factor or buyer, engaged in the fustian trade, but purchasing largely for the London market, and resided as a bachelor chiefly at Clayton Hall, near Manchester; by his will, bearing date the 10th December, 1651, he bequeathed £700 for the purchase of a fee simple estate, the profits of which were to be applied to the education and maintenance of forty poor boys; he had established the school during his lifetime, but had then restricted it to twenty-two scholars, fourteen from Manchester, six from Salford, and two from Droylsden. In his will six townships are allowed to nominate boys, and the number of recipients of his bounty was increased to forty; they are to be the children of poor but honest parents, not illegitimate, nor diseased, lame, or blind, when chosen; they are to be clothed, fed, and instructed, from the age of about six to fourteen, when they are to be bound out, at the expense of the institution, to some honest and useful trade. There was, in addition, a bequest of £1,000 for the purchase of books, and £100 for a building, as the foundation of a public library, for the augmentation and support of which there was a residuary devise of personalty, after the payment of legacies; such residue amounting to more than £2,000. The building stands on the most ancient historic site, adjoining the cathedral, and is approached by a gateway, surmounted by the arms and motto of the founder, and a courtyard, walled in, of some extent. Donations have been added from time to time to the original bequests, the flrst being in 1694, by the Rev. John Prestwich, Fellow of All Saints, Oxford; and the library now contains upwards of 20,000 volumes, and educates 100 boys, viz: 35 of Manchester, 16 of Salford, Droyldsden 8, Crumpsal 6, Bolton 25, Turton 12. The hospital is under the direction of twenty- five feoffees and a resident governor; the boys wear a distinctive dress, something like that of the Christ's Hospital boys in London; the library is absolutely free to all persons, resident or stranger. The Lancashire Independent College is a fine building, in the township of Withington, and is approachable either by the Chorlton-road, or the Stretford New-road; it is devoted to the education of Congregationalists or Independents, and is on the basis of the Church colleges of Oxford and, Cambridge; the principal, is the Rev. Robert Vaughan, D.D., who is assisted by professors, the whole being under the control of twenty trustees. Owen's College is situated in Quaystreet, in a house formerly occupied by the late Richard Cobden; it is a college in connection with the University of London, and was endowed by Mr. Owen, whose name it bears, with a bequest of £100,000, in order that Dissenters might be taught as at Oxford and Cambridge; the principals and professors are empowered, by royal warrant of 1851, to grant certificates to candidates for degrees to be granted by the University of London. The Free Grammar School, founded by Hugh Oldham, Bishop of Exeter, in 1520, has an income of more than £4,000 per annum, and possesses several exhibitions to Oxford and Cambridge; the education provided is of a superior kind, but scarcely equals that which might be anticipated from so large a revenue. The Manchester Commercial Schools were erected in 1846 under the auspices of the Manchester Church Education Society, the foundation stone having been laid in June of the same year; the building has a good exterior, and will accommodate 200 boys; attached to the institution is the Manchester Evening College, for the instruction of persons engaged during the day. The Ladies' Public School was founded in 1806 for the purpose of educating the female children of the poor; it is situated on a plot of ground in Old Strangeways, and was erected to commemorate the completion of the fiftieth year of the reign of George III.; in 1832, it was enriched by a bequest of £10,000 from Mrs. Frances Hall; it educates forty girls. The Wesleyan Theological Institute was opened in 1842, and is situated at Didsbury, about 5 miles from Manchester, for the education of young men intended for the Wesleyan ministry; it is a large edifice, standing on about ten acres of ground. The Catholic Collegiate Institution is situated in Grosvenor- square, Chorlton.

There are in Manchester numerous literary and scientific institutions. The Manchester Royal Institution, Mosley-street, devoted to, scientific, literary, and artistic purposes, contains a lecture room capable of holding nearly 1,000 persons, and a hall adorned by casts of antique statuary, including copies of the Elgin marbles, presented by George IV.; the entrance-hall is graced by a very noble portrait-statue of Dry Dalton, by Chantrey, considered, justly, one of the finest productions of his studio, representing the chemist and philosopher seated in an attitude of graceful dignity; annual exhibitions of pictures are usually held in this building, and this portion of the edifice also contains one or two very fine paintings by Etty, the gift of D. Grant, Esq.; connected with the artistic department, there is a school for instruction in drawing, &c.; the building, designed by Barry, was originated at a meeting held at the Exchange in 1823, erected at a cost of £30,000, and opened in 1830. The Athenæum, also from designs by Barry, was erected in 1837, and cost £18,000, containing a library of 16,000 volumes, a lecture hall accommodating 1,000 persons, gymnastic club, chess club, essay and discussion society. Manchester School of Art, for promotion of art culture and instruction, also in Mosley-street; adjoining Royal Institution, opened in February, 1838, and supported by government aid, fees, and subscriptions; a Mechanics' Institute, first stone laid June 21, 1855, opened September 9, 1856, and cost £14,000, containing a library of 20,000 volumes, with lecture theatre, class rooms, organ, &c.; subscriptions, males, 5s., females, 3s. per quarter; Manchester Free Library, Byrnn-street, Camp-field, opened September 2, 1862; Salford Athenæum, Great George-street, Salford, opened November 14,1853; Pendleton Mechanics' Institute; Ancoats Lyceum; Miles Platting Mechanics' Institute, Argyle-street, top of Oldham-road; Crumpsall Mechanics' Institute; Chorlton=on-Medlock Mechanics' Institute and Temperance Hall. The chief of the hospitals and benevolent institutions are-the Manchester Royal Infirmary and Dispensary, one of the finest and most conspicuous buildings in Manchester, situated at junction of Mosley and Market- streets, in Piccadilly; the building occupies three sides of a quadrangle, the centre of each being ornamented by fine Ionic portico pediments, supported by fluted pillars originally founded in 1752 at a house in Garden-street, Shudehill, by Joseph Bancroft and Charles White, surgeons; in 1764, the present building was commenced on land purchased of Sir Oswald Mosley, and was opened in 1755; in 1766 a Lunatic Asylum was added to the foundation, and in 1792 a Dispensary was annexed; it was enlarged by a W. wing in 1851, and the Piccadilly front was completed in 1853, and a dome built to serve as a clock tower, which now possesses a clock with four illuminated dials; the height from the ground to the top of the cupola is 105 feet; the infirmary is fronted by three bronze statues of Dr. Dalton, Wellington, and Peel, which occupy a site of a dirty pool of water, once stagnant there'; the Lunatic Asylum was removed from the Royal Infirmary in 1854, to Stockport Etchells. St. Mary's Hospital and Dispensary, the oldest charitable medical institution in Manchester, formerly in Quay- street, opened in the present building October 10, 1866, has a good library of obstetric works and a museum-architect, G. Pennington; Lock Hospital, 311, Deansgate; House of Recovery and Board of Health; Manchester Eye Infirmary; Salford and Pendleton Royal Hospital and Infirmary; Chorlton Dispensary; Ardwick and Ancoats Dispensary; Manchester Homoeopathic Institution, Bloom-street; Manchester and Salford Homoeopathic Dispensary, Dale-street, Lever-street; Chorlton-upon-Medlock Dispensary, Penitentiary; Greenheys District Provident Asylum; Blind Asylum, Stretford New-road, Deaf and Dumb School, same edifice; public baths and washhouses, Muller-street, founded in 1845, partly by subscription, partly on the profitable returns of a ball held for the purpose in the exchange-they are now self-supporting, and a great boon to the community, but are inferior to the corporation baths in Liverpool in appointment and style.

The courts of quarter sessions and of petty sessions for the city of Manchester were formerly held in court rooms over the post-office, in Brown- street, but are now held at the assize courts, in Ducie-street. There are six to eight borough sessions held during the year, the recorder being T. West, Esq. A stipendiary magistrate, T. Fowler, Esq., assisted by other magistrates in the city commission of the police, sits every morning at ten o'clock, Sundays excepted. The courts of quarter and petty sessions for the borough of Salford are held in a court-room behind the Salford town hall; the quarter and petty sessions for the hundred of Salford are held at the New Bailey prison, in Salford. The Manchester district courts of bankruptcy are held in the Manchester Athenæum. A chancery court of the county palatine is held at the assize courts in May and December-this court having concurrent Jurisdiction with the High Court of Chancery. The Manchester county court is held in the county court-house at Nicholas Croft, High-street, Manchester. The Salford county court (town hall, Salford, and Manchester court of record) sits six times each year, for the trial of civil actions, one sitting in each alternate month. The court has authority to try personal actions within the city, where the debt or damage does not exceed £30. The Salford hundred court of record holds seven sittings yearly. The court has jurisdiction to the extent of £50 sterling, but may try debts involving larger sums by consent. Its district includes the parishes of Bolton, Bury, Dean, Radcliffe, Wigan, Flixtow, Manchester, Prestwick-cum-Oldham, Ashton-under-Lyne, Middleton, and Rochdale. A court-leet for the hundred of Salford is held twice a-year in the townhall, Salford.

There are two barracks, for cavalry and infantry respectively, in Barrack-street, Hulme, near St. George's Church, and in Regent-road, Salford. The Manchester borough gaol is situated on the Hyde-road, and is a conspicuous and large building; it was commenced in June, 1847, and completed in December, 1849, and received prisoners the following March; it was enlarged in 1856; it is conducted on the separate system, and consists of wings radiating from a centre; a hospital, chapel, and schoolrooms are annexed, with workshops and sheds; it occupies about seven acres, is surrounded by a boundary wall, and will hold 700 or 800 prisoners. The New Bailey prison is situated in Salford, on the right bank of the Irwell, near Albert Bridge. The foundation stone was laid in 1787 by Howard, the philanthropist, on unoccupied ground; but the place is now in the centre of a crowded and highly populous district. It has a reputation for being well managed, and for its healthy situation; it is surrounded by a hip wall sur mounted by an iron chevaux-de-frise, will hold 583 male and 214 female prisoners. Manchester old workhouse is on the right of the Bury New-road, Strangeways, behind the Victoria Station, and is a large plain building, built in 1792, holding about 1,000 inmates. Salford workhouse is in the Eccles New-road, occupies about 7 acres, cost about £18,000, accommodates 820 inmates, and was built in 1852. There is also a workhouse at Withington, for the parish of Chorlton-on-Medlock, completed in 1855, which will hold 1,676 poor. Manchester New Workhouse was commenced in 1855 and completed in 1857, on the Bongs estate, at Crumpsall, near Manchester, at a cost of upwards of £50,000. The space enclosed measures about 600 feet by 410, and will accommodate nearly 2,000 persons. The Night Asylum is in Henry-street, Oldham-road.

The bridges across the Irwell are the Victoria, opened on the 20th June, 1839, an elliptical arch of 100 feet span, with a rise of 22 feet, and a roadway of 45 feet, occupies the site of Salford Bridge, of three Gothic arches, which was built in 1366; the Albert, or New Bailey Bridge, opened for general traffic 26th September, 1844, has one stone arch; Blackfriars, at St. Mary's Gate, near the Exchange, has three arches, and was opened August, 1820, formerly exacted a toll, but was made free in March, 1848; Strangeways Bridge, of a single iron arch, was built in 1817, a toll bridge; Hunts Bank Bridge, erected in 1864, close to Victoria Station and Cathedral, has one iron arch; Broughton Suspension-bridge unites Pendleton with Broughton, opened in 1826 -toll bridge; Hunts Bank Bridge, over the Irk, erected in 1826; Broughton Bridge unites Salford with Lower Broughton, is of stone, and in three arches; Regent-road Bridge connects the township of Hulme with the borough of Salford, and is about 1 mile from the Exchange, opened in 1808, with toll-toll abolished 21st December, 1848; Springfield-lane Bridge connects Salford with Broughton and Bury New-road, constructed 1850.

Manchester has several cemeteries:-the Harpurhey Cemetery, on the Rochdale-road, about 2 miles from the Exchange, contains about 11 acres, flrst opened in 1837, enlarged in 1847. Ardwick Cemetery is situated in Hyde-road, Ardwick, contains about 8 acres of cultivated land; Dr. Dalton is buried here; in all it covers about 12 acres, but is in a populous neighbourhood, and is rather a graveyard than a cemetery. Rusholme-road Cemetery lies between Oxford-road and Downing- street, has about 5 acres, was originally laid out amid fields and is now amid crowded streets. New Barnes Cemetery, near Weaste- lane railway station, belongs to the borough of Salford; Joseph Brotherton, one of the first members of parliament for Salford, is buried here. Manchester has now three theatres, and several parks and public pleasure-gardens, as well as a botanic and horticultural gardens, and the usual music-halls and singing- saloons which are common in the larger English towns. The Botanical and Horticultural Gardens, opened June, 1831, are extensive, covering 16 acres, and admirably laid out, and are adequate to the resources and wealth of the town. The principal parks are-Peel Park, a memorial park situated 1 mile W. of the Exchange, designed to commemorate the triumph of free trade, and which contains a statue of Sir Robert Peel, by Noble, and also of the Queen and the late Prince Albert, the latter in his robes as a Knight of the Garter, a museum of natural history, adorned with casts from the antique, and a gymnasium for the working classes; the Queen's Park is about 2 miles N.N.E. of the Exchange, is laid out similarly to Peel Park, but possesses superior advantages of site, and some very fine trees, together with a picturesque sheet of water; Philipp's Park, a place of recreation for the working classes, is situated in a very populous neighbourhood, about 2 miles E. of the Exchange, and near the residences of the class for whose benefit it was projected. These three parks were established in 1845, and cost about £33,000, £3,000 of this sum being contributed by Government. The Bellevue Zoological Gardens are, a provineial Cremorne Gardens on a very rough scale, but are greatly attended by the populace from Manchester and the surrounding towns. They are situated in the Hyde-road, Ardwick, about 3 miles from the Exchange, and are accessible by omnibus and railroad. There are generally fête days, with fireworks, music, and dancing, on Saturdays and Mondays-the place containing a large hall for the latter amusement, and a shilling entrance money being charged. The Pomona Gardens, Cornbrook, a similar place of amusement, but containing grounds laid out with more taste and pretence, are accessible by water, road, or rail; there is a gymnasium, maze, bridge, and boats, but the place is less frequented than Bellevue. The Concert Hall, in Lower Mosley-street, is a place of entertainment in the hands of a proprietary limited to 600 persons. It was established and opened in 1830, for the promotion of the art of music, and a certain number of concerts are given annually, at which the wealthier classes attend; the concert- room is capable of seating about 1,200 persons. Of the kind used by the general public are the Philharmonic Hall, Fountain-street; the Victoria Music hall, Greengate, Salford; Hardy's Concert Hall, Deansgate; Trafford Arms, Victoria Bridge; the Old Boar's Head, Lower King-street; the Polytechnic; the Divan, Oxford- road. Manchester contains three theatres-the Royal, Queen's, and Prince of Wales. The Royal is situated in Peter-street, and was opened in September, 1845; it is a brick building with an architectural front in the modern Italian style; the height of the building is about 70 feet; the interior is in the Italian style; the house was designed to hold 2,247 persons, but, when very crowded, has accommodated more than 3,000 spectators. The Queen's Theatre is a minor theatre standing at the junction of York-street and Spring Gardens, was fitted up in 1815 for melodramatic performances, and in 1839 was occupied as a place of equestrian entertainment by Ducrow. The Prince of Wales is a new and modern theatre, erected in 1864 by a limited company for the purpose of introducing comedies, burlesques, and lighter pieces of amusement, to temper the arbitrary dictatorship in theatricals of the lessee of the Theatre Royal; it is situated at the corner of Mosley-street and Peter street.

Two fairs are held annually in Manchester, and two in Salford-those of Manchester in the Camp Field during Easter week and the first days of October; that held at Easter is known as the Knott Mill Fair, and is much frequented; the other is called Acres Fair, from having been formerly held in Acres Field, now called St. Ann's-square': the Salford fairs are held in Chapel- street; in Whitsun-week and on the 17th, 18th, and 19th November, this last being popularly known as Dirt Fair. Manchester boasts several learned societies-the literary and philosophic, established in 1781, has numbered several distinguished persons among its members; the council-room is adorned by portraits of Newton, Davy, and Dalton, and a marble bust of Dr. W. Henry, by Chantrey; this society periodically publishes its transactions. It has also numismatic, photographic, legal, medical, statistical, natural history, and geological societies, several of which publish their proceedings. There is a law library in Norfolk-street, established in 1820, containing about 4,000 volumes, and chiefly supported by attorneys and solicitors; a public library in Newall's buildings, containing nearly 20,000 volumes, the property of a proprietary of subscribers, the value of the shares nominally £4 4s.; New Subscription Library, in Cross-street; Mudie's, also in Cross-street; the Portico, occupying a substantial and architectural building in Mosley- street, of the Ionic order, originally established in 1796, by 300 members, contains 14,000 volumes and admirable news-rooms, the reading-room being 66 feet by 42; the Free Library, Camp, Field, one of the first, or the first, public libraries set on foot under Ewart's Act of 1850, established in 1851 by public subscription, amounting to £12,742, is free, and supported by a local rate of one halfpenny on the poor-rate assessment. The clubs are-the Union, established April, 1825, occupying a large building in Mosley-street, near the Royal Institution, subscription 7 gs., entrance-money 40 gs., limited to 400 members, contains the usual club-house appointments on a handsome scale, in emulation of London clubs; the Albion, King-street, similar to the preceding on a more modest scale, established in 1837, subscription 5 guineas; Mosley-street Club, subscription 3 to 5 guineas. Besides these there are the Bridge- water, the Albert, and a railway club. In addition to these institutions and buildings Manchester possesses several societies, auxiliary and otherwise, of a religious or benevolent kind-a Distressed Foreigners' Society; a Church Institute; a Young Men's Christian Association; a model lodging-house, in London-road; ragged and industrial schools in Sharp-street, Rochdale-road, in Broughton-road, Salford, and in St. John's Parade, Byron-street; a Salford humane society; a glee and madrigal society; a society for the protection of trade; a commercial association; a Royal School of Medicine and Surgery; a temperance society; a Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge-local branch; a teetotal society, called the United Kingdom Alliance; Bible, Tract, Pastoral Aid, Church and Domestic Mission Societies, a madrigal society, museum of natural history; and several public statues-viz: to Peel, Welling ton, Watt, Dalton, the Queen, and Prince Albert; but none of them, save that to Dalton, have any pretension to be considered works of art, or are in any wise entitled to critical notice.

The railway stations are at Hunt's Bank, Bank Top, London-road, New Bailey, and Oxford road. The history of Manchester may be literally said, to adopt a phrase of Lord Macaulay, to be lost in the twilight of fable. The Rev. J. Whittaker, one of its most erudite and zealous historians, has attempted to claim for it an existence long anterior to the Roman occupation of the island, but the data on which his opinions are avowedly based are so purely conjectural as to give little more than the value of hypothesis to his remote history. A passage in Tacitus (Tacitus, Agri. Vit., 21), however, established an invasion of Lancashire by Agricola in the summer of 79, after wintering at Chester (Deva), and it appears probable that a military station was, during this expedition, established at the confluence of the Irk and Irwell, which was called Mancenion, or Mancunium, and which is in different copies of the Itinerary of Antoninus referred to as Manaurium, or Manutium, all of which names undoubtedly bore reference to the same spot, and to a military station then in existence of more or less importance. Camden has referred, in his Britannia, to some conjectural or probable origin of the name, which may be noted, and which were suggested by his visit to Manchester in 1607:- "In a neighbouring park, called Alparc, I saw the foundation of an old square fort which they called Mancastle, where the river Medlock joins the Irwell. I will not say that this was the ancient Mancunium-the compass of it is little-but rather that it was some Roman station." In a subsequent passage Camden has ventured, with what Hollingworth denominates "a light and frothy conceit," on a derivation that the town is called Manchester, because the inhabitants behaved bravely against the Danes; they would have "the city called Manchester, that is, as they explain it, a city of men, and of this notion they are strangely fond, as seeming to contribute much to their honour. But I would rather," he continues, "derive it from the British word main, which signifies a stone, for it stands upon a stony hill, and beneath the town, at Colyhurst, there are noble and famous stone quarries." But whatever the origin of the name, or position of the settlement or station prior to its Roman occupation, it appears manifest that it became of entirely inconsiderable importance in subsequent history, and, like Chester, was either in part or wholly devastated by the Danes. On the testimony of Ingulfus of Croyland, Alfred, about the year 890, first divided England into counties, appointing certain custodes, or keepers, to suppress outrages in every county; and "the also divided the said counties into centuries or hundreds; and certain courts were by him, or some other after him, appointed to be kept in some town or place within the hundred, which some time was a place of good note, as Salford, near Manchester, now is, though I cannot find any ancient name of it, or other monument of its antiquity. Manchester certainly did not give name to the hundred; whether because as it was then a city, as the story of those times call it, and no cities I know of do give names to the hundreds, having probably government within themselves; or because it was so sore defaced and almost ruined; or because the town of Salford was-then immediately in the king's hands, as also it hath continued till very lately, I leave to the judgment of the reader." In this condition of ruin it may be inferred it remained, from an incidental passage in Roger of Hovenden, that about the year 920, Edward, king first of the West Saxons, and afterwards of the Mercian, sent into the kingdom of the Northumbers an army of the Mercian, that they should fortify the city of Manchester, and place valiant soldiers in it. From this period it became a frontier town between the Mercian, who inhabited Cheshire, Derbyshire, &c., and the Northumbers, who inhabited Yorkshire, &c., and in their wars and mutual incursions was sometimes possessed by the Mercian, sometimes by the Northumbers. It was anciently a borough. Now, with the Saxons a borough was the same as a city, though afterwards those principal towns which were the seats of bishops did engross the name of cities, and the rest were called boroughs. William the Conqueror, after the Conquest, assigned to Roger of Poitiers all that land or province lying between the Ribble and Mersey described under Yorkshire and Cheshire, and not as Lancashire, in Domesday Book. But it soon after passed from his hands into those of Albert de Gredley, who was in the train of the Conqueror. In Domesday Book there is mention of a church called St. Marie's in Manchester, and a church called St. Michael's, which had unam Carucam quietam ab omni consuetudine praeter Geldam. Albertus de Gredly gave to the church of Manchester four bovates or oxgangs of lands in Frank Almoigne of his own demesne. Manchester seems to have possessed a rectory early in the 13th century. In 1299 Otto de Grandison was made rector by the presentation of the king. The manor lands joined to the rectory of Manchester, saving that a place called Bleu Orchard or Wall Greens, was between them. The manor- house stood in or near the place where the college now stands, and was called Barons Court, or Barons Yard, and the place was called Barons Hall, as a neighbouring bank was called Hunts Hall, now Hunts Bank; and the parsonage-house was near to a field called the Parsonage, in or near the street called Deansgate. As has been already mentioned, Manchester passed from the hands of Hugh of Poitiers into those of Albert de Gredley, from whom it descended to Thomas de la Warr, the last heir male of the De la Warrs, and through his sister, Joan, to West, Lord de la Warr, about 1390. This Thomas de la Warr, who has been already referred to, was the founder of the college, to which was annexed the collegiate church, which is now the cathedral. The 32nd Henry VIII. (1540) Confirmed Manchester as a place of privilege, having been anciently a sanctuary. But in 33rd Henry VIII. the privilege, being found prejudicial, was annulled. Leland passed through the country in the reign of Henry VIII., and he mentions Mancestre as "the fairest, best budded, quickest, and most populous town of Lancashire." He proceeds-" It has but one parish church, but that collegiate, and almost throughout double aisled, with very hard squared stone.

There are several stone bridges in the town, but the best, of three arches, is over the Irwell, dividing Manchester from Salford, which is a large suburb to Manchester. On this bridge is a pretty little chapel. The next is the bridge over the Irk, on which the very fair budded college stands. On this river are divers fair mills that serve the town. In the town are two market-places." In the year 1519 Hugh Oldham (a native of Oldham), Bishop of Exeter, by will endowed a free grammar school in Manchester with lands, and a long lease of the water, flour, and dyeing mills in the neighbourhood; and in 1524 conveyance was made, under the trusts of the will, to trustees, for the purposes of carrying out this intention. It was free, and no male infant of any age was to be refused. The choice of the head- master and usher were vested in the president of Corpus Christi, Oxford; in default, in the warden of Manchester College. The College of Manchester was abolished by Aet of Parliament of the 1st of Edward PI., and the land and revenues were given by the king to the Earl of Derby- Queen Mary, however, refounded the College, and restored some of the lands. Up to this period there are few evidences beyond the fact of dyers having settled on the river's bank, of Manchester having attained, or occupying any manufacturing position; but it is recorded rather as a tradition than as a fact, that in 1520 there were three famous clothiers living in the north country, viz: Cuthbert of Kendal, Hodgekins of Halifax, and Martin Brian, or Byrom of Manchester. Each of these kept a great number of servants at work-spinners, carders, weavers, pillers, dyers, shearmen, &c. In 1552, the 5th and 6th of Edward VI., gives us, however, a large insight into the condition of the staple trade of the town at that time. This statute regulated the width and weight of Manchester, Lancashire, and Cheshire cottons, and, ordains "that all the cottons called Manchester, Lancashire, and Cheshire cottons, shall be in length twenty-two yards, and contain in breadth three quarters of a yard on the water, and shall weigh thirty pounds in the piece at least." From the rest of this statute, as well as from other circumstances, it- may be inferred that Manchester cottons at this time were made of wool. In 1567 another Act was passed to amend the preceding statute. In 1565 the plague visited Manchester. In 1567, the 8th of Queen Elizabeth, an aulnager was appointed to measure the cottons and fustian of Manchester, on account of the frauds practised in these towns. In 1578, Queen Elizabeth gave a new foundation to the College, and incorporated it as Christ's College, Manchester. In the preamble of the Act, the number of parishioners is alleged to be 10,000. The foundation is to consist of a warden, a bachelor of divinity, four fellows, who are, like the warden, to be priests and bachelors of art, two chaplains, a vicar, four singing men, and four children; the warden to be appointed by the crown, the fellows and others to be elected by the wardens and fellows. In 1595, John Dee, the celebrated astrologer, was appointed warden of the College. In 1605 the pestilence again visited the town. Camden travelled through Lancashire in 1607, and his description of Manchester, as it then existed, assumes great value. (Camden's Britannia; Nichols, vol. i. Ed. 1789.) "At the confluence of the Irwell and Irk, on the left bank, which is of reddish stone, scarce three miles from the Mersey, stands that ancient town called by Antoninus, according to the various readings, Mancunium and Manucium, and by us at present, with some traces of the old name, Manchester. This surpasses the neighbouring towns in elegance and populousness, and contains a woollen manufacture, market, church, and college, founded by Lord la Warr (summoned to parliament by the name of Magister Thomas de la Warr), who took orders, and was the last male heir of his family, 1 Henry V. He was descended from the Gredleys, who are said to have been the ancient lords of this town. In the last age it was much more famous for its manufacture of stuffs called Manchester Cottons, and the privilege of sanctuary, which the parliament of Henry VIII. transferred to Chester. Bishop Gibson, in his edition of Camden, 1772, adds, "But the growth of this place, in this and the last age, having been so considerable, and what has set it above its neighbours in all respects, it may deservedly claim a particular account to be given of its present state, for, though it is neither a corporation, nor sends burgesses to parliament, yet, perhaps, as an inland town, it has the best trade of any in these northern parts. The fustian manufacture, called Manchester Cottons, still continues there, and is of late very much improved by some modern inventions of dying and printing, and this, with the great variety of other manufactures known by the name of Manchester Wares, renders not only the town itself, but also the parish about it, rich, populous, and industrious. "From a poem in" Hackluyt's Voyages,", published in 1430, it appears that, at that early period, cotton was imported into England by the Genoese; and, between 1511 and 1534, "divers tall ships are mentioned by Hackluyt, of London and Bristol, which had an unusual trade to Sicily, Candia, and Chios, and sometimes to Cyprus and Tripoli, and Baruth in Syria. They exported thither sundry sorts of woollen cloths, calf skins, &c., and imported from thence silks, camlets, rhubarb, malmsey, muscadel, and other wines, oils, cotton wool, Turkey carpets, galls, and Indian spices." (Baines's History of Lancaster, vol. ii. p. 404.)

The first mention made of Manchester in connection with the cotton manufacture was in Lewis Roberts's "Treasure of Traffic," published in 1641, as a seat of linen and also of cotton manufacture:- "The town of Manchester, in Lancashire, must be also herein remembered, and, worthily for their encouragement, commended, who buy the yarn of the Irish in great quantity, and, weaving it, return the same again into Ireland to sell. Neither doth their industry rest here, for they buy cotton-wool, in London, that comes first from Cyprus and Smyrna, and at home work the same, and perfect it, into fustian, vermillines, dimities, and other rich stuffs, and then return it to London, where the same is vended and sold, and not seldom sent into foreign parts, who have means, at far easier terms, to provide themselves of the said first materials" (p. 32). From this it will be seen that Manchester had already become famous for its manufacture; and, doubtless, the employment of cotton had been induced by the use of linen, linen yarn being used as the warp in the making of fustian, and of nearly all other cottons in this country down to the year 1773. In 1650, a description of the towns of Manchester and Salford contains the following information:- "The trade is not inferior to that of many cities in the kingdom, chiefly consisting of woollen friezes, fustian, Backcloths, mingled stuffs, caps, inkles, tapes, points, &c., whereby not only the better sort of men are employed, but also the very children, by their own labour, can maintain themselves. There are, besides, all kinds of foreign merchandise brought and returned by the merchants of the town, amounting to the sum of many thousands of pounds weekly." (Aikin's History of Manchester, p. 154.) And at or about this time, Manchester consisted of ten streets, and Salford of three, the old bridge referred to by Camden, now represented by Victoria Bridge, being the only communication between the two towns. In 1651 the Chetham Library was established, and fourteen years after the Hospital was endowed, Manchester being described by a contemporary as being "one mile in length, with good streets and buildings, and the people more industrious than in any other part of the north of England." Towards the close of this century the general exports of the country rose considerably, and there can be little doubt from their character that Manchester mainly contributed to the progressive rise, and benefited by the increase. The beginning ef the 18th century witnessed a still further development, the peace existing from 1740 for about twenty years enabling the trade of the entire Lancashire district to make great strides. In 1722, the first post-office was established in Manchester, and letters were despatched thence to London three times a week, the time required for transit being seven or eight days. Five years after, the author of "A Tour through the whole Island of Great Britain," published in 1727, referring to Manchester, remarks, "Within a very few years past, here, as at Liverpool, and also at Frome in Somersetshire, the town is extended in a surprising manner, being almost double to what it was a few years ago, so that now, taking in all its suburbs, it now (1727) contains at least 50,000 people. The grand manufacture, which has so much raised this town, is that of cotton in all its varieties, which, like all other manufactures, is very much increased within these thirty or forty years." A paragraph in the Daily Advertiser of September, 1739, copied into the Gentleman's Magazine, supports this view of the rapid rise of the town and the development of its manufacturing resources, thus:- "The manufacture of cotton, mixed and plain, is arrived at so great a perfection within these twenty years, that we not only make enough for our own consumption, but supply our colonies and many of the nations of Europe. The benefits arising from this branch are such as to enable the manufacturers of Manchester alone to lay out above £30,000 a year, for, many years past, in additional buildings; and it is computed that 2,000 new houses have been built in that industrious town within these twenty years. This rise, however, must not be assumed to have been caused by any great increase in the cotton trade, but chiefly by the woollens and fustian, and general manufactures for which the place was noted. The entire value of all the cotton goods manufactured in 1760, according to the estimate of Dr. Percival, who might have been considered an authority on the subject, was not more than £200,000 a year, and, in 1705, the quantity of cotton-wool imported little exceeded 1,000,000 lbs. annually, and seventy years after was less than five times that amount; while, at the former period, the value of the woollen goods exported equallcd two-fifths of the entire export trade of the kingdom, or about £3,000,000 per annum. In 1758, the Duke of Bridgewater, by the aid of Brindley, the celebrated engineer, commenced the famous Bridgewater Canal, which runs near Manchester, and which was destined to create a complete revolution in the mode of transit of goods; and in 1777 the first post coach was established, marking a further era in the progress of the rising town. The invention of the spinning mule in 1779 by Samuel Crompton effected a complete revolution in the manufacturing resources of Manchester, and gave to its staple trade an impetus which has never ceased. A contrast of the quantities of cotton imported and exported at the close of the last century, and in 1800, before the outbreak of the American war, would serve as an able index to the progressive advance of the manufacturing interest. At the period first suggested the supplies from all sources did not exceed 2,000,000 lbs.: in 1860 the return of cotton imported were:

        United States        1,115,890,608 
        Brazil                  17,286,864
        Mediterranean           44,036,608
        British possessions 
             in India          204,141,168
        British West Indies
         and British Guiana      1,050,784 
        Other countries          8,532,720 
                 Total . . . 1,390,938,752
 


Beyond the cotton manufacture in all its various branches, Manchester-has of late years turned its attention to the manufacture of arms and hardware, chiefly through the indefatigable exertions and genius of Mr. Whitworth, and now boasts a small arm factory and a Manufactory of general machinery, carried out under his auspices, each of the very largest magnitude. For this and nearly all other manufactures its site is of the most eligible kind. It stands close to one of the largest and most valuable coal fields in Britain, and in the immediate neighbourhood of the largest seaport and most convenient point of access with America in the British dominions. It is, moreover, by means of rivers and navigable canals, abundantly supplied with water power and the mean of internal communication of the most economic kind. It is united with various adjacent towns in which branches of its staple manufacture have been carried on, by a perfect net-work of canals, of which Manchester may be (Named the centre. The railway communication, in consequence of the enormous traffic, has, been greatly developed, and is as perfect as any in the kingdom. In addition to cotton and arms the manufacture of silk and woollen goods is carried on in the town and its immediate neighbourhood, as may be seen from the annexed returns, but as might be presumed, the cotton manufacture, with all its tributary branches of industry, bleaching, dyeing, printing, &c., is the chief industry. From the factory returns for the year ending 1862, it appears that the total number of factories in the kingdom was as follows: Of cotton alone,

                                   Steam   Water
      Year  Factories  Spindles    Power   power   Persons
      1856    5,117   33,503,580  137,711  23,724  682,497
      1862    6,378   36,450,028  375,294  29,399  775,534
                         Of cotton alone
      1856    2,046   28,019,217     -       -     341,170
      1862    2,715   30,387,467     -       -     407,598
           Of these Lancashire and Cheshire contained
   Lancashire:  
      1856   1,480        -          -       -     259,043
      1862   1,979    21,530,532     -       -     315,627
   Cheshire:
      1856     -          -          -       - 
      1862     212     3,373,113   35,658  1,224    40,860
 


or of the cotton trade alone 45.7 per cent; of the gross number of factories 83.3 per cent.; of the spindles and the mechanical horse power, 72.6; and of number of person 58.2 percent.

 SILK TRADE.
 Factories. Persons. 1862, Cheshire 175 13,604 1862, Lancashire 48   8,391
 18,56 1862 . .  M,71    
  1   .   .  
 


It is difficult to determine the precise number of milky spindles, and persons employed in Manchester alone from the factory returns, but the annexed quotation from the returns of 1863 will suffice to show the position Manchester bears to the general manufactures of the kingdom as the centre of the cotton manufacture. "Lancashire employs 77.4 per cent. of the total number of persons employed in the cotton trade in England and Wales. In the counties of Lancashire, Cheshire, and York, the total increase of mills since 1839 is 59.6 per cent., and of persons employed 91.2 per cent. In addition to this the speed of the spindles has increased upon throstles 500 and upon mules 1,000 revolutions a minute, i.e., the speed of the throstle spindle, which in 1839 was 4,500 times a minute, is now 5,000, and of the mule spindle, that which was 5,000 is now 6,000 times a minute, amounting in the former case to a tenth, and in the latter to a sixth additional increase to that of the mills themselves."-The railways are-the branch of the London and North-Western, which has its terminus at Victoria station, and which runs between Liverpool and Manchester by way of Newton and Warrington, and which was the first opened in this country for general traffic purposes; the Lancashire and Yorkshire, with a terminus in the same station, and which communicates with Liverpool circuitously by Blackburn and Ormskirk, and which has branches to Oldham, Southport, Halifax, Bradford, Huddersfield, Wakefield, and Rochdale. At Bank Top, Market Street, near the infirmary, is the terminus of the main London and North-Western line, communicating with London, Birmingham, Crewe, and the chief arterial lines of the United Kingdom, of which, this last-named place is the centre; also the Manchester, Sheffield, and Lincolnshire, leading E., and forming the more direct route to Sheffield, Hull, and Great Grimsby. These are the principal stations; the others are situated in New Bailey-street,' Salford, the terminus of the lines communicating with Bury, Blackburn, &c., and the South Junction and Altringham, in Oxford Road, Hulme, the line which reaches Liverpool by way of Chester, and which communicates more directly with North and South Wales, and the towns passed by the Great Western and its tributary lines. The canals are those of the Duke of Bridgewater, which flows into the Mersey at Runcorn; the Ashton-under-Lyne, Stockport, and Macclesfield, which all join each other and have a common basin at the back of Piccadilly; the Rochdale and Halifax, communicating with the Bridgewater; and the Bolton and Bury, with a terminus in alford. The borough of Manchester was incorporated by royal charter in 1838, and the government of the town is vested in the town council, which includes the mayor, aldermen, and councillors, elected under the provisions of the Municipal Corporations Acts. Since the incorporation of the borough, a separate commission of the peace and court of quarter sessions has been obtained by grant from the crown, and an efficient constabulary force established for the borough, under the control of the watch committee. The municipal borough is divided into 15 wards, over each of which an alderman presides, the rest of the local governing body being 48 councillors and the recorder. The town is supplied with water by the cor- poration, which has established large water-works in the neighbourhood of Moltram, in Longdendale, 10 miles E. of Manchester. These were completed at a cost estimated to exceed half a million sterling, and are on a strictly colossal scale. There are minor reservoirs at Woodhead, Torside, Rhodes Wood, Armfield, Hollingworth, and Godley, their total capacity being 567,859,797 cubic feet, The Moltram Tunnel is 2,772 yards in length, or more than 1 mile, is 6 feet wide, and as many high, The fire-engine establishment is exceedingly effective, and comprises some fifteen engines, with all necessary implements.

The gas companies are also under the management of the corporation, the profits realised from the manufacture and sale of gas being devoted to the improvement of the streets, and in public expenditure for the advantage of the city. They were established originally in 1817, but the streets were not lit with gas till 1824. The population, according to the census return of 1861, of the city of Manchester, is 357,979, and of the borough of Salford, 102,449. The further returns give the following analysis of this total:

 oo  br  a a P, "a
 8 9,564 3,880 c Salford , 137,351 44,723 58,528 21,286 2,167 1,119 71,868
 6,367 27,637 2,445 
 

The town on the whole is moderately healthy, but
the mortality in certain districts is very heavy among children. In the Manchester registration district proper, including the so-called townships, with its sub-districts of Ancoats, St. George's, Market-street, London-road, the population being, in 1841, 192,219, the number of births were 7,145, and of deaths 5,831; in 1851, population 228,435, births 9,118, deaths 7,020; in 1860, population 243,625, births 9,085, deaths 6,807. The total births in Manchester in 1862 were 4,635, against 3,828 deaths; in 1863, 4,555 births, 4,096 deaths. In Salford the births in 1862 were 2,196, against 1,337 deaths; in 1863 the births were 2,136, the deaths 1,451. But these returns would need to be slightly amended, the census and registrars' districts being slightly different. The annual average rate of mortality, from all causes, to 1,000 persons living, 1851-60, in Manchester, would be 31, and in Salford 26, showing, with the exception of Liverpool (33), the largest death-rate in the country, and more than that of Bolton (27), Wigan (27), and Oldham (25), the towns which surround it-the diseases operating most maliflcally being scarlatina and diseases of the respiratory organs; consumption, diarrhoea, and measles standing next IN order. Against this the birth-rate for the entire counties of Lancaster and Chester was slightly above that of the average of the kingdom; and it is probable that the privations caused by what lias been termed the "cotton famine" enhanced the mortality. The tables for the intermediate years show a considerable oscillation in the death rate, caused by deflections of temperature and those other causes which especially operate to the diminution of life in large towns. Manchester retains many of the characteristics of a manufacturing town which has risen from a very humble beginning, in the squalid and narrow character of the streets, and the comparative narrowness of some of the principal thoroughfares. Till within the past few years a large proportion, nearly 10 per cent., of the population lived in cellars and in places absolutely unfit for human occupation: the returns for 1849 showing something like 5,000 cellars used as habitations, and a population of 20,399 resident in these wretched and unwholesome abodes. Till the commencement of the year 1860 and the outbreak of the American war, the city of Manchester showed a progressive, rapid, and continuous increase in its prosperity. The check to the supply of cotton, how ever, threw a large number of the labouring population out of employment, and necessitated an appeal to other sources of supply for the growth of the staple. But in spite of the depressing influences referred to, and the evils of non-employment and pauperism following in their train, the returns of mortality and sickness prove that the sanitary condition of the neighbourhood was not seriously impaired by the privations inflicted. A development of further supplies of cotton from other countries during the last three years, together with the happy conclusion of the American war, have again restored Manchester to something like its old prosperity; while the introduction of Indian, Surat, Egyptian, and Brazilian cottons has to some extent rendered the country independent of its former sources of supply. The report of the factory inspectors, to the date of April, 1863, speaks of a minute but sensible improvement; and the weekly returns of May, 1863, show how far the foreign varieties of cotton were superseding the exclusive supply hitherto derived from the United States:-

 American cotton. Brazilian. Egyptian. Indian. In 1860 41,000 2,150
 1,280 3,330 May 29, 1863 1,160 2,930 3,520 21,160 
 

Which shows that
while America yielded less than 5 per cent. of its old supply, nearly seven times as much Indian cotton was consumed as before the American war. In consequence of the employment of children, as well also on account of the ignorance of parents and the impossibility of their supervision, the state of education is low in Manchester."