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Keyston

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  • Land Tax
    • Details of the location of Land Tax Assessment records for Huntingdonshire can be found in the book " LAND and WINDOW TAX ASSESSMENTS " compiled by Jeremy Gibson, Mervyn Medlycott and Dennis Mills, 2nd edition 1998 and published by the Federation of Family History Societies.
  • Window Tax
    • Details of the location of Window Tax Assessment records for Huntingdonshire can be found in the book " LAND and WINDOW TAX ASSESSMENTS " compiled by Jeremy Gibson, Mervyn Medlycott and Dennis Mills, 2nd edition 1998 and published by the Federation of Family History Societies.
  • The Hearth Tax
    • The majonty of the taxes and their records relate to the reign of Charles II (1660-1655), of which the Hearth Tax generated by far the most (surviving) records. and consequently is the best known and most useful. Others were the 1661 Free and Voluntary Present to the King, Subsidies and Aids, and the Poll Tax. On the accession of William and Mary. the Hearth Tax was repealed (1689). beIng replaced eventually by the Land Tax and the Window Tax - few records of which survive pre-1715, and these only for the more prosperous - and, for a short time, the 'Marriage Tax', which is of great use and interest to genealogists, but unfortunately only exists for a few places. Details of the location of these records and other later Stuart Tax Lists and the Association Oath Rolls can be found in the book " THE HEARTH TAX and other later Stuart Tax Lists and the ASSOCIATION OATH ROLLS " compiled by Jeremey Gibson, 2nd edition 1996 published by the Federation of Family History Societies.
  • Protestations Returns 1641-42
    • The Protestation, a form of oath of loyalty ostensibly to the King, but in fact to Parliament, was initiated in the House of Commons in May 1641, when Members themselves took it. Nine months later its scope was vastly widened, when instructions went out that it should be taken by every adult (male); very occasionally women were also recorded. Closely assodated with the Protestation was the Collection in Aid of Distressed Protestants in Ireland. The oath was taken and the collection made, often simultaneously, in February 1641/2 and March. Parliament-approved taxation records recommence, after Charles l's eleven years of personal rule, with Tudor-type Subsidies, to be collected during 1641. In July 1641 a Poll Tax was voted, but few records of this survive. Thirdly, an Assessment or Grant was agreed, to be collected in May and November 1642. This Assessment had a much lower tax threshold and consequently many more taxpayers are named. Details of the location of these records and other contempary listings can be found in the book " THE PROTESTATION RETURNS 1641-42 and other contemporary listings " compiled by Jeremey Gibson and Alan Dell, 1995 published by the Federation of Family History Societies.
  • Church Taxes
    • Church Commissioners. The body that manages the temporal affairs of the Church of England. Created in 1948 by the amalgamation of the former Ecclesiastical Commissioners (first appointed in 1836) and the commissioners of "Queen Anne's Bounty", the Church Commissioners are responsible for the administration of church properties and finances and for the reorganisation, when necessary, of parishes. These include the tithes due on church owned land; this was a common occurence throughout Cambridgeshire and the tithes were levied by a system whereby a landowner had to collect the money from other landowners in the parish), whether he managed to collect it or not, he had to pay it for the patish. Each landowner was nominated in turn each year. As can be seen by the various Twons and Parishes listed here much of the property was owned by the church.
    • Tithes a tenth part of the produce of the land paid from quite early years of the Church to maintain the Clergy. In England, when the lord of a Manor built a Church on his estate, he often enforced payment of tithes to its priest as its endowment, and in time such allocation of tithes became general law. A Synod in 786 strongly enjoined the payment of tithes, which was enforced by law in 900. Tithes were of three sorts - 'praedial', of the fruits of the earth; 'personal', of the profits of labour; and 'mixed', partly of the ground and partly of the industry of man. They were further divided into 'great' (tithes of wheat, oats and other major crops) and 'small' (tithes of lambs, chicken and other minor produce). A Rector had all the tithes, but a Vicar only the small tithes. Gradually many landowners substituted annual cash payments instead of tithes. The Tithes Commutation Act (1836) converted tithes into rent charges dependent on the varying price of corn, but in 1918 the value was fixed, and in 1925 and 1936 further acts were passed (Tithe Redemption Act) to extinguish tithes. There are now no such things as tithes in England.
    • Ecclesiastical Commission a permanent body, consisting of Bishops and certain lay members appointed by the Crown and the Archbishop of Canterbury, created in 1835 by Act of Parliament through the efforts of Sir Robert Peel to hold much of the property of the Church of England and make better use of it. The Commission abolished sinecures, diminished the chapters of cathedrals brought the incomes of bishops nearer to equality and increased the endowments of poor parishes. In 1948 it was united with Queen Anne's bounty to form a new body, the Church Commissioners for England.
    • Queen Anne's Bounty. A fund established by Queen Anne in 1704. She surrendered her revenues from first fruits and tenths to the fund, which was to be used for the benefit of poorer beneficed clergy. In the 19th century the fund also received parliamentary wants and private donations. In 1948 the administration of the fund passed to the Church Commissioners.

      First fruits and tenths were payments made to the Pope by beneficed clergymen. In 1534 in England these were acquired by the King under Act. Various exemptions were made in 1535, 1536, 1558, 1706 and 1707. In 1703 an Act was passed enabling Queen Anne to employ these moneys in augmenting poor benefices, and since then they have been known as Queen Anne's Bounty, and have been administered by commissioners, first appointed in 1704. Existing legislation regarding Queen Anne's Bounty are Acts of 1703, 1716, 1777, 1780, 1801, 1803,1805, 1830, 1837, 1838, 1839, 1840, 1846, 1865, 1870, 1874, 1875, 1881, 1890, 1894, 1908. The Acts known as Queen Anne's Bounty Acts are those of 1703, 1716, 1803, 1838, 1840 and 1870.

KEYSTON

[Transcribed and edited information from The National Gazetteer of Great Britain and Ireland - 1868]

"KEYSTON, a parish in the hundred of Leightonstone, county Huntingdon, 4 miles south-east of Thrapston, its post town, 6 north-west of Kimbolton, and 70 from London. It is a small and scattered village. The land is chiefly common. The road from Thrapston to Huntingdon passes through the parish. The tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £381 15s. The living is a rectory* in the diocese of Ely, value £300. The church, dedicated to St. John the Baptist, has a tower crowned by a lofty spire. William Elderkin, Esq., is lord of the manor."

[Transcribed from The National Gazetteer of Great Britain and Ireland 1868]
by Colin Hinson ©2013
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Cemeteries

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Census

  • Census information for this parish (1841 - 1891) is held in the Huntingdon Records Office.
  • The full 1841 Census of Keyston Parish is available as fiche set C102.
  • The full 1851 Census of Keyston Parish is available as fiche set C52.
  • A surname index of the 1881 Census of the Thrapston Registration District of Northamptonshire, in which Keyston was enumerated (RG11/1583, Folios 10b - 15b), and which took place on 3rd April 1881, is available, as fiche set C1.
  • A full transcription of the 1891 Census of the Huntingdonshire (Miscellaneous Parishes) Registration District (Sub-Districts of Thrapston (NTH), Oundle (NTH), Stamford (LIN) and Caxton (CAM)) in which Keyston was enumerated, and which took place on 5th April 1891, is available as fiche set C16.
  • The above mentioned fiche are available from the Cambridgeshire and Huntingdonshire FHS.
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Churches

  • The Church of St. John the Baptist, Keyston.
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Church History

  • OS Grid Square TL 044754.
  • The church of St. John the Baptist consists of a chancel, nave, north transept, south transept, north aisle, south aisle, west tower and south porch. the walls are of coursed rubble with stone dressings, and the roofs are covered with zinc and lead.
  • The church is not mentioned in the Domesday survey of 1086, and the earliest existing parts are the nave and aisles are from about 1250; the chancel was built around 1280, and the tower and porch were built around 1300. Commencing in about 1480, a considerable reconstruction took place: the east wall of the chancel was rebuilt, the walls heightened and a new window inserted in each, the clearstory was added to the nave, the south transept was built, and new windows inserted into the south aisle walls. The roofs of the nave, transepts and aisles were renewed when these parts were respectively reconstructed towards the end of the 15th century and correspond with the slight differences of date, but those of the south aisle and porch were renewed in the 17th century.
  • The church underwent another general restoration in 1883 when the lead on the nave roof was replaced with zinc, and shortly afterwards the top of the spire was repaired. The roofs of the south aisle and transept were repaired in 1897. The chancel was reroofed in 1904, and the spire was again repaired in 1908. the roofs of the north transept and north aisle were thoroughly repaired in 1922-3, and in 1928 the top of the spire was again repaired.
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Church Records

  • These are available in the Huntingdon Records Office.
    • Baptisms: 1604-27, 1638-1851 (both indexed transcriptions).
    • Banns: 1754-1812, 1837-1927, 1955-1956.
    • Marriages: 1604-27, 1638-1851 (both indexed transcriptions), 1754-1812, 1837-1952, 1953-1994.
    • Burials: 1604-27, 1638-1851 (both indexed transcriptions).
    • Bishop's Transcripts: 1604-5, 1608-10, 1617-19, 1626, 1660-76/1684-8, 1690-9, 1701-2, 1704-7, 1714, 1716, 1718-21, 1723-1813/1813-1824/1825-58.
  • Keyston Parish Registers (baptisms, marriages and burials) 1604-1851, on 3 microfiche (fiche set D47), are available from the Cambridgeshire and Huntingdonshire FHS.
  • The Huntingdonshire Marriage Indexes include marriages from this parish. These are, at present, issued in alphabetical listings in series: 1601-1700, and 1701-1754, and are available from the Cambridgeshire and Huntingdonshire FHS.
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Civil Registration

  • Keyston was in the Thrapston Registration District of Northamptonshire from 1st July 1837, but it subsequently came under the Raunds sub-District of Thrapston. In 1935, the parish was transferred to the Spaldwick sub-District. It is now part of the Huntingdon District.
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Gazetteers

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Maps

You can see maps centred on OS grid reference TL044755 (Lat/Lon: 52.367614, -0.468086), Keyston which are provided by:

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Names, Geographical

  • Chetelstan, Ketelstan (xi cent.),
  • Keston, Keyston (xvi cent.).
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Poor Houses, Poor Law

  • The parish of Keyston was in the Thrapston Union of Northamptonshire for Poor Law administration.
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Population

  • Population in 1801 - 212.
  • Population in 1851 - 199.
  • Population in 1901 - 175 ?
  • Population in 1921 - 182.
  • From 1935, the population figures of Keyston are included under Bythorn.