"SANDGATE, a chapelry, post town, and watering-place, partly in the liberty of the town of Folkestone, and partly in the parish of Cheriton, lathe of Shepway, county Kent, 1½ mile S.W. of Folkestone, and 8 W. of Dover. The South-Eastern railway has a junction station for Shorncliffe and Sandgate. The name of the village is derived from its situation at one of those gaps or gates of the sea so frequent along the E. coast, and from the sandy nature of the soil on which it is built. The castle is said to have been originally built in the reign of Richard II., but was entirely reconstructed by Henry VIII. on the plan of Deal and Walmer castles, and at the commencement of the present century was modernised, and the central tower converted into a martello tower. Barracks have also been erected, and a permanent military camp formed in 1855 on the plateau above the town, capable of accommodating 6,300 men. At the bottom of the hill commences the New Military canal, cut in a zigzag course along the coast, and following the direction of the hills for near 23 miles to Cliff End, near Rye, in Sussex. The village, which is close to the sea, commands a clear view of the French coast, and is sheltered by a range of hills rising immediately behind. The air is salubrious, and since the establishment of the Local Board of Health the drainage has been improved and the water supply abundant from the Seabrook springs. It consists principally of one long street of well-built but irregularly planned houses, and numerous detached villas, all built since 1773, when a shipbuilder of the name of Wilson established two shipbuilding yards, and -laid the foundation of the modern town. It possesses hot and cold baths, circulating library, reading-rooms, a dispensary, and a literary institution. The population of the ecclesiastical district in 1861 was 1,669, exclusive of about 5,500 soldiers in the camp. The living is a perpetual curacy* in the diocese of Canterbury, value £260. The church was founded in 1822 by John fourth Earl of Darnley, but subsequently enlarged and rebuilt. The Wesleyans have a place of worship. There are National schools, built in 1846, also infant schools. On the summit of a neighbouring hill are traces of an elliptical camp of two acres, attributed to King Ethelbert, and a little N. of the village, on Shorncliffe Hill, a summer camp, formed during the great French war. A pleasure fair is held on 23rd July."
"SHORNCLIFFE AND SANDGATE, a chapelry in the parishes of Folkestone and Cheriton, county Kent, 1 mile W. of Folkestone. It is a station on the South-Eastern railway. This place, which is of recent growth, is situated under the cliffs. See Sandgate."
[Transcribed from The National Gazetteer of Great Britain and Ireland 1868 by Colin Hinson ©2010]
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