"LIVERPOOL, a parish, seaport, market town, municipal and parliamentary borough, having separate jurisdiction, but locally inn the hundred of West Derby, southern division of the county palatine of Lancaster. It stands on the right bank near the mouth of the river Mersey, in lat. 53° 23' N., and long. 2° 59' 30" W., 32 miles W. by S. of Manchester, 49 S. by W. of Lancaster, and 210 from London by rail, or 206 by road. The name of this town was anciently Lyrpoole, or Litherpoole, and is probably a corruption of the Welsh Llerpwll, "the place on the pool," though the popular idea is that the first part of the word is the name of the bird which is still seen on the arms of the town, and which, it is said, was once abundant on the pool which formerly covered the neighbourhood of Whitechapel and Church-street. The town originated in a castle built on the spot by Roger of Poictiers, to whom William I. granted the country between the Ribble and the Mersey. This building was enlarged by King John, subsequently dismantled by order of parliament in 1659, and, after being rented by the town for some years, was finally destroyed in 1715. St. George's church now stands on its site. The town first began to be used as a port after the conquest of Ireland in 1172. In the following year Henry II. granted the first charter, which was confirmed by John in 1207; and in 1227 Henry III. constituted the town a free borough for ever. Its progress, however, was small; for in 1272 it only consisted of 168 houses, and during the following centuries it decreased both in size and prosperity, till, in 1561, the number of houses was reduced to 138, and the merchants of the town only owned twelve ships. The town contributed one ship only to serve in the French wars of Edward III. During the reign of that king the Stanleys, who owned land in the neighbourhood, built a tower, where Water-street now ends, for the defence of the town. This was used as a residence for a considerable period, then as an assembly room, and finally as a gaol till 1819, when it was pulled down to make room for new buildings. In 1361 and 1548 Liverpool was visited by plagues.