MANCHESTER, a parish in the hundred of SALFORD, county palatine of LANCASTER, comprising the manufacturing and market town of Manchester, the chapelries of Ardwick, Blackley, Cheetham, Chorlton cum Hardy, Denton, Didsbury, Gorton, Heaton-Norris, Newton, Salford, and Stretford, and the townships of Beswick, Bradford, Broughton, Burnage, Chorlton-row, Crumpsall, Droylsden, Failsworth, Harpurhey, Houghton, Hulme, Levenshulme, Moss-Side, Moston, Openshaw, Reddish, Rushulme, and Withington, and containing, according to the last census, 186,942 inhabitants, of which number, including Salford, 133,788 are in the town of Manchester, 36 miles (E. by N.) from Liverpool (but only 31 by the rail-road), 54 (S.E.by S.) from Lancaster, and 186 (N. W. by N.) from London. The origin of this town, which is remarkable for the extent of its trade and the importance of its manufactures) may be traced to a period of remote antiquity. In the time of the Druids, it was distinguished as one of the principal stations of their priests, and celebrated for the privilege of sanctuary attached to its altar, which, in the British language, was called Meyne, signifying a stone. Prior to the Christian era, it was one of the principal seats of the Brigantes, who had a castle, or strong hold, called Mancenion, or the place of tents, near the confluence of the rivers Medlock and Irwell, the site of which, still called the "Castle Field," was by the Romans, on their conquest of this part of the island under Agricola, about the year 79, selected as the station of the Cohors Prima Frisiorum, and, with reference to its original British name, called by them Mancunium; hence its Saxon name Manceastre, from which its modern appellation is obviously derived. This station was for nearly four centuries occupied by the Romans, and amply provided with every thing requisite for the accommodation and subsistence of the garrison established in it, having also a water-mill on the Medlock, at some distance below the town, the site of which still retains the name of Knott mill.