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National Gazetteer (1868) - Wallsend

"WALLSEND, a parish in the E. division of Castle ward, county Northumberland, 4 miles N.E. of Newcastle, its post town, and 4 from North Shields. It has three stations on the Newcastle and North Shields railway. Wallsend is situated near the mouth of the river Tyne, at the extremity of the wall of Severus, from which circumstance its name is derived. The parish includes the townships of Wallsend, Howdon Pans, and Willington, and has at Wall-haws, or Cousin's House, traces of the Roman station Segedunum, where pottery and other relics of antiquity have been discovered. It is the centre of an extensive coal district, supplying as many as 2,500,000 tons of best coal, termed "Wallsend," for the London and other markets. The Wallsend mine, in which so many lives have been lost, and other surrounding collieries, are now filled with water. An engineering company has been formed and works already erected to pump out this subterranean lake. The village is large and well-built, containing many good houses with a spacious green in the centre, crossed by a raised causeway. The population of the township in 1861 was 2,371, and of the parish 6,715. Many of the inhabitants are employed in the manufacture of copperas and earthenware. Near the town are extensive limekilns, a steam corn mill, roperies, shipbuilding yards, and chemical works. The two brothers, John and William Martin, the former distinguished as an historical painter, and the latter the inventor of several ingenious machines, were natives of this parish. The living is a rectory in the diocese of Durham, value £300, in the patronage of the dean and chapter. The church, dedicated to St. Peter, was built in 1809 at an expense of £5,000. The register dates from 1669. The old church, which was dedicated to the Holy Cross, has been pulled down. There are also the district churches of Howdon Pans and St. Peter, the livings of which are perpetual curacies, value £196 and £222 respectively. There are village schools for both sexes, and the Wesleyans, New Connexion and Primitive Methodists, and Presbyterians have chapels."

"HOWDEN, (or Howden-pans), a township in the parish of Wallsend, E. division of Castle ward, county Northumberland, 2 miles E. of Wallsend, and 2 S.W. of North Shields by the Newcastle and Tynemouth railway, on which it is a station. It is situated on the river Tyne, and takes the suffix to its name from the salt pans once here. Coals are shipped here in large quantities for London and other places. A commodious dock was opened in 1857, called the Northumberland Dock. There are a large brewery, shipbuilding yards, collieries, rope, lampblack, and tar works. The Independents, Wesleyans, and Primitive Methodists have each a chapel.

"WILLINGTON, a township and ecclesiastical district in the parish of Wallsend, E. division of Castle ward, county Northumberland, 4 miles W. of South Shields, and 3 S.W. of North Shields. It is a station on the Newcastle and North Shields railway. The township is situated on the bank of the river Tyne, and has several coal-staiths, steam corn mill, and extensive collieries and stone quarries."

[Description(s) from The National Gazetteer of Great Britain and Ireland (1868)
Transcribed by Colin Hinson ©2003]