Tontine Deed For Birmingham Public Library - 1798

A Tontine Deed by definition is an annuity taken out by a group of individuals the survivors of which stand to benefit the most. In fact when only one subscriber is left alive, he/she takes the lot!!!

In this Tontine, some 180 worthy citizens of Birmingham Warwickshire subscribed an undisclosed sum and agreed to pay the rent on the land which the agreement set aside for the provision of a Public Library for Birmingham.

It is not clear from the legal clauses to the tontine, just what benefits were expected to accrue to the subscribers - but it is of note that the subscribers nominated very young members of their family presumably in the hope that these youngsters would out live all the others.

One benefit that the subscribers enjoyed was that if five or more of their number so desired they could call a General Meeting of the Proprietors, and at such a meeting they were empowered to direct and manage the affairs of the Library undertaking. They can also appoint the Secretary and Treasurer of the Library.

The Deed was signed on 25th March 1798.

In the Schedule to the Deed there are recorded the full details of the subscribers. In transcribing these entries we have had to abbreviate the information somewhat. The first entry in the Schedule reads (in full) as follows:- 1. William ANDERTON.
George ANDERTON aged five years and a half or thereabouts resident at Hake Green in the County of Worcester son of William ANDERTON of the same place Button Maker and Rebecca his wife.

This has been abbreviated in the enclosed listing and reads as follows:- ANDERTON William Geo. ANDERTON 5 yrs Hake Green,
s/o Wm. & Rebecca Button maker.

Quite a few of the subscribers lived remote from Birmingham in neighbouring Counties particularly Staffordshire & Worcestershire. and others are described as late of 'such and such' a place. John SEALE came from Westmorland, and Thomas COOPER's entry shows that Christopher MARSH was late of Bath in Somerset.

Transcribed at Auckland November 15, 1992

BIRMINGHAM PUBLIC LIBRARY - TONTINE DEED OF 1798

 

A - B - C - D - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - P - R - S - T - U - V - W - Y

No. NAME. Details. Father's Occupation
001 ANDERTON William Geo ANDERTON 5 yrs Hake Green,
s/o Wm & Rebecca
Button maker
002 ANDERTON Isaac Thos Parsons ANDERTON 4yrs
Handsworth, s/o Isaac & Ann
Cock Founder
003 ARMITAGE James Maria ARMITAGE 4 yrs, Aston,
d/o Jas & Rachael
Chemist
004 ASPINALL Alexander Nicholas Yoten? ASPINALL 12 yrs,
Birmingham, s/o James & Eliza
Button Maker
005 ASPINALL Alexander Mary Florence ASPINALL 11 yrs,
Birmingham, d/o James & Elizbeth
Button Maker
006 ASTBURY William Richard Porter 3 yrs, Birmingham
s/o Thos Reve PORTER & Eliza
Presser?
No. NAME. Details. Father's Occupation
007 BARBER Joseph Joseph Vincent BARBER 9 yrs, Birmingham
s/o Joseph & Elizabeth
Painter
008 BARBER Joseph Charles BARBER 14 yrs, Birmingham
s/o Joseph & Elizabeth
Painter
009 BARKER George H George PIDOCK 9 yrs, Oldswireford
s/o John PIDDOCK & Elizabeth
Glass Maker
010 BARKER Samuel Walter Hall CAPPER 18mnths,
s/o Walter Wm & Catherine
Merchant
011 BARKER Thomas Charles BARKER 5 yrs, Birmingham
s/o Thomas & Mary
Mercer
012 BARNES Mary Henry LLOYD 13yrs Aston,
s/o Harryson? & Rachael
Busker ??
013 BARRS William John BARRS 12 yrs, Birmingham
s/o William & Sarah
Mercer
014 BELL Mary Edward Wekks BELL 9 yrs, Birmingham
s/o Joseph (dec'd) & Mary
Toy Maker
015 BIDDLE John Clutton Rachael BIDDLE 2 yrs, Bordesley
d/o John & Elizabeth
Chemist
016 BINGHAM James Charles BINGHAM 4 yrs, Selly Hall
s/o James & Sarah
Button Maker
017 BISSETT James James George BISSET 6 yrs, Birmingham
s/o James & Dorothy
Minature Painter
018 BLOUNT John Thomas Lakin HAWKES 5 yrs, Moseley
s/o Thos Lakin & Susanna
Merchant
019 BOURGEON Jas. Alex. James Alexander BOURGEON 39 yrs, Birmingham Merchant
020 BRAGG Henry Henry BRAGG 5 yrs, Birmingham
s/o Henry & Mary
Japanner
No. NAME. Details. Father's Occupation
021 CAPPER George Samuel James CAPPER 7 yrs, Birmingham
s/o James & Grace
Mercer (dec'd)
022 CAPPER Walter Wm. Eliza GILBY 3 yrs, Birmingham
d/o Wm GILBY & Eliza
Doctor in Physic
023 CAPPER Walter Wm. Walter MARRIOTT 2 yrs, Pershore,
s/o Wm. MARRIOTT & ???
Gentleman
024 CARVER Edward Edward ARMFIELD ?? 7 yrs, Birmingham
s/o Edward & Ann
Button Maker
025 CHAPMAN Thomas Mary A...on CHAPMAN 15 yrs,
Birmingham, d/o Thos & Ann
Printer??
026 CHESHIRE James Francis CHESHIRE 5mnths, Aston,
s/o Jams. & Elizabeth
Button Maker
027 CLARKE John John CLARKE 30 yrs, Birmingham, Druggist
028 COCKLE James Mary Chapman COCKLE 12 yrs, Deritend,
d/o James & Mary
Skinerer?
029 COLMORE John Sarah COLMORE 15 yrs, Aston,
d/o John & Mary
Gentleman
030 CONQUEST Richard Charles POXALL? 9mnths, Edgbaston,
s/o Revd C. & Mary Jane
Clerk
031 COOPER Thomas Anne? Cooper MARSH 6 yrs, Birmingham
d/o Christopher & Ann
Woollen Draper
032 COPE John John COPE 15 yrs, Birmingham
s/o John & Ann (dec'd)
Druggist
033 COPE John Charles COPE 13 yrs, Birmingham
s/o John & Ann (dec'd)
Druggist
034 COPE William Wm ...? COPE 10 yrs, Bordesley,
s/o Wm. COPE & Mary
Chemist
035 COTTRELL Joseph Jane COTTRELL 13 yrs, Deritend,
d/o Samuel (dec'd) & Rebecca
File Maker
036 CROFT George Hannah CROFT 13 yrs, Birmingham
d/o Revd G CROFT LLD & Ann
 
037 CURTIS Charles William CURTIS 16 yrs, Solihull,
s/o Charles & Dorothy (dec'd)
 
No. NAME. Details. Father's Occupation
038 DAVIS David Lloyd Davies WINSON?? 26 yrs,
Birmingham, s/o Francis & Eliza.
 
039 DEARMAN
John Petty
John James DEARMAN 4.5 yrs, B'ham,
s/o John Petty & Priscilla
Founder
040 DERRINGTON George George DERRINGTON 20 yrs, Birmingham
s/o John & ....
Surgeon
041 DICKENSON William William DICKENSON 22 yrs, Birmingham
s/o Wm. & Mary
Banker
042 DOBBS Thomas Louisa DOBBS 10yrs Kings Norton,
d/o Thos. & Cordelia
Seller of metals
No. NAME. Details. Father's Occupation
043 FARRON Joseph Ann FARRON 15 yrs, Birmingham
d/o Jos. & Rebecca
Tea Dealer
044 FLETCHER Thomas Mary MASON 2 yrs, Birmingham
d/o Wm Wallis MASON & Elizabeth
Merchant
045 FORD Samuel Mary Frances FORD 10 yrs, Birmingham
d/o Samuel & Ann
Merchant
No. NAME. Details. Father's Occupation
046 GATTON Samuel (jnr) Theodore GATTON 14 yrs, Birmingham
s/o Jacob? & Lucy
Gun Merchant
047 GARBETT Samuel Ann ALSTON 14 yrs, Birmingham
d/o James & Ann
Button Maker
048 GEM Thomas Mary GEM 28 yrs, Birmingham
d/o Thos. & Mary
Gentleman
049 GIBBS Joseph Joseph SEWARD? 5 yrs, Birmingham
s/o Rd.? & Mary
Pocket back
Maker
050 GIBBS Joseph Thomas PINKS? 9 yrs, Birmingham
s/o Willm & Clarinda
Merchant
051 GILBY William M.D. Eliza GILBY 3 yrs, Birmingham
d/o Wm. & Eliza
Doctor in Physic
052 GILL Thomas Harry GILL 7 yrs, Birmingham
s/o Thomas (elder) & Ann
Merchant
053 GODDINGTON James Eliz Ann Ashton GODDINGTON 4 yrs,
Deritend, d/o ??? & Ann (dec'd)
Brass
Founderer ??
054 GOODALL Michael Michael GOODALL 29 yrs, Birmingham, Banker
055 GREEN John Charles Cacbyn? GREEN 13 yrs, Birmingham
s/o Joseph? & Eliza
Merchant
056 GRIMOTT?? Joseph Charlotte Augusta 2 yrs,
d/o HRH George ...& ..Amelia Elizabeth
 
057 GUEST Henry Henry GUEST 28 yrs, Birmingham, Gentleman
058 GUEST Joseph Mason Edward Wells BELL 9 yrs, Birmingham
s/o Joseph (dec'd) & Mary
Cog Maker???
059 GUEST Joseph Thomas Warwick? MANDER? 7 yrs,
Birmingham, s/o Thos. & Eliza
Merchant
060 GUEST William Joseph ALLCOCK 8yrs Birmingham
s/o Wm. & ....
Butcher
No. NAME. Details. Father's Occupation
062 HADLEY Henry Mary HADLEY 16mnths, Woodville STS,
d/o Henry & All ...?
Merchant
061 HADLEY Thomas George HADLEY 4 yrs, West Bromwich,
s/o Thos. & Ann
Manufacturer
063 HARRISON John John Holden HARRISON 18mnths, B'ham,
s/o John & Elizth (dec'd)
Merchant
064 HATELY Joseph John HAWKER 4 yrs, W Bromwich,
s/o Richard & Mary
Iron Master
065 HAWKINS Samuel John HAWKINS 7 yrs, Birmingham
s/o Wm. & Mary
Button Maker
066 HEATON Bernard S. Mary Ann w/o Wm HARRIS 15 yrs,
Birmingham, d/o Bernard S & Mary
Mercer
067 HICKS John Kent John Kent HICKS 46 yrs, Birmingham, ??
068 HOLLINS William William HOLLINS 35 yrs, Birmingham, Mason
069 HOLLINS William The said William HOLLINS last above named  
070 HOLLINS William William HOLLINS 9 yrs, Birmingham
s/o William & Catherine
Mason
071 HOLLINS William John HOLLINS 8 yrs, Birmingham
s/o William & Catherine
Stone Mason
072 HOOD Joseph Maria HOOD 2 yrs, Birmingham
d/o Joseph & Mary
Grocer
073 HOPPER Walt.Carless Walter Carless HOPPER 27 yrs, Belmont near Duckam Esquire
No. NAME. Details. Father's Occupation
074 IDDENS John George Francis IDDINS 18 yrs, Birmingham
s/o John & Mary
Timber Merchant
075 INGRAM Thomas Shirley? Steele PERKINS? 3 yrs,
s/o Shirley F.Steele & Elizabeth
Esquire
No. NAME. Details. Father's Occupation
076 JOHNSTONE Edward Cath. Loetitia Weardon JOHNSTONE
4 yrs, d/o Edward & Catherine
Doctor in
Physic
077 JEE Edward (senior) Edward JEE 13 yrs, Birmingham
s/o Edward & Emily
Picture Frame
Maker
078 JONES William Fredk. JONES 2 yrs, Birmingham
s/o Wm. & Sarah
Builder
No. NAME. Details. Father's Occupation
079 KENNEDY George Bernard Heaton HARRIS 3 yrs, Birmingham
s/o Wm. & Mary
Button Maker
080 KETTAND Thomas Ann HEALEY 10 yrs, Birmingham
d/o Thos Ongleton (dec'd) & Jane
Gun Barrel Maker
081 KING William Mary KING 8 yrs, Birmingham
d/o Wm & Mary
Factor
No. NAME. Details. Father's Occupation
082 LAMBLEY Abraham James LAMBLEY 1yr, Aston,
s/o Abraham & Elizabeth
Travel Chest Maker
083 LEE George Eyre Thomas Eyre LEE 8 yrs, Edgbaston,
s/o Geo Eyre & Lydia
Gentleman
084 LEE John James LEE 5 yrs, Yardley,
s/o John & Sarah
Merchant
085 LEE Thomas Henry SHIPTON 8 yrs, Birmingham
s/o Joseph & Caroline
Gentleman
086 LINE Benjamin Joseph LINE 10 yrs, Little Bromwich,
s/o Joseph & Sarah
Farmer
087 LLOYD Sampson Sampson LLOYD 1yr, Birmingham
s/o Sampson & Hannah
Banker
088 LLOYD Charles Caroline LLOYD 7 yrs, Birmingham
d/o Chas & Mary
Banker
089 LLOYD Samuel George Braithwaite LLOYD 4 yrs, B'ham,
s/o Samuel & Rachel
Banker
090 LLOYD Thomas Thos LLOYD 21 yrs, Birmingham Gentleman
091 LOWE John Robert WEBB 18 yrs, Birmingham
s/o Revd Wm. & Sarah
Clerk
No. NAME. Details. Father's Occupation
092 MADELEY George Mary Ann MADELEY 1mnths, Birmingham
d/o George & Hannah
Button Maker
093 MAINWARING
Ambrose
Ambrose Phillips MAINWARING 31 yrs, Birmingham Gentleman
094 MAINWARING
Ambrose
The said Ambrose Phillips MAINWARING last above named Gentleman
095 MALKIN Samuel William MALKIN 6 yrs, Birmingham
s/o Samuel & Susannah
Buckle Maker
096 MARINDIN Samuel Samuel MARINDIN 23 yrs, Birmingham, Merchant
097 MARCH Edward Joseph MARCH 2.5 yrs, Birmingham
s/o Edward & Maria
Grocer
098 MASON Wm. Wallis Samuel MASON 6 yrs, Birmingham
s/o Wm Wallis & Elizabeth
Merchant
099 MARTIN Henry Mary SIMSOR 21 yrs, Birmingham
d/o John (dec'd) & Sarah
 
100 MERRY John Jane Rebecca MERRY 2 yrs, Packwood,
d/o John & Mary
Gentleman
101 MOLESWORTH
Thomas
Thomas... ? MOLESWORTH 8 yrs, Birmingham, s/o Thos. & Jane Upholsterer
102 MUNTZ Philip Fredk. Mary Jane MUNTZ 4 yrs, Sellywick WOR,
d/o Phil Fredk & Catherin
Merchant
No. NAME. Details. Father's Occupation
103 PACKER Thomas Henry Thomas PACKER 15 yrs, B'ham,
s/o Thomas & Ann
Pocket Book Maker
104 PAYNE Jane Olivia PAYNE 3 yrs, Bordesley,
d/o George (dec'd) & ???
Gentleman
105 PIERCY Edward Maria SAMSON 15 yrs, Birmingham
d/o Ann wife of Edward PIERCY
 
106 PEARSON Thomas
Aris
Richard PEARSON 5 yrs, Birmingham
s/o Richard & Elizabeth
Doctor in Physic
107 PEARSON Richard Richard PEARSON 34 yrs, Birmingham Doctor in Physic
108 PEARSON Richard Elizabeth PEARSON 20 yrs, wife of Richard PEARSON (Doctor)  
109 PERKINS Henry (jun) William BELLAMY 1yr, Haseley WAR,
s/o Wm. & Hannah
Gentleman
110 PICKARD James Edward PICKARD 18 yrs, Birmingham
s/o James & Mary
Coal Merchant
111 PRATCHETT Richard Martha NOBLE 13 yrs, Bar...ing Kent,
d/o Revd Mark & Sarah
Clerk
112 PRATCHETT Richard Elizabeth CARLESS 12 yrs, Harborne STS
d/o Wm.(dec'd) & Mary
Attorney
113 PRATCHETT Richard Mary Ann CARLES 11 yrs, Harborne STS,
d/o Wm. (dec'd) & Mary
Attorney
114 PRATT Isaac Isaac PRATT 25 yrs, Birmingham, Toy Maker
115 PRICE Revd Thomas Henry PRICE 16 yrs, Birmingham
s/o Revd Thos (dec'd) & Ann
Schoolmaster
116 PRICE Theodore Charlotte PRICE 18mnths, Birmingham
d/o Theodore & Ann
Iron Founder
117 PARDEN Joseph George Fredk MUNTZ 3 yrs, Selbywick
WOR, s/o P.T & Catherine
Merchant
No. NAME. Details. Father's Occupation
118 RABONE Richard Edward RABONE 14 yrs,
Smethwick STS, s/o Richard & Ann
Merchant
119 RANDALL Joseph Eliza GILBY 3 yrs, Birmingham
d/o Wm. & Elizabeth
Doctor in Physic
120 RICHARDS Thomas Chas Smallwood RICHARDS 6 yrs,
B'ham, s/o Theophilus & Mary
Goldsmith
121 ROBBINS William Wm. ROBBINS 21 yrs, Birmingham Gentleman
122 ROBINSON Thomas Matilda Rathbone ROBINSON 3 yrs,
B'ham, d/o Thomas & Sarah
Brush Maker
123 ROGERS Samuel William ROGERS 18 yrs, Birmingham
s/o Wm. & Sally
Shoe Maker
124 RUSSELL Thomas Wm. Congrove RUSSELL 19 yrs,
Birmingham, s/o Thomas & Mary
Merchant
125 RYLAND Samuel EDMUND TOMKINS (jun) 18mnths,
Bordeseley, s/o Ed. & Mary
Toymaker
No. NAME. Details. Father's Occupation
126 SANDERS Mark? Frederick ARMITAGE 13 yrs, Aston WAR,
s/o James & Rachael
Chemist
127 SEALE John Susannah WILSON 6 yrs, Kendall WES,
d/o Margaret WILSON (widow)
 
128 SEALE George George BRAITHWAITE 13 yrs, Kendall
WES, s/o Wm. & Hannah
Farrier
129 SYLVESTER Henry Mary SYLVESTER 3 yrs, Birmingham
d/o Henry & Mary
Factor
130 SINCEOX? George Thomas Green SINCEOX? 11 yrs,
Birmingham, s/o G. & Elizabeth
Button Maker
131 SMALLWOOD
Thomas
Charles SMALLWOOD 9 yrs, Birmingham
s/o Thos. & Hannah
Wine Merchant
132 SMITH Thomas MD William ....cier? 16 yrs, Walsall STS,
s/o Wm. & Mary
Sadler
ironmonger
133 SMITH Wm Temple William Wynn? SMITH 17 yrs, Birmingham
s/o Wm. & Sarah
Toy Maker
134 SMITH Wm
Harbourne
Richard Baldwin SMITH 7 yrs, Birmingham
s/o Richard & Frances
 
135 SMITH Samuel Jane SMITH 4 yrs, Moseley WOR,
d/o Samuel & S...y
Merchant
136 SMITH Timothy Maria SMITH 4 yrs, Edgbaston
d/o Timothy & Eliza
Merchant
137 SPOONER Isaac Richard SPOONER 16 yrs, Elmdon WAR,
s/o Isaac & Barbara
Esquire
138 SPRIGG William James SPRIGG 28 yrs, Birmingham
s/o Wm. & Mary
Sonder? Maker
139 STUART Charles Mark MARSH? 21 yrs, Nottingham?
s/o Mark (sen) & Margaret
Esquire
140 STUBBS George John WESTLEY 17 yrs, Birmingham
s/o John (dec'd) & Dorothy
 
No. NAME. Details. Father's Occupation
141 TWINNEY Myles James FOOCALL? 19 yrs, Birmingham
s/o Richard & Mary
Gentleman
142 TANKARD John John TANKARD 9 yrs, Birmingham
s/o John & Henrietta
Merchant
143 TAYLOR John James TAYLOR 14 yrs, Kings Norton,
s/o John & Sarah
Esquire
144 THOMASON John Henry Benj. IDDINS 5 yrs, Birmingham
s/o John & Mary
Timber Merchant
145 THOMASON Edward EDMUND? CONEY 4 yrs, Birmingham
s/o Wm. & Elizabeth
Surgeon
146 TIMMINS James James TIMMINS 6 yrs, Harborne STS,
s/o James & Eleanor
Brass Cock
Maker
147 TWIGG Charles Elizabeth TWIGG 18 yrs, Birmingham
d/o Charles & Mary
Merchant
No. NAME. Details. Father's Occupation
148 UNDERHILL John Thomas BEDFORD 8 yrs, Droitwich WOR,
s/o John (dec'd) & Mary
Gentleman
No. NAME. Details. Father's Occupation
149 VALE Revd James William CROCKETT 8 yrs, ...sson? STS,
s/o Henry & Mary
Gentleman
150 VAUGHTON Beatrice Mary KELLY 4 yrs, St Luke's MDX,
d/o Patrick & Anne
Gentleman
151 VILLERS James Mary Lycett VILLERS 14 yrs, Handsworth
STS, d/o Simon & Eliza
Wine Merchant
No. NAME. Details. Father's Occupation
152 WALKER William Henry WALKER 18 yrs, Birmingham
s/o Wm. & Hannah
Merchant
153 WALKER William Maria WALKER 11 yrs, Birmingham
d/o Wm. & Hannah
Merchant
154 WALKER Alexander Ann WALKER 16 yrs, Birmingham
d/o Alex? & Ann
Merchant
155 WALKER Alexander Eliza WALKER 15 yrs, Birmingham
d/o Alex & Ann
Merchant
156 WALKER ....? Ann Easter WALKER 9 yrs, Birmingham
d/o ...? & Hanna?
Gentleman
157 WALKER ....? Ann Easter WALKER last above named.  
158 WARD John Elizabeth WARD 2 yrs, Birmingham
d/o John & Frances Elizabeth
Merchant
159 WARNER?? Joseph S Louisa SMALLWOOD 7 yrs, Castle
Bromwich, d/o Thos. & Hannah
Wine Merchant
160 WEBB Thomas Charles Henry TAYLOR 11 yrs,
Edgbaston, s/o Jonathan & Elizbth
Gentleman
161 WEBB Thomas Thomas WEBB 21 yrs, Birmingham, Japanner
162 WEBB Charles Ven? Thos. Lakin HAWKER? 5 yrs, Moseley
WOR, s/o Thos. Lakin & Susan
Merchant
163 WHATELY Henry P. Piddock WHATELY 1yr, Birmingham
s/o Henry Piddock & Frances
Gun Maker
164 WHATELY Thomas Charlotte Augusta 2 yrs,
d/o Prince & Princess Caroline of Wales
 
165 WHATLEY William John Welshman WHATELY 4 yrs,
Birmingham, s/o Wm. & Mary
Gentleman
166 WHATELEY John Mary WHATELY 2 yrs, Birmingham
d/o Hy. Piddock & Frances
Gun Maker
167 WILDAY Charles Charles WILDAY (jun) 17 yrs, B'ham,
s/o Charles & Mary
Victualler
168 WILMAN? Thomas Ann WILMAN? 2 yrs, Birmingham
d/o Thomas & Ann
Plater of Medals
169 WILSON James Thomas ASTON 1yr?, Birmingham
s/o Ricd? & Jane
Button Maker
170 WITHERING? William Joseph DICKENSON 21 yrs,
Birmingham, s/o Willm. & Mary
Banker
171 WITHERING William Joseph DICKENSON last above named  
172 WITHERING William George BARKER 21 yrs, Birmingham
s/o Geo. Hollington & Mary
Gentleman
173 WITHERING William The said George BARKER last
named above
 
174 WITHERING William William SPENCER? 18 yrs, Elmdon Hall,
s/o Isaac & Barbara
 
175 WITHERING William The said William SPENCER? last above named  
176 WITHERING William Ann LAWSON? 15? yrs, Tettenhal STS,
d/o Thomas & Elizabeth
Gentleman
177 WITHERING William Mary Elizabeth TAYLEOR 1yr, Market
Drayton, d/o John & Penelope
Gentleman
178 WEBB Thomas The said Thomas WEBB 38 yrs,
Birmingham
Bookseller
179 WOODCOCK Rev
Willm
Spencer MADAN? 6 yrs, Birmingham
s/o Rev Spencer & Henrietta
Clerk
180 WOOLEY James Robt Coates WOOLEY 9 yrs,
Birmingham , s/o James & Mary
..... Cutter
No. NAME. Details. Father's Occupation
181 YATES George George YATES 16 yrs, Deritend,
s/o James (dec'd) & Mary
Brass Founder

[Transcribed by the late Ted Wildy of Auckland, New Zealand, 15th November 1992.
Prepared for GENUKI by Peter Abbott]