Kendal - History
from Magna Britannica et Hibernia.Volume 6: Westmorland
by Thomas Cox (Vicar of Bromfield, Essex) 45 pages, printed in 1731.
"KENDAL, Candale, or Kirby Candale, in Latin Candalia, signifying a Vale
upon the River Can, which runs along the Valley near it in a stony Channel.
Dr. Gale will have it to be the Brovonaca of Antonius, and Cambden himself
was once of the Opinion, that it was the old Roman Station Concagi, but it
seems he altered his Opinion before he wrote his Britannia; yet his
Judgement not being infallible, others have taken the Liberty to fix them
here rather, than in any other Place, because in the Notitia it is placed,
as it were in the Middle of the northern Stations; for whereas between York
and Derwent, the Notitia speaks of fourteen Stations, the Concangii are the
Seventh, and the very next that come after it are Lavatre, which our
Antiquairies unanimously place at Bowes, a Castle upon the military Way,
upon the Edge of this County; Vertera at Burgh-Castle, and Brovoniacum at
Brougham, which are further in it; and they are the more certain of it,
because on the other Side of the River is an old square Fort, of which the
Banks and Ditches are still visible, in which are found Roman Coins, Altars,
and other Antiquities. But after all, Dr. Brady, a very skilful Person in
Things of this Nature, will have the Concangii, which was the Station of the
Prefectus numeri Vigilum, to be placed on the northern Side of the Wall, or
as others, at least nearer it, than this Town.
It is a fair, large trading Town, but of no great Antiquity, and therefore
of Note principally for its Manufactures of Cottons, Cloths, Druggets, Hats,
Stockings, etc. in which the Inhabitants have driven a good Trade, as early
as King Rich. II. And King Hen. IV for in those Reigns we find special Laws
enacted for regulating Kendal Cloths, viz. 13 Rich. II and 10 and 9 Hen.
VI., c 2. The Cloth Trade was first settled here by King Edw. III. Who
brought certain Dutchmen into England, Reg. 11. to teach the English how to
improve their Wool, and placed them in the several Counties for that
Purpose, as in Essex at Colchester, and here, and etc. It hath been
incorporated but of late Years, for Queen Elizabeth, Reg 18. first erected
it into a Corporation by the Name of Aldermen and Burgesses; but King James
I. by a new Charter incorporated them into a Body subject to a Mayor, twelve
Aldermen, and twenty-four Burgesses or Common Council Men, who have a
Recorder and other Officers subordinate to them: It hath two great Streets
crossing one another, and in them a great Market weekly on Saturdays, and
two Fairs yearly, viz. on St. Mark's Day, April 25. and on St. Simon and St.
Jude's Days, Octob 28. and between those Fairs a great Beast Market every
Fortnight. There are belonging to this Town seven trading Companies, viz.
Mercers, Sheermen, Corwainers, Tanners, Glovers, Taylors, and Pewterers,
each of whom have their Hall or Place of Meeting. The Church here is very
large, and yet hath twelve Chapels of Ease thereunto belonging. Near the
Church is a Free-School well endowed with Exhibitions for such Scholars as
having been educated at it, are sent to Queens College, Oxford.
The Lordship of this Town was most antiently in Ivo de Taylbois, who was
from it intitled, Baron of Kendal. His Heirs and Successors Ethred, Ketel,
and Gilbert inherited it, but we have no Account of them, and so must pass
to the next Heir William, who being probably Governor of Lancaster-Castle,
assumed the Surname of De Lancaster, which his Posterity ever after bore.
He had a Contest with the Abbot of Furnesse about the Boundaries of his
Barony of Kendal from the Territories of the Abbey, which was by an Accord
fixed by certain Metes and Limits, yet had Verison and Hawks allowed him out
of the Monks Parts. His Posterity for four or five Generations inherited
this Barony, till William, the third of that Name, leaving no Issue, his two
Sisters, Halewyse and Alice inherited his Estates, of which the Eldest being
married to Peter de Brus of Skelton, brought the Barony into his Family.
Her Grandson Peter de Brus becoming Baron of Kendal, made that Place his
capital Seat; but departing the Life without Issue, his four Sisters became
his Heirs, of which the Third, Margaret, being married to Robert de Ros,
having this whole Barony allotted for her Share, he, and his Posterity were
called, for Distinction sake, Ros of Kendal. Her Son William had the Castle
for his Seat, as had also his Descendants, William, Thomas, and John, but
the last of these leaving only one Daughter and Heir Elizabeth, who married
Sir William Parre, carried this Barony into his Family, who from it were
called Parrs of Kendal, after whom it falling into the King's Hands 4 Edw.
IV. it became a Title of Honour, as so the Barony was not reckoned, as
The Barons, Earls and Dukes, that have had their Titles from this Town.
John de Lancaster, third Son of King Henry IV. who in his Life-time made
him Constable of England, Governor of the Town and Castle of Berwick, and
Warden in the East Marches, was by his Brother King Hen. V. created Earl of
Kendal and Duke of Bedford. He was in the Minority of King Hen. VI
constituted chief Councillor and Protector of England as long as he lived;
but after his Death, which happened 14 Hen. VI. It revolved by Degrees to
Charles the Dauphin, who called himself all along King of France. He died
possessed of many great Estates, and among others of this Town with its
Members, and the Forest of Troutbeck, and the three Parks there,
Troutbeck-Park, Colt Park, and Cals-Garth, and was buried in the Church of
Notre Dame at Roan, under a plain marble Tomb. He left no Issue and so the
Honour for a Time became vacant, and this Lordship returned to the Crown.
John Beaufort, descended of John of Gaunt by his last Wife, the Lady
Katharine Swinford, his Father having in the 20 Rich. II. Been created Earl
of Somerset and Marquis of Dorset, was 21 Hen. VI. Created Duke of Somerset
and Earl of Kendal, and by that Title Lieutenant and Captain General of the
whole Realm of France. He served that King in his French Wars that Year,
but died the next, being then seized of this Barony. He left only one
Daughter Margaret for his Heir, who marrying to Edmund of Hadham, Earl of
Richmond, carried this great Estate into his Family, to which King Hen. VII.
Was Heir; but it seems that the Barony remained in the King's Hands, and was
a little after, 24 Hen. VI. Conferred on
John de Foix, Son of Gauston de Foix, Earl of Benanges, and Knight of
the Garter. This John having married Margaret, Neice of William de la Pole,
Duke of Suffolk, a powerful Man with King Henry VI. Was by the Duke's
Procurement made Earl of Kendal, and endowed with great Possessions in
England, as well as in his own Nation in Guien. Some of his Family still
remaining in France, call themselves Earls of Longuevile and Kendal.
William Parr, Descendant of that Sir William Parr, who married
Elizabeth, the daughter and Heir of Thomas Ros, Baron of Kendal, 14 Rich.
II. And Son of Sir Thomas Parr, being Squire of the Body to King Hen. VIII.
And Ranger of the Bailiwicks of Brigstock and Rockingham, was in the
thirtieth Year of that King created Baron of Kendale; and when that King,
five Years after, married his Sister, the Lady Katharine Parr, he was
created Earl of Essex; and because he was one of those whom the same Prince
associated with his Executors for their Assistance in Matters of the
greatest Importance, he was by King Edw. VI. Further created Marquis of
Northampton. He died without Issue, whereupon the Herberts, Earls of
Pembroke, descended from the Lady Anne his Sister, succeeded to his Rights
and Interests, and at this Day have the Title of Baron Ros of Kendal and
Charles Stuart, third Son of his Royal Highness, James, Duke of York,
(afterwards King James II) soon after he was born, was declared Duke of
Kendal, anno 1666, but died the next Year after, and the Title lay dormant
above twenty Years.
George, Prince of Denmark, having married the Lady Anne (afterwards
Queen Anne) the youngest Daughter of James, Duke of York, was created by
King William III. And Queen Mary II. April 9, 1689. Duke of Cumberland, Earl
of Kendal, and Baron of Ockingham, with Precendancy of all Dukes by Act of
Parliament; and at the same Time, or soon after, made Lord High Admiral of
Great Britain and Ireland. He died Octob. 28. 1708. universally lamented,
having been eminently instrumental in the Revolution, and settling King
William on the Throne, and having shewed on all Occasions an hearty
Affection to the Protestant Religion, and true Interest of Britain. After
his Death the Title was again laid aside for a few Years, till at length
Melisina Evengart Schulanberg, a German Lady, who came over into England
with his Majesty King George I. having been before created Dutchess of
Munster in Ireland, was further honoured by the same King with the Dignity
of Baroness of Glassenbury, Countess of Feversham, and Dutchess of Kendal.
She attended King George in his last Journey to Hanover, in which he died,
and is now living in 1727.
Persons of Note born in, or inhabiting this Town.
Katharine Parr, Daughter of Sir Thomas Parr, was born at the Castle of this
Town, the prime Seat of this Barony, devolved to her Family from the Ros's,
as has been shewn above; she was first married to George Nevil Lord Latimer,
and afterwards to King Hen. VIII. Who chose her for his Wife upon the
Account of her great Repute for her Fidelity to her former Husaband. She
was a great Favourer of the Gospel Doctrines then reviving, and sometimes in
Dispute spoke such Things against the King's Opinions (for he held the six
Popish Points) as did not a little Displease him; insomuch as we are told by
a Jesuit, that the King intended to have beheaded her for an Heritic, had he
lived longer, but without Proof; she afterwards married Thomas Seymer, Baron
Sudeley, Lord High Admiral of England, and died in Child bed of a Daughter,
Barnaby Potter, born within this Barony, Anno 1578, and having been
educated in Queens College, Oxford, became Scholar, Fellow, and at length
Provost thereof, by the unanimous Consent of the Fellows, when he was at his
Cure in Totness in Devon, and never thought of, much less fought it. He
held it about ten Years, and then resigned it (being one of the King's
Chaplains) and by his Interest got his Nephew Christopher Potter to succeed
him. From the University he resorted to the Court, where he at first
attended on Prince Charles, and was accounted the penitential Preacher
there. When the Prince came to the Throne he was made Bishop of Carlisle,
notwithstanding there were other Suitors for it, and he ne'er fought for it.
He was consecrated at Ely house in Holborn, London, and being a constant
Preacher, and a devout Man in his Family, was commonly called, The
Puritanical Bishop. He died in Honour, being the last Bishop that died a
Member of Parliament, for soon after the Rest of the Bishops were excluded,
viz. in 1642, and was buried in the Parish of St. Paul's Covent Garden,
London. He has some Lectures and Sermons in Print.
Richard Kendal, whose Name points out his Original. He was an
excellent Grammarian, and was thought the best Instructor of Youth in his
Age. He made a vast Collection of Grammars, that he might by Extracting out
of them their Quintessence, be compleat in that Art, in which, as he
excelled in Knowledge, he did too much in Conceit; for he publickly boasted,
that no Man could make elegant Latin, but by his Rules; a proud and
pedantick Expression. He flourished in the Reign of King Hen. VI.
Christopher Potter, Nephew of the above-mentioned Barnaby Potter. He
was educated in Queens College, Oxford, where he became Fellow and Provost,
Being a Lecturer at Abingdon in Berkshire, he was accounted a Puritan, and
being in Archbishop Laud's Favour, an Arminian. He was made King Charles I'
s Chaplain in 1635, and soon after was preferred to the Deanery of
Worcester; he was also nominated to a Canonry of Windsor and the Deanery of
Durham, but never enjoyed the, because the Dissentions between King and
Parliament began: He was a very religious and exemplary Person, a learned
Man in general, and a Champion against Popery, as he shewed in his Writings
against Knot the Jesuit, whom Mr. Chillingworth encountered afterwards. He
died in Queens College, March 3, 1645-6. and lies buried in the Middle of
the inner Chapel.
George Wharton was descended of an antient and wealthy Family in this
Town, and after his School-Education sojourned in Oxford, but never became a
Member of any College; his Temper not allowing him to digest Logick and
Philosophy, but wholly leading him to Astronomy and Mathematicks. From the
University he retired to his Patrimony, and following his Genius, published
Almanacks under the Name of George Naworth of West-Awkland. But the
Troubles coming on, he grew discontented, and selling his Patrimony, raised
a gallant Troop of Horse, and engaged boldly in his Majesty's Cause but
without Success; for joining with Sir Jacob Altley, whose Forces were
totally routed at Stow on the Would in Glocestshire, he fled to Oxford, his
Majesty's chief Quarters at that Time, and there in Recompence for his Loss,
obtained the Place of Pay-master of the Magazine and Artillery. After
Oxford was surrendered, he was put to his Shifts, and lived chiefly by
writing Pamphlets; which gave such Offence to the Men in Power, that he was
often in Prison; but at length the King's Restoration brought him not only
Liberty but Preferment, being made Treasurer and Pay-master to his Majesty's
Ordnance, in which Office he was so great a Gainer, that he purchased an
Estate, and in Consideration of his Losses and Services was created a
Baronet Dec 17, 1677, which Dignity his Posterity enjoy. He died at his
House in Enfield, Middlesex, Aug. 10, 1681, and was buried in the Chapel of
the Tower, London."
Magna Britannica et Hibernia.Volume 6: Westmorland
by Thomas Cox (Vicar of Bromfield, Essex) 45 pages, printed in 1731.
Transcription by Sarah Reveley, Joan Fisher and Lisl Schoenwald.
(Rootsweb Westmorland Listmembers) © 2003