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Help and advice for YORK: Geographical and Historical information from the year 1835.

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YORK: Geographical and Historical information from the year 1835.

"YORK, a parish in the Ainsty of the city, a city, borough, a market town, and county of itself, having exclusive jurisdiction, locally in the East riding of the county of YORK, of which it is the capital, 198 miles N.N.W. from London, containing 20,787 inhabitants. The origin of this ancient city, in Nennius' catalogue called Caer Ebrauc, is involved in obscurity, and the etymology of its name is also uncertain. According to Llwyd, the learned Welch antiquary, it is identified with the city called by the Britons Caer Effloc, and, among the towns of the Brigantes mentioned by Ptolemy, with the Eboracum of the Romans. The latter name is probably a modification of the former, on its becoming the station of the sixth legion, sent into Britain by Adrian. The early importance of the city must unquestionably be attributed to the Romans, who fixed a colony here, and made this the metropolis of their empire in Britain. The Emperor Adrian fixed his principal station in this city, in 124, while engaged in restraining the incursions of the northern hordes. In the reign of Commodus, the Caledonians having made a successful irruption into Britain, attacked and routed the Roman army, and laid waste the open country as far as the city of York; but Marcellus Ulpius, who had been sent over from Rome, aided by the ninth legion, at that time stationed in the city, quickly routed them with great slaughter, and drove them back within their own territory. The Emperor Severus, in the fourteenth year of his reign, finding that the city of York was besieged by the northern Britons, came over into Britain, with his sons Caracalla and Geta and a numerous army, and attended by his whole court; the besiegers, on his approach, retired towards the north, and intrenched themselves behind the rampart which his predecessor Adrian had constructed, to defend the inhabitants from their assaults. The emperor, leaving his son Geta in the city to administer justice during his absence, advanced with Caracalla to give them battle, and, though from age and infirmity obliged to be carried in a litter, routed them with great slaughter; and leaving Caracalla to complete his victory, and to superintend the erection of a strong wall of stone, nearly eighty miles in length, which he ordered to be built near the rampart of earth raised by Adrian, as a more effectual barrier against their future incursions, returned to York, where he spent the remainder of his days. The Caledonians again taking up arms, Severus sent out his legions with positive instructions to give no quarter, but to put men, women, and children indiscriminately to the sword. During this period the city was in its highest degree of splendour; the residence of the court, and the resort of numerous tributary kings and foreign ambassadors, conferred upon it a distinction almost unsurpassed among the cities of the world, and obtained for it the appellation of "Alter a Roma," to which city, in these respects more than in any fancied resemblance of design, it might not unaptly have been compared. Severus died in his palace here, in 212, and his funeral obsequies were performed with great solemnity on the west side of the city, near Ackham; in the immediate vicinity of the spot are three natural sandhills, called Severus' hills, upon which the ceremony is supposed to have been performed: his remains were deposited in a costly urn, and sent to Rome, where they were placed in the sepulchre of his ancestors. Constantius Chlorus, another of the Roman emperors who resided for some time in Britain, died also in this city, in. 307. His son, Constantino the Great, who at the time of his father's death was at York, was proclaimed emperor by the army. Of the grandeur of the city during its occupation by the Romans, numerous vestiges have been discovered, and various remains of Roman architecture have been found. Of these, the principal are, a polygonal tower, with the south wall of the Mint yard; a votive altar to the tutelar genius of the place; an altar, dedicated to the household and other gods by Elius Marcianus; a cemetery without Micklegate Bar, in which many urns, containing ashes and burnt bones, have been recently dug up; also a small coffin of red clay and a leaden coffin, of large dimensions, enclosed with oak; besides numerous coins and various other relics. After the departure of the Romans from Britain, the city suffered greatly from the depredations of the Scots and Picts, by whom it was frequently assailed; and after the arrival of the Saxons it experienced considerable devastation in the wars which arose between the Britons and their new allies, in the many contests for empire during the establishment of the several kingdoms of the Octarchy, and in the mutual wars of their several monarchs for the extension of their territories. By the Saxons the city was called Euro wic, Euore wic, and Eofor wic, all descriptive of its situation on the river Ouse, which, according to Leland, was at that time called the Eure; and from these Saxon appellations its present name is most probably contracted. Edwin, King of Northumbria, made this place the metropolis of his kingdom, and upon his conversion to Christianity, soon after his marriage with Ethelburga, daughter of Ethelbert, King of Kent, in 624, erected it into an archiepiscopal see, of which he made Paulinus, Ethelburga's confessor, primate. This monarch founded a church, which he dedicated to St. Peter, and his example in embracing the Christian faith was followed by vast numbers of his subjects, who, under the influence of Paulinus' ministry, were converted to Christianity. On the death of Edwin, who was killed in battle in 633, while resisting an attack of the Britons under Cadwallo, assisted by Penda, King of Mercia, the city suffered severely from the ravages of the confederated armies, who devastated it with fire and sword, and massacred the inhabitants. Ethelburga fled into Kent, accompanied by Paulinus; and the newly-erected church, which was scarcely finished, lay neglected for some time, till it was restored by Oswald, Edwin's successor, who, collecting a small army, after a fierce and sanguinary conflict, slew Cadwallo and the chief of his officers, and regained possession of his kingdom. After the union of the several kingdoms of the Octarchy, York again became a place of importance, and in the ninth century was the seat of commerce and of literature, as far as they then prevailed in the kingdom. During the Danish incursions it was reduced to ashes, and having been rebuilt, it finally became one of the principal settlements of those rapacious invaders, who kept possession of it till Athelstan attacked and expelled them from the city, and demolished the castle which they had erected for their defence. In the peaceful times which followed, the city gradually recovered, and continued to flourish till the Conquest, at which time, according to the Norman survey, it contained six shires, exclusively of the archbishop's; one of these lay waste in consequence of the demolition of the castles, in the other five were one thousand four hundred and twentyeight houses, and in the archbishop's two hundred houses. William the Conqueror placed strong garrisons in the two castles which remained, both to overawe the inhabitants, and to protect the city from the attempts of the Saxon nobility, who, refusing to submit to his government, had gone over into Denmark, to incite Sweyn, king of that country, to invade Britain for the recovery of a throne which had descended to him from his ancestors. In 1069, Sweyn sent his two sons, Harold and Canute, with two hundred and forty ships and a numerous army, who, having arrived in the Humber, disembarked their forces and advanced to York, laying waste the country through which they marched: on their arrival before the city they were joined by Edgar Atheling, who, with a large number of the English exiles, had arrived from Scotland for the same purpose. The garrison, to prevent them from fortifying themselves in the suburbs, set fire to the houses; but the wind being high, the flames communicated to the city, and during the consternation of the inhabitants, the enemy entered and made themselves masters of it. The successful Danes then proceeded northward, and after subduing the greater part of Northumberland, finding their further progress arrested by the severity of the winter, returned to York, where they took up their winter quarters. William was unable, from the severity of the weather, to bring an army against them till the spring, when he advanced with his forces and encamped near the confluence of the rivers Humber and Trent, and, after a severe and obstinate battle, obtained a triumphant victory; Harold and Canute escaped, with a few of their principal officers, to their ships, antt Edgar Atheling, with great difficulty, effected his retreat into Scotland. William, attributing the first success of the Danes to the treachery of the citizens, toot signal vengeance on them, burnt the city, and lam waste the neighbouring country, which, from the Humber to the Tyne, remained for several years in a state of desolation. From this signal calamity York gradually recovered in the two succeeding reigns. Archbishop Thomas repaired the cathedral, for temporary use, by covering the remaining walls with a roof, and afterwards, finding that they had been essentially injured by the fire, he pulled them down and rebuilt the church. Though continually exposed to the assaults of the Scots, it continued progressively to advance in importance and, in 1088, a splendid monastery, for monks of the Benedictine order, was erected and dedicated to St. Mary, of which William Rufus laid the first stone. In the reign of Stephen the city was almost entirely consumed by an accidental fire, which is stated to have destroyed the cathedral, the monastery, with some other religious houses, and thirty-nine parish churches. In 1138, David, King of Scotland, whom Matilda had engaged in her interest, by a promise of ceding to him the county of Northumberland, laid siege to York; but Archbishop Thurstan, though at that time confined to his bed by illness, assembled the nobility and gentry, who, under the conduct of Ralph, Bishop of Durham, his deputy, advanced against him, and put him to flight with considerable loss. In the reign of Henry II., one of the first meetings distinguished in history by the name of Parliament was held here in 1169, at which William, King of Scotland, accompanied by all his barons, abbots, and prelates, attended, and did homage to Henry in the cathedral, acknowledging him and his successors his superior lords. In the reign of Richard I, a general massacre of the resident Jews took place, under circumstances of peculiar atrocity: the fury of the populace had first been excited against them for mingling with the crowd at the king's coronation in London, and in spite of a proclamation in their favour by the king, the same spirit of persecution manifested itself in many of the large towns, especially in York, where many of the victims, having taken refuge in the castle, after defending it for some time against their assailants, perished by their own hands, after putting their wives and children to death. In 1221, Alexander, King of Scotland, who the year before had met Henry III. at York, had another interview with that monarch here, when he espoused the Lady Joan, sister of the king, and at the same time Hubert de Berg married the Lady Margaret, sister of Alexander; these marriages were both solemnized in the city, in presence of the king. In 1237, Cardinal Otto, the pope's legate, negociated a peace between the Icings of England and Scotland, who met here for that purpose; and, in 1252, Alexander III., King of Scotland, came to York, attended by a large retinue of his nobility, and celebrated his marriage with Margaret, daughter of Henry III. Upon this occasion considerable festivities took place; the Scottish king, with his retinue, was lodged in a separate part of the city appropriated to their use, and he and twenty of his principal attendants received the honour of knighthood. In the reign of Edward I., a parliament was held here which was attended by most of the barons and principal nobility; the great charter, with the charter of forests, was renewed with great solemnity, and the Bishop of Carlisle pronounced a curse upon all who should attempt to violate it. The Scottish lords, who were summoned to attend this parliament, not making their appearance, the English lords decreed that an army should be sent, under the command of the Earl of Surrey, to relieve Roxburgh, which the Scots were at that time besieging. After the battle of Bannockburn, in 1315, Edward II. came to York, and held a council, in which it was decreed to send a force for the defence of Berwick, then threatened with siege by Robert Bruce; and, in 1322, the Earl of Hereford, who, with the Earl of Lancaster, had rebelled against the king, having been killed at Boroughbridge, by Adam de Hercla, who had been sent against him, his body was conveyed hither, where also many of his partizans were hanged, drawn, and quartered. After the suppression of this rebellion, which had been excited to free the kingdom from the influence of the De Spencers, the king held a parliament in this city, in which the decree, made in the preceding year at London, for alienating their estates, was reversed, and the elder Spencer created Earl of Winchester. At this parliament the several ordinances made at different times were examined, and such of them as were confirmed were, by the king's order, directed to be called statutes; the clergy of the province of York granted the king a subsidy of fourpence in each mark, and Edward, the king's son, was created Prince of Wales and Duke of Aquitaine. After the breaking up of the parliament, Aymer de Valence was arrested, on his retxirn, by order of the king, and brought back into the city, on a charge of having secretly abetted the barons in their rebellion against the king, and of having contributed to excite the late disturbances; but, upon the intercession of several noblemen, he was released, on payment of a fine, and taking an oath of fidelity and allegiance to the king. This monarch, having collected an army to oppose Robert Bruce, who was then desolating the English border, was surprised by the enemy, and with difficulty escaped into the city. In the beginning of the reign of Edward III., the Scots having sent three armies to lay waste the English border, and take possession of the adjoining counties, the king collected an army, with which he marched to York, where he was soon after joined by Lord John Beaumont, of Hainault, with a considerable body of forces. The Scots, being informed of these preparations, sent ambassadors to York, to negociate a treaty of peace; upon the failure of which, Edward advanced against them with his army, and enclosing them in Stanhope Park, had nearly made them prisoners. By the treachery of Roger Mortimer, who opened a road for their escape, they, however, withdrew their forces, and Sir William Douglas assaulting Edward's camp by night, nearly succeeded in killing the king, but, on the failure of his attempt, the Scots, after doing what mischief they could, retreated within their own territories. Beaumont, after receiving an ample reward for his services, returned to his own dominions, and a marriage was soon after negociated between his niece and the king, which was solemnized at York, in 1327. After the battle of Hallidown Hill, in 1333, Edward retired to York, where he held a parliament, in which Edward Balliol, whose cause he had embraced in opposition to David Bruce, was summoned to attend him; but Balliol, having sent messengers to excuse his attendance, afterwards met theking at Newcastle. In 1335, Edward took up his residence in the monastery of the Holy Trinity in this city, and held a council, in which the Bishop of Durham, then Chancellor, resigned the great seal into his hands, and he immediately delivered it to the Archbishop of Canterbury, who took the usual oaths of office in the presence of the council, and on the same day proceeded to the church of the monastery of the Blessed Mary, where he affixed it to several deeds. Richard II., while on his expedition against the Scots, in 1385, passed some time in this city, which he also visited in 1389, in order to adjust some differences that had arisen between the ecclesiastical and civil authorities. On this occasion the monarch took his own sword from his side, and presented it to William de Selby, the mayor, to be borne in all public processions before him and his successors, whom he dignified with the title of Lord Mayor, which honour has been ever since retained, and is possessed by no other city, except those of London and Dublin. This monarch, in the nineteenth year of his reign, erected the city into a county of itself, and appointed two sheriffs, in lieu of the three bailiffs that previously formed a part of the corporation, and presented the first mace to the city, and a cap of maintenance to the sword-bearer: during this reign, Edmund Langley, fifth son of Edward III., was created the first Duke of York. In the reign of Henry IV., the Earl of Northumberland and Lord Bardolph, who, after the defeat of an insurrection against that monarch, headed by the Earl of Nottingham and the Archbishop of York, had retired into Scotland, raised some forces in that country, and made an irruption into the northern part of the kingdom; but Sir Thomas Rokesby, sheriff of Yorkshire, having levied some forces, defeated them in a battle in which both those noblemen were slain; and the king, marching into York, found several of the earl's adherents in the city, of whom some were ransomed and others punished; the earl's head was severed from his body, and, being sent to London, was fixed upon the bridge. During the war between the houses of York and Lancaster, this city was occasionally connected with the contending parties, and though not actually the seat of war, several of the battles took place in the neighbourhood. In the reign of Henry VI., Edward, Duke of York, who had raised an army in support of his claim to the crown, was killed in the battle of Wakefield, and his body being afterwards found among the slain, the head was struck off by order of Queen Margaret, and fixed upon the gate of York, with a paper crown upon it, in derision of his pretended title. In 1461, soon after the assumption of the crown by Edward IV., Queen Margaret, having levied an army of sixty thousand men, made another effort to regain the crown, and advancing towards York, was met by Edward and the Earl of Warwick, with forty thousand men; the armies met at Towton, and a sanguinary battle ensued, in which thirty-six thousand seven hundred and seventy-six men are said to have been slain. During the engagement, Henry and Margaret remained in the city of York, but, on hearing of the total defeat of their army, fled with great precipitation into Scotland. After the restoration of Henry VI., Edward IV. landed at Ravenspur in Yorkshire, in 1471, and advanced to York without oppo sition. On his arrival he hesitated to enter the gates, for fear of treachery; but being informed by the mayor and citizens, that, provided he sought only to recover his dukedom of York, and not to lay his hand upon the crown, he might enter with safety, he took up his abode there, after swearing to a priest, who met him on his entrance, to treat the citizens with courtesy, and to be faithful and obedient to the king., Having remained at York for some time, he left a garrison in the city and marched towards London; and meeting with the army of the Earl of Warwick, near Barnet, a sanguinary battle took place, in which the earl, his brother, and several of his principal officers, were slain, and Edward, after this victory, was peaceably established on the throne. Richard III. arrived at York in 1483, and was crowned with great solemnity and pomp in the cathedral church, by Archbishop Rotherane. In 1503, Margaret, eldest daughter of Henry VII., visited the city, in which she remained for some days. In the reign of Henry VIII. the art of printing was first established in York, by Hugo Goes, the son of an ingenious printer at Antwerp. At the time of the dissolution of monasteries, during this reign, there were in the city of York, besides the cathedral, forty-one parish churches, seventeen chapels, sixteen hospitals, and, nine,religious houses, including the monastery of St. Mary: with the suppression of the monasteries, ten parish churches were demolished, and their revenues and materials appropriated to secular uses. In consequence of these proceedings, the insurrection called the Pilgrimage of Grace originated in Yorkshire, and in a short time forty thousand men, headed by Robert Aske, and attended by priests with sacred banners, took possession; of this city and of Hull. The Duke of Norfolk being sent against them, they were ultimately dispersed, their, principal leaders were taken and executed, and Aske was brought to York, where he was hanged upon Clifford's tower. After the suppression of this insurrection, Henry made a tour through the county, on the border, of which he was met by twohundred of the principal gentry, with four thousand of the yeomanry on horseback, who made, their submission to the king, by Sir Matthew Bowes, their speaker, and presented him with £900: on his advance towards the city from Barnsdale, the abbot of York, attended by three hundred priests, went out to meet him, and presented him with £600; and on his entering it, the lord mayor,with the mayors of Newcastle and Hull, who had repaired to York to meet him, received him with great pomp and ceremony, and in token pf their submission presented him with £100 each, Henry remained at York for twelve days, and established there a president and cpjincil, under the great seal of qyer andterminer, and, after making several other arrangements, departed for Hull, where he threw up some additional fortifications. During the reign of Elizabeth, an insurrection to restore the Roman Catholic religion was headed by Thomas Percy, Earl of Northumberland, and Charles Neville, Earl of Westmorland, on the failure of which, Simon Digby of Askew, and John Fulthorpe of Iselbeck, Esqrs., who had been made prisoners, were taken from York Castle to Knaveshire, where they were executed. The Earl of West- morland escaped out of the country, but the Earl of Northumberland, being taken prisoner,and attainted, by parliament, was beheaded at York, and his head placed on the Micklegate bar. James I. resided for some time at the manor palace in this city and, in 1633, Charles I. visited York, where, in 1639, he held a council at the palace, and made the city the chief rendezvous of the troops destined to march against the Scottish rebels. During his visit, the king, who was then thirty-nine years of age, ordered the Bishops of Ely and Winchester to wash the feet of thirty-nine beggars, first in warm water, and afterwards with wine, which ceremony was performed in the south aisle of the cathedral. The king afterwards gave to each of them a purse containing thirty-nine silver pence, several articles of wearing apparel, and a quantity of wine and provisions. Before leaving the city, he dined with the lord mayor and corporation, and expressed his satisfaction at the hospitality with which he had been entertained, by conferring the honour of knighthood on the lord mayor and the recorder. While Charles remained here, the Scots demanded an audience to express their grievances, and ultimately succeeded in obtaining a treaty of peace, after which the king disbanded his army, and returned to London. Previously to the commencement of the parliamentary war, the king, to avoid the importunity of the parliament, who petitioned for the exclusive control of the militia, and for other privileges subversive of the royal authority, removed to this city, and was received by the inhabitants, with every demonstration pf loyalty and affection. He sent a message to both houses of parliament, and afterwards advanced to Hull, to secure the magazine which had been left in that town, upon the disbanding of the army raised to oppose the Scots; but, on being denied admission by Sir John Hbtham, the parliamentary governor, he returned to York. The parliament soon after appointed a commission to reside in the city, to strengthen their party, and to watch the movements of the king; and on their passing an ordinance for embodying the militia, the king ordered his friends to meet him in this city, whither he directed the several courts to be in future adjourned. The Lord-Keeper Littleton, being ordered by the parliament not to issue the writs, apparently obeyed; but on the first opportunity made his escape to York, and bringing with him the great seal, joined the royal party, for which he was afterwards proclaimed by the parliament a traitor and a felon. On the 27th of May, 1642, the king issued a proclamation, dated from his court at York, appointing a public meeting of the nobility and gentry of the neighbourhood to be held at Heworth moor, on the 3rd of June, This meeting was attended by more than seventy thousand persons, who, on his Majesty's approach, accompanied by his son, Prince Charles, and one hundred and fifty knights in complete armour, and attended with a guard of eight hundred infantry, greeted him with the loudest acclamations of loyalty and respect. The king, in a short address, explained the particulars of the situation in which he was placed, and thanking them for their assurances of loyalty and attachment, returned to the city, where, after keeping his court for more than five months, during which time every attempt at negotiation had failed, he advanced to Nottingham, and there erected his standard. In 1644, the parliamentary army, under Sir Thomas Fairfax, the Earl of Leven, and the Earl of Manchester, besieged the city, which was defended by the Marquis of Newcastle, and in a state of great distress; but hearing that Prince Rupert was approaching with an army to its relief, they raised the siege, and encamped on Marston moor, about six miles from York, where they awaited the arrival of the royalists. The armies, which were nearly equal in number, each consisting of about twenty-five thousand men, met on the 2nd of July, when, after a long and sanguinary engagement, the royalists were defeated; the parliamentarians, after this signal victory, returned to the siege of York, which, having held out nearly four months, surrendered upon honourable terms. On the 1st of January, 1645, the great convoy, under the conduct of General Sldppon, arrived at York with the sum of £200,000, which, according to treaty, was paid to the Scots for surrendering to the parliament the person of the unfortunate monarch, who, relying upon their fidelity, had entrusted himself to their protection. After the Restoration, Charles II. was proclaimed here with triumphant rejoicings. York was connected with several of the proceedings which led to the Revolution of 1688: James II. had attempted to introduce the Roman Catholic religion into the city, and for this purpose had converted one of the large rooms in the manor palace into a chapel, in which the service was performed according to the Romish ritual. This attempt, together with some arbitrary proceedings on the part of the court, gave great offence to the citizens; and in a general meeting appointed to vote a loyal address to the king, on the rumoured landing of the Prince of Orange, they resolved to add to their address a petition for a free parliament and redress of grievances. On the 19th of November, the Duke of Newcastle, lord-lieutenant of the county, arrived in the city to preside at a county meeting for the same purpose; but finding that several of the deputylieutenants had joined with the citizens in their petition, retired the next day in disgust. The meeting took place ha the guildhall, where a petition was framed in addition to the address; but during the proceedings, a rumour being raised of an insurrection of the papists, the party rushed from the hall, and, headed by some gentlemen on horseback, advanced towards the troops of militia, at that time on parade, crying out "A free parliament, the Protestant religion, and No Popery." The militia immediately joined them, and having secured the governor and the few regular troops then in the city, they placed guards at the several entrances leading into the town. On the following day they summoned a public meeting, passed resolutions, and issued a declaration explanatory of their proceedings. On the 24th they attacked, plundered, and destroyed the houses belonging to the principal Roman Catholics in the city, together with their chapels; and, on the 14th of December, a congratulatory address was voted, by the lord mayor and corporation, to the Prince of Orange, who, with his consort, were proclaimed on the 17th of February, by the title of King William and Queen Mary, amidst general acclamation. During the rebellion in 1745, the inhabitants raised four companies of infantry, called the York Blues, for the protection of the city against the attempts of the insurgents. In 1789, their Royal Highnesses the Prince of Wales and the Duke of York visited the races, on the conclusion of which they entered Earl Fitzwilliam's carriage, and were drawn into the city by the populace, who took the horses from the carriage, amidst the loud congratulation of the assembled inhabitants. On the 2nd of February, 1829, the inhabitants were greatly alarmed by the appearance of smoke issuing from the roof of the cathedral, and, on inspection, had the mortification to find that the choir of that beautiful structure was in flames. Every possible assistance was immediately obtained, but the beautiful tabernacle work, the roof, and every thing combustible in that part of the church, were destroyed, and several of the piers and the finer masonry materially injured. This lamentable destruction, which was regarded as a national calamity, was the work of a lunatic, who had secreted himself for that purpose in the cathedral, after the performance of the evening service, and, under the influence of a fanatical delusion, set fire to this magnificent pile. Within a very short time after, a sum of £50,000 was subscribed, principally within the county, which, with the addition of well-seasoned timber of the value of £5000, contributed by government from the royal dock yards, will, it is calculated, be sufficient for the restoration of the building. The city is pleasantly situated on the bank of the river Ouse, near its confluence with the Foss, and is nearly three miles in circumference; it is almost surrounded with walls erected at an early period, and restored in the reign of Edward I., and defended by four ancient gates, forming the principal entrances. Of these, Micklegate Bar, to the south-west, affords an entrance from Tadcaster; Bootham Bar, to the north-west, from the Edinburgh road; Monk Bar, to the north-east, from Malton and Scarborough; and Walmgate Bar, on the south-east, affording an entrance from Beverley and Hull. Terminating that part of the wall which extends from Walmgate Bar, on the north-west, to the edge of the marsh formed by the waters of the Foss and other smaller streams, is the Red Tower, built of brick; the inner face of this part of the wall presents a series of arches, and the same are seen in other parts. Besides these principal gates, there were five posterns, or smaller entrances, which took their names from the streets and parts of the city to which they led, and were severally called North-street, Skeldergate, Castlegate, Fishergate, and Layerthorpe posterns; but Skel- dergate and Castlegate posterns have been removed. There are six bridges, of which the principal, over the river Ouse, was begun in 1810, and completed in 1820, at an expense of £80,000; it is a handsome and substantial structure of three arches of freestone, forming a communication between the parts of the city which are on opposite sides of the river. A handsome stone bridge has been erected over the Foss, of which the first stone was laid in 1811; and over the same river are four other bridges, affording communication with the suburbs. The city is divided into four wards, which take their names from the principal gates, and, under the superintendence of forty commissioners, who are triennially chosen under the provisions of an act of parliament obtained in 1825, is rapidly undergoing considerable improvement. The city is well paved, lighted with gas by a company whose extensive works were erected in 1824, and amply sup- plied with water by the York Company's water-works. Of the ancient castle, erected by William the Conqueror, there remains only the mount, thrown up with prodi- gious labour, on which is an ancient circular building, called Clifford's tower, appearing to have been the keep, which was reduced to its present ruinous condition by an accidental fire in 1685. The ancient fortress, after it was dismantled by Cromwell, remained in a dilapidated state for several years; its site is now occupied by the county prison. The subscription library was established, in 1794, by a small number of proprietary subscribers, which at present amounts to about five hundred, who are admitted by ballot, and pay an annual subscription of £1.6.; the library contains a well- assorted collection in every department of literature, at present exceeding ten thousand volumes. A handsome building was erected for the purpose in 1811, of which the ground-floor is occupied by a subscription news-room, well furnished with periodical publications, and supported by a company of two hundred subscribers, each of whom has the privilege of introducing a visitor, if not resident within the city. There are also two other subscription news-rooms, one called the Sorb Clubroom, and the other the Commercial News-room, both of which are well supported. The Philosophical Society was instituted in 1822, and at present consists of more than three hundred members, who are elected by ballot; the institution, among other subjects, embraces the geology, natural history, and antiquities of the county. Its meetings were held, and the museum deposited, in a house at theextremity of Ousebridge; but a handsome and commodious building has been recently erected for the use of the society, on part of the site of the venerable abbey of St. Mary, by voluntary subscription of the members of the society, assisted by the noblemen and gentlemen of the county: it is in the Grecian style of architecture, and of the Ionic order, and is surrounded by about three acres of land laid out as a botanic garden, and ornamented with shrubberies, pleasure grounds, and plantations. The meetings of the society, which are in general well attended, are held on the first Tuesdays in January, February, March, April, July; October, November, and December. The theatre was erected in 1769, and, in 1822, was considerably enlarged, greatly improved, and elegantly fitted up; it is brilliantly lighted with gas, and is opened by the York company of comedians, in the first week, in March, and continues open till the first week in May; the company also perform during the assizes and the race week. Concerts and assemblies are held periodically, during the winter season, in a splendid suite of rooms in Blake-street, erected after a design by Lord Burlington, in 1730, upon a scale of sumptuous magnificence, unparalleled in any town in the kingdom; the entrance is by an elegant vestibule, thirty-two feet long and twenty-one feet high, into the principal room, which is one hundred and twelve feet in length, forty feet wide, and forty feet in height, ornamented in the lower, part with a range of Corinthian columns and an enriched cornice, from which rises a series of the Composite order, surmounted by an appropriate cornice, and decorated with wreaths of fruit and foliage: this room is lighted by thirteen brilliant chandeliers suspended from the ceiling, each of which consists of eighteen branches. On the right hand of the large room is a smaller, in which the subscription assemblies are held, of which there are generally six or seven, and the subscription concerts, of which there are generally four, during the season, exclusively of benefit concerts, and the assize and race balls, which are held in the larger room; the smaller room, which is elegantly fitted up, is sixty-six feet in length, and twenty-two feet wide, and the ceiling is richly ornamented: there are also other apartments, and anterooms, forming, altogether, a splendid suite. The new concert rooms, adjoining the old assembly-rooms, were erected, in 1824, at an expense of nearly £7000, and form an elegant building, the first stone of which was laid by the Right Hon. William Dunslay, lordmayor: the principal room is ninety-two feet long, sixty feet wide, and forty-five feet high, and will afford accommodation for one thousand eight hundred persons. The York musical festival was instituted in 1823, and has been liberally patronised, not only by the nobility and gentry, resident in the county, but also by families of the highest distinction in every part of the kingdom. The nave of the spacious cathedral is fitted up on these occasions for the performance of sacred music: the orchestra combines the united talents of the metropolis with the professional skill of every other part, of the kingdom, and the performances rank among the most profitable and attractive of these periodical festivals. Miscellaneous concerts are held also in the large concert rooms during the period of the festival; and the proceeds, after deductirig the expenses, are appropriated to the York County Hospital, and the general Infirmaries of Hull, Leeds, and Sheffield, The races are held in May and August, and are in general numerously attended; at the latter meeting, the king's gold cup, for which a plate of one hundred guineas has since been substituted, was first run for in 1713, and there are various other matches and sweepstakes; the course, on Knavesmire, about a mile from the town, on the road to Tadcaster, is well adapted to the purpose, and is furnished with a grand stand and other accommodations, for the numerous spectators who assemble on these occasions. The cold baths, near the New Walk, are provided with dressing-rooms and every requisite accommodation for ladies and gentlemen and at Lendal tower, adjoining the water-works, is an establishment of hot, cold, tepid, and vapour baths, replete with every accommodation.. The cavalry barracks, about a mile to the south-west of the city, were erected in 1796, at an expense of £30,000, including the purchase of twelve acres of ground, which are attached to them, for parade, and for performing the different evolutions; the buildings are handsome and commodious, and include arrangements for three field officers, five captains, nine subalterns, and two hundred and forty non-commissioned officers and privates, with stabling for the requisite number of horses. The city is not much distinguished either for its commerce or manufactures; the trade principally arises from the supply of the inhabitants and the numerous opulent families in the neighbourhood. Several linen factories have been recently established, but are not carried on to any great extent; the manufacture of glass was introduced in 1797; and some works for white and red lead are conducted upon a moderate scale. Carpets, worsted lace for liveries, gloves, and combs, are made in moderate quantities; and there are some chemical laboratories and iron foundries. The river Ouse is navigable as far as the bridge, for vessels of eighty tons' burden; and ships of one hundred and fifty tons' burden trade with London. Great quantities of coal are brought hither in barges of thirty and forty tons' burden; and from the junction of the Foss with the Ouse is a navigable communication to the parish of Sheriff-Hutton, in the North riding. The market days are Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday; the last, which is the principal, is for corn. Fairs for cattle and horses, at which very large quantities of live stock are disposed of, are held every fortnight, and on Whit- Monday, St. Peter's day, Lammas-day, and some other festivals during the year, in a spacious market-place, recently formed and most commodiously fitted up, without the city walls, near Walmgate Bar, in the construction of which, and in the erection of a handsome inn contiguous to it, the corporation have expended upwards of £10,000: a fair for leather is held every month; a fair for wool is held on Peaseholm Green every Thursday, from Ladyday to Michaelmas, which is well attended; a fair for flax on the Saturdays before Michaelmas, Martinmas, Christmas, Lady-day, St. Peter's day, Lammas-day, and Whit-Monday; and a large horse fair, without Micklegate Bar, in the week next before Christmas. The earliest charter of liberties granted to the city, which is now in existence, is dated in the reign of Richard I., but this is rather a confirmation of privileges previously granted by his predecessors. In the reign of Edward I. the city was governed by a mayor, aldermen, and bailiffs; and from the year 1273 the list of mayors, in uninterrupted succession, is nearly complete, though the entire series is supposed to revert to the time of Stephen, or even to an earlier date. Richard II., after confirming the charters of his predecessors, and granting additional privileges, erected the city, with the adjoining district, into a county of itself, dignified the mayor with the title of lord, and, in lieu of the three bailiffs, appointed two sheriffs. The charter now in use was granted by Charles II.: by it the government is vested in a lord mayor, twelve aldermen, two sheriffs, the ex-sheriffs (called the twenty-four, though they generally exceed that number), and seventy-two common council-men, assisted by a recorder, two city counsel, and a town clerk, together with chamberlains, sword bearer, mace bearer, four Serjeants at mace, and other officers. The lord mayor is elected annually, from the aldermen, by the corporate body, on the 15th of January, and enters upon his office on the 3rd of February. The sheriffs are elected from the citizens at large, on the 21st of September, and enter upon office on the 29th; the aldermen and common councilmen, as vacancies occur, are also elected by the corporation from the citizens generally, together with the1 six chamberlains, who are chosen annually. The recorder and two city counsel, who must be barristers, and the town clerk, who must be an attorney at law, are chosen by the whole corporation, and the recorder and town clerk must have their appointment confirmed by the king. The lord mayor, aldermen, sheriffs, and such as have served the office of sheriff, constitute what is called the Upper House of the corporation, and possess certain exclusive privileges. The lord mayor, recorder, the two city counsel, and the twelve aldermen, are justices of the peace within the city and county of the city, which latter extends over the whole of the city (except that part which is within the liberty of St. Peter, including the Close of the Cathedral) and the wapentake of the ainsty. The freedom is inherited by all the sons of freemen, on their coming of age, and acquired by apprenticeship for seven years to a resident freeman, and by purchase, or grant, of the corporation, which last privilege is confined to the Upper Hxnise exclusively. The corporation hold courts of assize for the city and county of the city, which are opened by the judges of the northern circuit, under a separate commission, on the same day as the assizes for the county: at these courts, which are held in the guildhall, the lord mayor takes the chair in presence of the judge, who sits on his right hand. Courts of quarter session are held before the lord mayor, recorder, and aldermen, for all offences not capital j the lord mayor, and usually one of the aldermen, hold a petty session three times in the week; and a court of record is held weekly by prescription, for the recovery of debts to any amount, in which the sheriffs preside. The mansion-house, erected in 1726, for the residence of the chief magistrate, is a stately and handsome edifice, containing a splendid suite of apartments; the banquet hall, which is forty-nine feet and a half in length, and nearly twenty-eight feet wide, is lighted by a double range of windows, and ornamented with a large collection of well-painted portraits, among which are those of William III.; George II.; George IV.., when Prince of Wales, presented by His Royal Highness to the corporation in 1811; Lord Dundas, painted, in 1822, by Jackson; LordBingley; Sir William Mordaunt Milner, Bart.; Sir John Lister Kaye, Bart.; and other eminent persons. The guildhall is a handsome structure in the later style of English architecture, erected in 1446 the hall, which is ninety-six feet long and forty- three feet wide, is appropriated to the use of the courts, and for the transaction of corporate affairs and the election of members and officers of the corporation. The councilchamber, adjoining the guildhall, was erected in 1819, when the buildings anciently used for that purpose, and situated on the old bridge over the Ouse, were taken down; the upper room is assigned to the meetings of the lord mayor, recorder, aldermen, and those who constitute the Upper House; and the lower apartment is appropriated to the common council-men. The common gaol for the city and county of the city was erected in 1807, at the joint expense of the city and the ainsty, towards which the former contributed threefifths, and the latter two-fifths: it is a substantial stone building. It consists of three stories, surrounded by a cupola and vane; the lower story is appropriated to felons, and the second and third stories to debtors. Behind the gaol is the governor's house, in which is a chapel: there are seven wards, seven day-rooms, and seven airing-yards, for felons, and one for male and one for female debtors. The house of correction for the city and county of the city was erected, in 1814, at the expense of the city and ainsty, and contains six wards, six work-rooms, six day-rooms, and six airing-yards. The city first exercised the elective franchise in the 49th of Henry III., since which time it has regularly returned two members to parliament: the right of election is vested in the corporation and freemen generally, of whom the number is from three to fpur thousand; the sheriffs are the returning officers. The general assizes for the county, and the election of the knights of the shire, take place at York, as the county town. The site of the ancient castle, which, on its being dismantled after the parliamentary war, was converted into a prison, is at present occupied by the county hall and common gaol for the county, erected in 1701, and forming three sides of! a quadrangle near the connuenceof the Ouse and the Foss. The county, hall, which occupies the western range, is a handsome structure, in the Grecian style of architecture, erected in 1777, with a noble portico of six lofty columns of the Ionic order, above which are the king's arms, a figure of Justice, and other emblematical ornaments: the hall is one hundred and fifty feet long, and fortyfive feet wide j at one end is the crown bar, and at the other the court of nisi prius, each lighted by an elegant dome, supported on twelve pillars of the Corinthian order. On the east side of the quadrangle are the apartments of the clerk of assize, the office of the court of record, the indictment office, hospital rooms; and cells for female prisoners: this range, which is one hundred and fifty feet in length, is fronted with a handsome colonnade of the Ionic order. The county gaol occupies the south side of the quadrangle, and contains seven wards, twelve day-rooms, and seven airing-yards, well adapted to the classification of prisoners, who are employed in knitting caps, making shoes, and weaving laces, and receive the whole amount of their earnings. The city was constituted an archiepiscopal see by Edwin, King of Northumberland, who, after, his conversion to Christianity, in 627, erected a church here, which he dedicated to St. Peter, and made Paulinus, the confessor of his queen, Ethelburga, first archbishop. After the death of Edwin, who was killed in battle, Paulinas was compelled to abandon the province to the fury of the Britons, who, under Cadwallo; assisted by the King of Mercia, took possession of the city, and, accompanied by Ethelburga, found an asylum in the kingdom of Kent. During his absence the newly-founded establishment fell into decay, but was restored by Oswald, the successor of Edwin, whoafter a successful battle with the Britons, expelled them from the city, and recovered possession of his capital. Paulinus, dying in Kent, was succeeded in the government of the see and province by Cedda, who held it till the return of Wilfrid from France, whither he had been sent for consecration, and where he remained for three years.. The establishment, under Wilfrid and his successors, remained upon its original foundation till after the Conquest, when Thomas, chaplain to William the Conqueror, being made archbishop, constituted the several dignitaries and prebendaries, and established the first regular chapter. After frequent disputes for precedency with the Archbishop of Canterbury, which were carried on for many years with the greatest animosity, it was ultimately decided in favour of Canterbury, the archbishop of that see being styled Primate of all England, as a superior designation to that of the Archbishop of York, who is styled Primate of England. The Archbishop of York, who is also lord high almoner to the king, takes precedency of all dukes who are not of the blood royal, and of all the chief officers of state, with the exception of the lord high chancellor;; he places the crown on the head of the queen at coronations; and, in the county of Northumberland, has the power and privileges of a prince palatine: he was formerly styled metropolitan of Scotland. The province of York comprises the sees of York, Carlisle, Chester, Durham, and Sodor and Man, and has jurisdiction over the counties of York, Chester, Cumberland, Durham, Lancaster, Northumberland Westmorland, and Nottingham. The ecclesiastical establishment consists of an archbishop, dean, chancellor, precentor, subdean, succentor, four archdeacons, four canons residentiary, twenty-four prebendaries, chancellor of the, diocese, a subchanter and four vicars choral, seven lay clerks, six, choristers, organist, and other officers. The canons residentiary are appointed by the dean, who must choose them out of the prebendaries; the dean and the four residentiaries constitute, the chapter. The treasurership, erected in the year 1090, was dissolved and made a lay fee by King Edward VI., as were also the prebends of Wilton and Newthorpe, annexed thereto. The cathedral, originally founded by Edwin, after having been frequently demolished and restored, was destroyed by an accidental fire in 1137. It remained in a desolate state for some time, till Archbishop Roger, in 1171, rebuilt the choir, and in the reign of Henry III.,. Walter de Grey built the south transeptt In the beginning of the reign of Edward I., John le Romaine, treasurer of the church, built the north transept and a central tower; and, in 1291, his son of the same name, who was made archbishop, laid the foundation of the nave, which was, forty years afterr wards, completed by Archbishop William de Melton, who also built the west front and the two western towers. Archbishop Thoresby, in 1361, rebuilt the choir in a style better adapted to the character of the nave, to which it was before greatly inferior; and, in 1370, the central tower was taken down, and in the course of eight years completely rebuilt in a more appropriate manner; and the whole edifice at present displays a regular series of the richest and purest specimens of the various styles of English architecture, iwith some remains of the Norman, of which the only portion now entire is the crypt, under the eastern part of the church. The distant view of this extensive and magnificent pile, towering above the churches and other buildings of the city, and equally, unrivalled in. the magnitude of its dimensions and the richness of its embellishment, is strikingly impressive. The cathedral is a cruciform structure, with the addition of two lateral projections between the central tower and the east end, which are called the little transepts, and is five hundred and twenty-four feet and a half in length from east to west, and two hundred and twenty-two dlong the principal transepts. The west front, which is divided into three compartments by richly panelled buttresses of four stages, terminating with boldly croclceted finials, is almost covered with a profusion of the most richly varied sculpture, comprising several cano pied niches, in which are statues. The central compartment contains the principal entrance, a beautiful pointed and richly moulded arch, supported on a series of slender clustered columns, and surmounted by a Straight angular canopy with crocketed pinnacles, and ornamented with canopied niches, in which are statues of the Archbishops Melton, Percy, and Vavasour. The principal arch is divided, by a slender clustered pillar in the centre, into two smaller cinquefoiled arches, forming a double doorway, and having the spandril decorated with a circular window of elegant tracery. On each side of the principal entrance are two series of trefoiled arches, with delicately feathered canopies, terminating in crocketed finials; and above it is the beautiful west window of eight lights, enriched with elegant tracery, and surmounted hy an acutely angular canopy and parapet pierced in beautiful design, behind which is seen the gable of the roof of the nave, with an angular pediment, perforated with great delicacy, and having on the apex a richly crocketed pinnacle. The entrances to the aisles are through plainer arches, above which are elegant windows of three lights, with tracery surmounted by canopies similar to that over the west window. The western towers, which are uniform and of graceful elevation, are strengthened with double buttresses at the angles, highly enriched with canopies and pinnacles at the offsets, and which, after diminishing in four successive stages, die away under the cornice, which is carried round the upper part of the towers. Above the windows previously noticed are others of five lights with tracery, and crowned by the embattled parapet, which is carried round the nave; the upper portion of the towers is ornamented with large belfry windows of three lights with tracery, surmounted by a delicately feathered ogee canopy, terminating in a lofty crocketed finial; the summits are wreathed with pierced embattled parapets, and crowned with eight boldly crocketed pinnacles. The north and south sides of the cathedral are strengthened with buttresses terminating with pinnacles and a delicately pierced parapet is continued round the walls of the nave. The transepts, which are in the early style of English architecture, are nearly similar in design, though differing in the minuter details; the entrance to the south transept is through an elegant porch, ascended by a double flight of steps, above which are three lofty lancet-shaped windows, divided only by panelled and enriched buttresses; and a large circular window, surrounded with rich and varied mouldings, occupies the centre of a triangular pediment, at each end of which is an octagonal turret, and on the apex a crocketed finial. The front of the north, transept, is ornamented with five lofty narrow windows, which occupy the principal part, above which are five others, of unequal height, ranged in the triangular pediment. The central tower, which rises to the height of two hundred and thirteen feet, is a massive square structure, relieved on each of its faces by two large windows of three lights, separated and bounded at each side by enriched buttresses, terminating in crocketed finials; the crown of the arch of the windows is surmounted by an enriched canopy, and the summit of the tower is wreathed with a delicately pierced and embattled parapet. The east front, which is one of the finest compositions extant, is divided into three compartments by four octangular buttresses, terminating in crocketed pinnacles, and profusely ornamented with canopied niches, in which are, a figure of an archbishop seated, holding in his left hand the model of a church, and having the right hand raised; a statue of Vavasour, in tolerable preservation; and one, much mutilated, said to be that of Lord Percy. The magnificent window, of nine lights, filled with rich and intricate tracery, occupies the whole of the central compartment, and is surmounted by an enriched ogee canopy, above which is some highly elaborate and beautiful tabernacle-work, and in the centre, a square turret, with a crocketed finial. On entering the cathedral from the west end, the vastness of its dimensions, the justness of its proportions, and the simplicity and beauty of the arrangement, produce an intense impression of grandeur and magnificence. The nave, extending two hundred and sixty-one feet from the entrance to the organ screenj and ninety-nine feet in height, is separated from the aisles by long ranges of finely clustered columns, of which the central shafts rise to the roof, which is plainly groined, and the others support a series of gracefully pointed arches, in the decorated style, chastely and appropriately enriched. The triforium consists of openings of five lofty narrow trefoiled arches, with acute angular canopies, richly ornamented. The clerestory is a noble range of windows, divided by slender mullions into five lights, having in the crown of the arch a circular light, with geometrical tracery of beautiful design > the aisles are lighted by an elegant range of windows of three lights, with quatrefoiled circles and tracery; and the walls below them are decorated with panels and tracery, and with canopied niches with crocketed pinnacles. At the eastern extremity of the nave is the lantern tower, supported on four lofty clustered columns and finely pointed arches, the windows of which diffuse a pleasing light over the transepts and eastern portion of the nave, which, when viewed from this point, derives increased effect from the great west window, which is filled with flowing tracery of the most delicate and beautiful character. The transepts, in the early style of English architecture, are dissimilar only in the minuter details and the arrangement of the ends. The central part is separated from the aisles by clustered columns and sharply pointed arches; the triforium consists of four arches, separated by small pillars resembling the Norman, and included in a larger circular arch, having, in the spandril, a cinquefoiled, and on each side of it a quatrefoiled, circle; the clerestory consists of ranges of five sharp pointed arches, of which the three central only admit light; the roof, which is of wood, is groined like that of the nave; the aisles of the transepts are lighted with double lancet-shaped windows, beneath which is a series of blank trefoiled arches. The choir is separated from the nave by a splendid stone screen supporting the organ, and is divided into fifteen compartments, containing a series of richly canopied niches, in which are placed, on elegant pedestals, the statues of the kings of England, from William the Conqueror to Henry VI.: the statue of the last monarch was removed from its niche in the reign of James I., whose statue was substituted in its place; but a statue of Henry VI., from the chisel of Michael Taylor, sculptor, of York, now occupies the niche, from which that of James I. has been removed. Nearly in the centre of the screen is the doorway leading into the choir, an obtuse arch, supported on slender clustered columns, with an ogee canopy, terminating with a crocketed finial. Above the niches in which are the statues of the kings are series of narrow shrines, richly canopied, and containing smaller statues, and above them a series of angels, beautifully sculptured; the whole is surmounted with bands of delicate tracery, and enriched with the most elaborate sculpture. The choir, of which the roof is loftier and more intricately groinedthan that of the nave, is one hundred and fifty-seven feet and a half in length, and is a beautiful specimen, of the later style of English architecture. The piers and arches are similar to those of the nave, and the intervals between the arches are embellished with shields of armorial bearings; the openings in the triforium consist of a series of five cinque-foiled arches with canopies and crocketed finials, divided in the centre by horizontal transoms.; and the clerestory is a beautiful range of windows of five lights, with cinquefoiled heads, having the crown of the arch enriched with, elegant tracery. The walls of the aisles of the choir are panelled and enriched with tracery corresponding with the character.. of the windows, which, as well as the groining of the roof, is similar to those iof the nave. The magnificent, east window, of nine lights, occupies nearly the whole of the east end of the choir, and is embellished with nearly two hundred subjects from sacred history, painted in glass; the upper section of the window is occupied with intricate: tracery, elaborately wrought into a series of canopies, running up to the crown of the arch, and containing projecting busts, and the outer border is enriched with small tabernacles, containing half-length figures; the window is divided, nearly in the centre, by an embattled transom, in which a light gallery is wrought, affording an unobstructed view of the whole cathedral. Behind the altar, to which is an ascent of fifteen steps, and separating it from the Lady chapel, is an elaborately enriched and beautiful stone screen, divided into compartments by slender panelled buttresses terminating with crocketed pinnacles: each compartment contains, in the lower division, a triple shrine of niches richly canopied, and in the upper, a beautiful open arch, separated, by slender mulliohs into three divisions, enriched with elegant tracery, and surmountedby a square head, of which the spandrus are pierced in quatrefoiied circles; above these is a delicate open embattled parapet, pierced alternately into triple cinquefoiled arches and circles, of double quatrefoil, with shields of armorial bearings. The intervals of this exquisitely wrought and highly enriched screen have been filled with plate-glass, affording a view of the eastern portion of the choir and of the magnificent east window. On each side of the choir, and on each side of the entrance under the organ, are the prebendal stalls, of oak richly carved, and surmounted with canopies of tabernacle-work: at the east end are the bishop's throne and pulpit, opposite to each other, both elaborately ornamented; and in the centre is the desk for the vicars choral, enclosed with tabernacle-work, on the north side of which is an eagle of brass on a pedestal. The pavement of the choir and nave has been beautifully relaid in mosaic work, and adds materially to the effect. The Lady chapel is perfectly similar to the choir, of which it is only a continuation, and contains some beautiful monuments. Beneath the altar is an ancient crypt of Norman architecture, with low massive circular columns with varied capitals, supporting a plainly groined roof; it was built of the materials of Archbishop Thomas' church, by Archbishop Thoresby. On the south side of the choir are three chapels, or rather vestries, in which are several ancient chests; in the inner vestry, or council-chamber, is a large press, containing many of the ancient records of the church, and a large horn of ivory, presented by Ulphus, Prince of West Deira, with all his lands and revenues, to the cathedral, which, after having been lost and stripped of its gold ornaments, was restored to the church by Henry, Lord Fairfax. The monument of Archbishop Walter de Grey consists of two tiers of trefoiled arches, supported on slender columns, sustaining a canopy of niches with angular pediments and finials, under which, on an altar-tomb, is the recumbent effigy of the prelate in his pontifical robes. The tomb of Archbishop Godfrey is in the shape of a coffin, under a canopy of trefoiled arches, having the sides decorated with plain shields in quatrefoiled circles. Beneath an arch at the east end is themonument of Archbishop Henry Bowett, a beautiful composition in the later style: an obtusely pointed arch supports a highly enriched canopy of elaborate and delicate tabernacle-work; above the arch are three lofty shrines, in each of which is a statue on a pedestal, and beneath the canopy is a slab of marble, enclosed with a parapet pierced in quatrefoil. The monument of Archbishop Thomas Savage has a recumbent figure of the prelate on an altar-tomb, under a squareheaded straight-lined arch, in the spandrils of which are shields of arms supported by unicorns, and angels, lifting up their censers, and the cornice is ornamented with five projecting angels, bearing shields of the same arms. There are also several large stone coffins, some recumbent figures of knights, and numerous tombs of archbishops, of which that of Archbishop Roger is the most ancient. In the north aisle of the choir is a recumbent statue in alabaster, commonly, but erroneously, said to be that of Prince William de Hatfield, second son of Edward III., under a rich and beautiful canopy; and in the north transept is the tomb of John Haxby, treasurer of the church, on which, according to ancient usage, payments of money for the church estates are still occasionally made. There are numerous other monuments and tombs in various parts of the church; among which are those of Sir William Ingram, Knt., commissary of the prerogative court; Charles Howard, Earl of Carlisle; Frances Cecil, Countess of Cumberland; a statue of William Went worth, Earl of Strafford, son of the Minister of Charles I.; and a monument to William Burgh, L.L.D., on which is an emblematical figure of Faith, finely sculptured by Westmacott. From the north transept a passage leads to the chapterhouse, an elegant and highly enriched octagonal structure, in the decorated style of English architecture, with a lofty and elaborately groined roof of wood, without a central pier, profusely ornamented with sculpture in various devices: seven sides of the octagon are occupied by large windows of elegant tracery, embellished with shields of armorial bearings painted on glass; below the windows are forty-four stalls of rich tabernacle-work of Petworth marble, the finely clustered pillars between the windows are perforated for a narrow gallery, which is carried round the whole building above the cornice of the stalls; the eighth side is solid, and enriched with tracery corresponding with the windows, and the arch forming the doorway is divided into two trefoiled arches by a clustered column, in the centre of which is a statue of the Virgin with the Infant in her arms, enshrined in a canopied niche; above the entrance is a series of niches, in which were formerly statues in silver of Our Saviour and the twelve Apostles. The vestibule is of beautiful design; the windows are large and enriched with tracery of exquisite delicacy, and the walls beneath them are ornamented with tracery of corresponding character. The recent removal of ancient buildings to the north of the cathedral has disclosed a series of very beautiful Norman arches, which formed part of the archiepiscopal palace, and which, though greatly mutilated, are peculiarly fine in their details.

PARISHES IN THE CITY OF YORK.

PARISH.;LIVING.;Value in the King's Books. £s. d.;Endowments;PATRONS.;Population
;;;Private Benefaction £;Royal Bounty £;Parliamentary Grant £;;
All Saints, North-Street;Discharged Rectory;4 7 11;200;400;800;The Crown;910
All Saints, Pavement } united;Discharged Rectory;5 16 10;;200;800;The Crown;554
St. Peter the Little };Discharged Vicarage;;;;;The Crown;660
St. Crux;Discharged Rectory;6 16 6;;;1400;The Crown;827
St. Cuthbert };Discharged Rectory;5 10 10;;;;The Crown;209
St. Helen on the Walls } united;Discharged Rectory;;;;;;398
All Saints in Peaseholm };Discharged Rectory;;;;;;223
St. Denis in Walmgate, with };Discharged Rectory;4 0 10;;;600;The Crown and another alternately;1093
St. George and Naburn } united;Discharged Vicarage;;;;;
St. Giles } united;Perpetual Curacy;;;;;
St. Olave };Perpetual Curacy;;;400;1400;;881
St. Helen Stonegate;Discharged Vicarage;4 5 5;;400;1200;The Crown;678
St. John Delpike };Discharged Rectory;;;;;Archbishop of York;367
St. Maurice without Monkbar } united;Discharged Rectory;12 4 9;1200;700;2500;;527
St. Trinity in Goodramgate };Discharged Vicarage;;;;;;798
St. John at Ousebridge-end;Perpetual Curacy;;;;;;938
St. Lawrence, with St. Nicholas;Discharged Vicarage;5 10 0;;600;800;Dean and Chapter;799
St. Margaret Walmgate } united;Discharged Rectory;4 9 9;200;900;800;The Crown;808
St. Peter le Willows };Discharged Vicarage;;;;;The Crown;418
St. Martin in Coney-st;Discharged Vicarage;4 0 0;200;200;;Dean and Chapter;610
St. Martin Micklegate } united;Discharged Rectory;5 16 3;200;200;;Giles Earle, Esq. and others;562
St. Gregory };Discharged Vicarage;;;;;;
St. Mary Bishopshill, Senior;Discharged Rectory;5 0 10;;;;The Crown and the Dean and Chapter;881
St. Mary Bishopshill, Junior;Discharged Vicarage;10 0 0;;;;Dean and Chapter;1477
St. Mary Castlegate;Discharged Rectory;2 8 6;200;400;1000;The Crown;989
St. Michael le Belfrey } united;Perpetual Curacy;;;;;;1543
St. Wilfrid };Discharged Rectory;2 0 10;400;700;800;Dean and Chapter;359
St. Michael Spurrier-gate, or Ouse-bridge;Discharged Rectory;8 12 1;200;400;1000;The Crown;593
St. Sampson;Perpetual Curacy;;200;800;600;The Vicars Choral;1041
St. Saviour } united;Discharged Rectory;;;;;The Crown;987
St. Andrew };Discharged Rectory;5 6 8;;;;The Crown;185
St. Trinity in King's-ct., or Christ-church;Discharged Vicarage;8 0 0;200;400;1200;Master of Well Hospital;737
St. Trinity in Micklegate;Perpetual Curacy;;;600;800;The Crown;845

All the above parishes are in the archdeaconry of York, except those of St. Andrew, St. John Delpike, St. John at Ousebridge-end, St. Lawrence, St. Martin (Coney-street), St. Mary Bishopshill Junior, St. Maurice, St. Michael le Belfry, and St. Samson, which are in the peculiar jurisdiction of the Dean and Chapter of York. The churches are in general of the later style of English architecture, but several of them contain portions in the Norman and early English styles. The church of All Saints on the Pavement is a very ancient structure said to have been built on the site and with the ruins, of the Roman Eboracum; it has an octagonal lantern tower with large windows of elegant tracery, in which was formerly a lamp to guide travellers across the forest of Galtres; the chancel was taken down, in 1782, for the enlargement of the market-place, but since the removal of the market the site has been added to the cemetery. The church of All Saints in North Street has some ancient stained glass in the windows, and, in the south wall, the mutilated remains of a Roman sepulchral monument The church of St. Crux has a neat square tower of brick, surmounted by a dome, and declining considerably from a perpendicular line; in the chancel is a monument to the memory of Sir Robert Walton, twice lord mayor of the city, with the effigies of himself, his wife, and three children. The church of St. Cuthbert is a neat edifice in the later style, with some ancient portions: the windows were formerly embellished with stained glass, of which some portions are remaining. Near the site many Roman antiquities have been found, consisting of urns, paterae, and part of the foundation of an apparently Roman building. The church of St. Denis in Walmgate, originally a spacious structure, has been much reduced by taking down the western part, which, from, the insecurity of the foundation, was giving way; and the spire, which was perforated by a ball during the parliamentary war, has been replaced with a square tower of indifferent character; little remains of the original architecture, except the entrance door, which belonged to an ancient porch that has been removed. In the interior are, a mural tablet with a female figure in the attitude of prayer, erected to Mrs. Dorothy Hughes; and an elegant marble monument to Robert Welbourne Hotham, Esq., sheriff of York in 1801: in the north aisle is a sepulchral chapel of the Earls of Northumberland, in which Earl Henry, who fell at the battle of Towton Field, was interred. The church of St. Helen, supposed to have been originally a temple of Diana, was rebuilt in the reign of Mary, and the ground of the churchyard, which had risen to an enormous height, was levelled and marked out as the site of St. Helen's square; the present structure, which has an elegant octagonal tower, has been much modernised, and most of the painted glass has been removed. Near the entrance is a Norman font lined with lead, and ornamented with antique sculpture; there are several monuments, and two mural tablets to the memory of Barbara and Elizabeth Davyes, two maiden sisters, who died in 1765 and 1767, each ninety-eight years of age. The steeple of the church of St. John was blown down in 1551, and has not been rebuilt: the interior contains a monument to Sir Richard York, Knt, lord mayor of the city in 1469; the churchyard has been much curtailed by the improvement near Ouse bridge. The church of St. Lawrence was nearly destroyed, during the seige of York, by the parliamentary forces and lay in ruins till 1669 when it was repaired, it consists only of a nave, with a square embattled tower. Over the altar is a large handsome window with some remains of ancient stained glass and there are some neat marble tablets to de- ceased members of the family of Yarburgh. The porch has been removed but at the entrance is a fine Nor- man arch, with three mouldings ornamented with flowers; in the north wall of the church is a large grit-stone, supposed to have been a Roman altar; and in the churchyard wall are two antique statues. The Church of St. Margaret in Walmgate is an ancient building of brick with a steeple of the same material; the only interesting feature is a Norman porch, re moved from the dissolved hospital of St. Nicholas; at entrance is a semi circular arch, resting on single columns, and having four mouldings ornamented alter nately with the signs of the zodiac, emblematical repre- sentations of the seasons, and grotesque figures. The church of St. Martin in Micklegate is a neat ancient structure with a more modern steeple, built in 1677; the windows contain some portions of beautiful stained glass, and in the exterior of the walls of the church, and in the walls of the churchyard, are some remains of mutilated Roman sculpture. The church of St. Martin the Bishop, in Coney-street, is an elegant structure in the later style of English architecture, with a square embattled tower; the interior is spacious and appropriately arranged. Among the monuments are one to Sir William Sheffield and his lady, with busts and the family arms; and a plain marble tablet, to Elizabeth, wife of Robert Porteus, and mother of Beilby Porteus, Bishop of London. The church of St. Mary Bishopshill Sen. has portions in the early and decorated styles of English architecture, of which the details are very good; and that of St. Mary Bishopshill Jun. has a Norman tower; some of the piers and arches are in the early English style, with portions of a later date. The church of St. Mary in Castlegate has a very handsome and lofty spire, and contains several ancient monumental inscriptions. In digging a grave in this church, a copper plate was found, which had been fastened on the inside of the lid of the coffin of a priest who was executed for the plot of 1680. The church of St. Maurice is a very ancient structure; the interior has been recently repaired and modernised. The church of St. Michael le Belfry is a spacious and elegant edifice in the later style of English architecture, erected on the site of a more ancient church, which was taken down in 1535; the nave is separated from the aisles by slender clustered columns and finely pointed arches; and the interior is handsomely arranged, with the exception of the altar, which is of the Corinthian order, and consequently inappropriate to the general character of the building. St. Michael's in Spurrier- gate is a very ancient structure; the west end is built of gritstone in large masses. The church of St. Olave, adjoining the ruins of St. Mary's abbey, and a very ancient edifice, was destroyed, during the siege of York, by the parliamentarian forces, who used the roof as a platform for their cannon; it was rebuilt in 1722, with stone taken from the ruins of the abbey. The interior is modern and neatly arranged, the east window contains some excellent stained glass, and there some neat mural tablets. The church of St. Sampson is an ancient edifice, in the later style of En- glish architecture, with a square embattled tower, on the west side of which is a sculptured figure of its tute- lar saint, and on which may be perceived its perforation by a cannon ball during the seige of the city. There were formerly three chantry chapels in this church; most of the painted glass has been removed from the windows, and the monumental inscriptions have been greatly defaced. The church of St. Saviour is an ancient structure, with a handsome tower surmounted by a wooden cross: the interior is very neatly arranged the windows contain considerable portions of ancient stained glass, and there are several ancient monuments. The church of St. Trinity in Miclclegate is an ancient structure, principally in the Norman style of architecture, with portions of a later date; the tower preserves its original Norman character, but the church has been greatly mutilated; it formerly belonged to the priory of the Holy Trinity, of which some ruined arches may be traced, and a gateway is still remaining in good preservation. The church of St. Trinity in Goodramgate is an ancient edifice, in which were formerly three chantry chapels; over the altar is a fine window, containing some beautiful specimens of stained glass; there are also some veryancient monumental inscriptions. The church of St. Trinity in King's-court, usually called Christchurch, is an ancient edifice, to which there is a descent of several steps. The Roman palace was situated near this church, on the side of which is a ditch, still called King's ditch, which is supposed to have bounded the demesne. There are places of worship for Baptists, the Society of Friends, Independents, Primitive and Wesleyan Methodists, Sandemanians, and Unitarians, and two Roman Catholic chapels. The free grammar school in the Cathedral Close was erected in 1546, and endowed with £12 per annum by Robert Holgate, Archbishop of York; it is under the inspection of the archbishop for the time being, who appoints the master. Another free grammar school, in the "Horseayer," was founded by charter of Philip and Mary, and endowed by the Dean and Chapter with the lands of the hospital of St. Mary, originally founded, in 1330, by Robert de Pykering, Dean of York, the site and revenue of which, on its suppression, were granted to that body: the endowment was subsequently augmented, in the reign of Elizabeth, with £4 per annum, charged on the manor of Hartesholm, in the county of Lincoln, by Robert Dallison, chanter in the cathedral church of that city; the master is appointed by the Dean and Chapter of York, and has a residence rent-free; the number of scholars, which is regulated by the Dean and Chapter, seldom exceeds twenty-three; the school was formerly held in part of the old church of St. Andrew, but has lately been removed into the cathedral; and the old school-room is now occupied by an infant school, supported by subscription. Three schools were erected in Walmgate, Friar Wells, and Bishopshill, respectively, by Mr. John Dodsworth, ironmonger of the city, who endowed them with £10 per annum each, for the gratuitous instruction of children of the parishes near which they are situated; in each of these schools twenty children are taught to read and write. The Blue-coat school for boys, held in an ancient building on Peaseholm Green, called St. Anthony's Hall; and the Grey-coat school forgirls, for which an appropriate building was erected near Monkgate bar, were established by the lord mayor and corporation, in 1705; they are liberally supported by subscription, and with the interest of donations vested in the funds, among which was a legacy of £4000 by Thomas Wilkinson, Esq., of Highthorne, alderman of York, in 1820, which, though void in law, was given to the charity by the testator's relative and executor, William Hotham, Esq., also alderman of the city; sixty boys and forty-four girls are clothed, maintained, and instructed in reading, writing, and arithmetic, in this establishment; the boys are also taught to weave, and are apprenticed on leaving the school; and the girls are qualified to become useful servants, and placed out in respectable families. A charity school was founded, in 1773, by Mr. William Haughton, dancing-master of York, who bequeathed £1300 for its erection and endowment, and £290 more, after the demise of certain annuitants, for the instruction of twenty poor children of the parish of St. Crux, near the church of which a commodious schoolhouse has been erected: the master receives an annual salary of £200, arising from the endowment. The same benefactor left £500, directing the interest to be appropriated to the payment of the rents of poor widowsof that parish; and £1000 to be lent without interest to forty poor tradesmen, but this sum has been reduced to £232. 6. by litigation, to establish the will of the testator. At Monkgate is the institution called "Manchester College," removed hither from that town in 1803, for the maintenance and education of young men for the ministry among the Independents, supported by donations and subscriptions. A spinning school was established, in 1782, by Mrs. Cappe and Mrs. Gray, to instruct children in spinning worsted; but the plan was soon changed, and sixty girls are now taught to read, sew, and knit, and are principally clothed from funds raised by subscription. Two schools (in one of which, in a spacious apartment under the banqueting room of the manor, four hundred and eighty-five boys, and in another in Merchant Taylors' Hall, two hundred and fifty girls, are educated in the principles of the established church) were formed, under the patronage of the Archbishop, by the Central Diocesan Society, in 1812: the master of the boys' school has a salary of £105 per annum, and the mistress of the girls' school a salary of £40 per annum. A Lancasterian school was originally established, in 1813, and removed, in 1816, to St. Saviour's gate, in which one hundred and twenty girls are instructed in reading, writing, and accounts, on payment of one penny per week; the remainder of the sum necessary for its support is raised by subscription. At the Roman Catholic school in Castlegate sixty boys are gratuitously instructed in reading, writing, and arithmetic, and in the principles of the Roman Catholic religion. There are also Sunday schools in connexion with the established church and the several dissenting congregations; in the former are more than seven hundred children, among whom ninety bibles are annually distributed by the trustees of Lord Wharton's charity. An hospital was founded by Alderman Agar, who endowed it with lands forming part of the estate of Lord Middleton, for six aged widows, who receive each £1. 8.4. half-yearly. The hospital of St. Catherine, formerly a house for the reception of poor pilgrims, has been converted into an almshouse for the residence of four aged widows, who, from the augmentation of the original endowment by subsequent benefactions, receive each £18 per annum. An hospital was founded, in 1717, by Dr. Colton and Mary his wife, who endowed it with lands at Cawood and Thorpe-Willoughby in this county, for eight aged women, who have an annual allowance of £5 each. An hospital was founded at Bootham, in 1640, by Sir Arthur Ingram, alderman of York, who endowed it with £5 per annum each for ten aged women, and twenty nobles to a chaplain, to read prayers; the buildings consist of ten neat cottages, containing two rooms each, with a chapel in the centre; the inmates, who have also a gown every alternate year, are nominated by the Dowager Marchioness of Hertford, a lineal descendant of the founder. Mason's hospital was founded, in 1732, by Mrs. Mason, who endowed it for six aged widows, each receiving £3. 10. per annum. Dame Anne Mjddleton bequeathed £2000 for the erection and endowment of an hospital for twenty widows of poor freemen of York, who receive each an allowance from the corporation, of £5.16. per annum; this hospital was entirely rebuilt by the corporation, in 1829, at an expense of nearly £2000. Near Marygate is the Old Maids' hospital, founded, in 1725, by Miss Mary Wandesford, who endowed it with an estate at Brompton upon Swale, near Richmond, a mortgage of £1200, and £1200 South Sea stock, for ten maiden gentlewomen, members of the church of England, and a reader, or preacher: the inmates receive an annual, payment of £1(%5.17.4., and the reader a stipend of £15 per annum, for reading morning prayer every Wednesday and Friday in the chapel of the hospital. St. Thomas' hospital, without Micldegate Bar, was originally founded for the fraternity of Corpus Christi: after its dissolution it was repaired, in 1787, and endowed with £1000 by William Luntley, glover; the endowment was augmented by Lady Conyngham, in 1791, with £25 per annum; from the produce of these sums twelve aged widows receive each £6 per annum. Trinity hospital was founded, in 1373, by John de Rawcliffe, for a priest, five brethren, and five sisters; the Merchants' Company, upon its dissolution, in the reign of Edward VI., having obtained possession of the building, re-endowed it for ten aged persons of both sexes, who receive each £5 per annum. The hospital founded by Sir Thomas Walter, in 1612, and endowed by him with £3 per annum for a reader, and £2 per annum each to ten aged persons, payable out of the lordship of Cundall, has, from some unknown cause, been reduced; there are at present only seven inmates, who receive £2 per annum each. An almshouse in St. Denis- lane, originally founded by the Company of Cordwainers, after having fallen into a state of dilapidation and decay, was rebuilt by Mr. Hornby, at his own cost, and affords a comfortable residence for four decayed members of that fraternity, but has no endowment. An hospital was founded, early in the last century, by Percival Winterskelf, Gent., who endowed it for six aged persons, who receive each £8 per annum. Lady Hewley's hospital, founded in 1708, is a neat brick building, comprising ten houses, for ten aged women, who receive each £15 per annum from that lady's endowment; the same person also bequeathed large sums of money for other charitable uses. An hospital, near Foss bridge, was founded by Mrs. Dorothy Wilson, who, in 1717, endowed it with lands at Skipwith and Nun-Monkton, for ten aged women, who receive each £15 per annum from the same funds; a salary of £20 per annum is paid to a schoolmaster for teaching twenty boys, who have each a new suit of clothes annually; £2 per annum is given to a schoolmistress, for teaching six children to read, and the same sum to three blind people; the hospital is a neat brick building, rebuilt a second time in 1812. The county hospital originated in 1740, by the benevolence of Lady Hastings, who bequeathed £500 for the relief of the diseased poor of the county; other donations and subscriptions being subsequently obtained, the present edifice, in Monkgate, was soon afterwards erected: it is conducted on the most liberal principles, persons meeting with accidents being admitted without recommendation, and is under the direction of a committee, who appoint a treasurer and a steward; it is gratuitously attended by two physicians, two surgeons, an apothecary, and a chaplain, and is supported by annual subscription. The city dispensary, for which a commodious building was erected in 1828, administers extensive relief, and is liberally supported by subscription. The lunatic asylum, without Bootham Bar, was established in 1774, and has undergone considerable alteration, and received great additions; in 1817, a large building was erected behind the former, intended solely for the reception of female patients it is a handsome and commodious edifice, and the whole is surrounded with gardens and pleasure grounds; it is supported partly by subscription, and by the moderate weekly payment of patients for their board, who are admitted on producing a proper certificate. About a mile from York, in the village of Heslington, is a similar institution, established by the Society of Friends, in 1796, called The Retreat: the building, which was erected at an expense of £12,000, forms a handsome quadrangular range, with an entrance lodge, and is well adapted to the reception of patients, who pay a moderate sum in proportion to their circumstances. There are numerous institutions for relieving the distress and alleviating the sufferings of the poor; among which are the Charitable Society, for the relief of distressed objects resident in the city; the Benevolent Society, for the casual relief of strangers; the Lying-in Society, the Clothing Society, a society for the encouragement of female servants, and various others. Among the most munificent benefactors to the poor were, the Countess Dowager of Conyngham, who bequeathed £20,000 for charitable purposes; Mr. John Allen, who, with several other sums, bequeathed £140 per annum for the erection and endowment of an hospital for twelve aged men, who receive each £12 per annum; and numerous others. Near the city are the beautiful ruins of the venerable abbey of St. Mary, founded, in 1088, by William Rufus, who laid the first stone of the building, and amply endowed it for monks of the Benedictine order; it flourished till the dissolution, at which time its revenue was £2085, 1. 6. Among other ancient remains are the crypt of the hospital of St. Leonard, originally founded in the reign of William the Conqueror, and dedicated to St. Peter, previously to erecting a church in it by King Stephen, dedicated to St. Leonard, by which name it was afterwards distinguished at the dissolution its revenue was estimated at £500.11. 1.: the crypt has been for many years used as wine vaults. Considerable portions of the ancient city walls are remaining, though in a greatly dilapidated condition. Among the eminent natives were, Constantine the Great, the first Roman emperor that embraced Christianity; Flaccus Albanus, the pupil of Bede Waltheof, Earl of Northumberland, son of the gallant Siward; Thomas Morton, successively Bishop of Chester, Lichfield and Coventry, and Durham; and among those of more recent date may be noticed Gent, an eminent printer and historian; Swinburn, a distinguished lawyer and civilian; Flaxman, the celebrated sculptor; and several other eminent characters. York gave the title of duke to Prince Federick, second son of King George III., who died on the 5th of January, 1827."

[Transcribed by Mel Lockie © from
Lewis's Topographical Dictionary of England 1835]