HUTTON CRANSWICK: Geographical and Historical information from the year 1892.
Wapentake of Harthill (Bainton Beacon Division) - Petty Sessional Division of Bainton Beacon - County Council Electoral Division of Hutton Cranswick - Poor Law Union and County Court District of Driffield - Rural Dea.nery of Harthill - Arebdeaconry of the East Riding - Diocese of York.
This parish includes the townships of Hutton Cranswick, Rotsea, and Sunderlandwick, covering a total area of 6,442 acres. It stretches from Hempholme to the confines of Elmswell-with-Little Driffield, a distance of five miles as the crow flies, and is bounded by the parishes of Skerne, Great Driffield, Kirkburn, Bainton, Watton, Leven, Brandesburton, North Frodingham, and Foston-on-the-Wolds. The total population comprised in the ecclesiastica1 parish in 1891 was 1,170. The township of Hutton Cranswick contains 4,814 acres, chiefly belonging to Lord Hotham, the Earl of Londesborough, and F. H. Reynard, Esq., J.P., of Sunderlandwick Hall. The rateable value is £6,061, and the population in 1891 was 1,057. The township is intersected by the Hull and Scarborough branch of the North-Eastern railway, and also by a tributary of the river Hull. It includes the villages and distinct manors of Hutton and Cranswick. The latter is mentioned in Domesday Book, and at the time of the Conquest it was included in the soke of Driffield, that is, it was under the civil jurisdiction of the lord of that manor. In the latter part of the last century the estate was purchased by Mr. Denison, from whom it has descended to the present Earl of Londesborough. The adjoining manor of Hutton, containing seven carucates of land, anciently belonged to the Mauleys. Subsequently it passed through various families, and now belongs to Lord Hotham.
The villages of Hutton and Cranswick are pleasantly situated somewhat less than a mile apart, on the Driffield and Beverley road, about three miles south of the former place. Hutton is small, and stands on higher ground. It is a place of considerable antiquity, and bears evidence in its name of its Norse origin: Hoot, a hill, and tun, an enclosure; that is, the enclosed or fenced village on the hill. Cranswick is more extensive, and possesses the advantage of railway communication with the North-Eastern system, by the Hull and Scarborough branch line. Like its neighbour, it dates from the time of the Norsemen, and was originally the site of a wic or military station during the early ages of Anglian occupation. "The neighbourhood," say Messrs. Sheahan and Whellan in their History of York and the East Riding, "was the arena of many fierce engagements between the Saxons and Danes, and there are traces of a fortified camp at Hutton." At Battleburn, in the adjoining parish, some three miles distant, tradition has preserved the memory of a severe conflict, which some writers suppose to have been Athelstan's famous victory over Anlaf at Brunanburh. It is generally admitted that Anlaf's fleet entered England by the Humber, and thence, in the opinion of some writers, it sailed up the river Hull (which is navigable for small vessels such as this fleet was composed of) as far as Emmotland and Corps-landing. The latter curious name is applied to a single farm at the eastern extremity of the parish, abutting on the West beck, which unites at Emmotland, a mile lower down, with the Foston beck, to form the river Hull. Its origin has not been very satisfactorily explained. It can, however, have no reference to the landing of Anlaf's troops, as Mr. T. Holderness points out, for corps, applied to a body of men, is modern French, and was not in early use in English. Speaking further of this name, he says Corps-landing may be a compound of the Icelandic korpr (Scotch corbie, Swedish korp), a raven, and Icelandic land-eign, an estate, grounds, fields, pastures. The final "r" in korpr is only the sign of the nominative case, and would be supplanted by "s" in this name, making korps-land-eign, which, particularly in sound, has a very close resemblance to Corps-landing. As Anlaf's fleet probably extended to this point, a portion may have landed here, and hoisted his Raven Standard. There is a tradition that corpses were landed here for interment, but the story is probably an invention to account for the name.
The church, dedicated to St. Peter, * is situated in the village of Hutton, and consists of chancel, nave, north and south aisles, south porch, and a massive embattled western tower with pinnacles. A church occupied the site in Saxon times, and is mentioned in Domesday Book; but that structure was replaced by the present edifice soon after the Conquest. Subsequent repairs were made at various times, in the styles which then prevailed. In 1875-6 the whole fabric, with the exception of the tower, was thoroughly restored, at a cost of about £3,000. The nave and chancel were re-roofed, an organ-chamber added on the north side of the chancel, and the old-fashioned high-backed box pews gave place to others of a modern type, The aisles are separated from the nave by four pointed arches springing from circular columns. The doorway of the south porch is Norman, with zigzag mouldings, and during the restoration several pieces of dog-tooth and beak-head mouldings were discovered, and are now placed above the windows of the south aisle. Here is also a headless effigy, with hands clasped in the attitude of prayer. It was dug up in the churchyard, and has evidently been part of a tomb that once stood within the church. In the south wall are a piscina and an aumbry, denoting the presence of an altar at the east end of this aisle in Catholic times. The pulpit is of oak, beautifully carved. The font was presented by Mrs. B. Reynard in 1876, in lieu of the curiously-carved old stone one which is believed to have belonged to the Saxon church, and is now preserved in the York Museum. The east window is of three lights, and was filled with stained glass in 1876, at a cost of £160, which was contributed by the ladies of the parish. There are memorial windows in the south wall of the chancel, to Edward Horner Reynard, Esq., of Sunderlandwick, and Lieut. Charles Edward Reynard, father and son. The former died in 1883, and the latter in 1879. A beautiful marble monument on the south wall commemorates other members of this family. On
the wall of the north aisle is a monumental tablet of stone, with a handsome marble centre, "to the memory of the Awbrough family, who left several bequests to Hutton Cranswick." There are in the tower three large bells, one of which bears the date 1678. Tradition says the bells should have gone to Driffield, but were landed here by mistake.
The living is a vicarage in the gift of Lord Hotham, worth £130 per annum, derived chiefly from 46 acres of glebe. This church was given by Joan, widow of Gilbert Gertrude, to the Priory of Watton, and in 1302 it was appropriated to the prior and convent thereof, and a vicarage ordained therein. The vicar who was to reside near the church and serve the cure of souls, was allotted 25 marks per annum for his support, and in addition he received a missal-penny for every funeral, and the marriage penny usually offered at the church door. After the dissolution of monasteries the impropriation and patronage passed into lay hands, and about the middle of the 17th century came into the possession of the Hotham family. The present incumbent is the Rev. Robert Charles George O'Callaghan, M.A., Trinity College, Dublin.
The Vicarage House, a handsome brick building in the Gothic style, was erected in 1874, at the sole expense of Lord Hotham. It is surrounded by extensive pleasure grounds.
From different parts of the village, extensive views of the Wolds and the level district of Holderness can be obtained. The Primitive Methodists have a small chapel here, erected in 1860, for the accommodation of 100 worshippers.
CRANSWICK is built round a spacious green. It contains some good modern houses, and is supplied with excellent water by several copious springs. Near the village is a station on the Hull and Scarborough branch of the North Eastern railway. There are three Nonconformist places of worship here. The Primitive Methodist Chapel stands on the green, and was built in 1864, to supersede an older edifice. It is a large brick building with freestone dressings, and displays in the front wall a clock which strikes the hours on a bell in a small wooden turret. The interior of the chapel is neatly furnished for the accommodation of about 200 persons. The Wesleyans built their present chapel in 1861. It is a handsome building of brick, and elegantly furnished with seats for 200 persons. The Baptist Chapel was rebuilt in 1880.
A School Board consisting of seven members was formed March 22nd, 1872, for the united district of Hutton Cranswick, Rotsea, and Sunderlandwick, and in 1875, a school for boys and girls in separate departments, with residences for the teachers attached, was erected on the green at a cost of £850. The school was enlarged in 1888. There is accommodation for 160 boys and about 100 girls. An infant school also stands on the green. It will accommodate 120 children. There is a residence for the mistress attached.
CHARITIES - The poor of Hutton and Cranswick have bequests amounting annually to £7 15s., distributed amongst them by the vicar.
* It appears, from the researches of Canon Raine, that the church was originally dedicated to St. Andrew.
ROTSEA is a small township containing 805 acres, situated about two miles east of Cranswick, and five miles south-east of Driffleld. The rateable value is £723, and the population in 1891 was 46. A branch of the ancient and honourable family of Thwenge formerly possessed lands and resided here. The present landowners are Sir Tatton Sykes, Bart., Sledmere; Lord Hotham, South Dalton; A. W. M. Bosville, Esq., Thorpe, Rudstone; and T. Holtby, Esq. There is a small Wesleyan Chapel here, built some years ago by Messrs. T. & R. Holtby. Three British urns, now in the York Museum, were found in a gravel pit in this township.
SUNDERLANDWICK is a small township in this parish containing 823 acres of land and 67 inhabitants. Frederick Reynard, Esq., Sunderlandwick Hall, is sole owner and lord of the manor. The soil is a strong loam, the subsoil blue marl, and wheat, oats, turnips, and seeds are the principal crops. The rateable value is £1,076. The hamlet consists of two farms and a few cottages situated about two miles south of Driffield. Sunderlandwick is mentioned in Domesday Book, but the village alluded to in that record probably stood at the place now called Old Sunderlandwick. In a field near, are the traces of a moat, and there is a tradition that ancient armour and weapons are to be found here. Sunderlandwick Hall, the seat of Mr. Reynard, is a neat modern mansion in the Italian style, pleasantly situated in a well-wooded park of 70 acres.
[Description(s) from Bulmer's History and Directory of East Yorkshire (1892)]
- Transcript of the entry for the Post Office, professions and trades in Bulmer's Directory of 1892.
Scan, OCR and html by Colin Hinson. Checking and correction by Peter Nelson.