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HALIFAX: Geographical and Historical information from the year 1834.

Geographical and Historical information from the year 1834.

"HALIFAX,is a large and handsome market town, and by the Reform Bill created a borough, in the parish of its name, in the wapentake of Morley, West Riding ; 194 miles from London, 43 s.w. from the City of York, 27 n.e. from Manchester, 18 s.w. from Leeds, 16 w. from Wakefield, 8 s.w. from Bradford, and 7 n.n.w. from Huddersfield. The origin of this, now important, town, is thus described by Whittaker, --" In the deep valley then embosomed in woods, where the parish church of Halifax now stands, there stood anciently a hermitage, dedicated to St. John the baptist, the reputed sanctity of which attracted a great number of pilgrims from all quarters. Four ways, by which the modern town of Halifax is entered, still distinctly point to the church as their common centre ; these were the roads by which the pilgrims approached the place of devotion, and hence the name of Halifax, or Holy Ways, fax being, in Norman-French, an old plural noun denoting ' highways. ' "

Placed by its situation out of the ordinary range of hostile armies, Halifax does not appear to have suffered much from the clamities of war. During the civil contests in the reign of Charles 1st, the town was garrisoned by the Parliamentarians ; and at that period a smart action took place at a spot in the neighbourhood, which retains the name of ' Blood Fair ' to this day. The town of Halifax is situated on the south-eastern declivity of a gently rising eminence ; but being enclosed by a chain of hills, which stretch from east to south, it seems, on approaching in that direction, to stand in a deep valley. Being in the midst of numerous waters, particularly adapted for mills and machinery ; near the common source of the rivers, which, diverging from this point, flow towards the eastern and western seas ; being also in the vicinity of the great wool districts of the county, and not far from an abundant supply of coals, it presented advantages for a seat of the woollen manufacture too obvious to escape notice. It has consequently become one of the principal seats of the cloth manufacture in the kingdom, and has also obtained a share in the manufacture of cotton. There seem to have been established some manufactures at Halifax so early as 1414 ; but they must have been very inconsiderable, as the site was only occupied by a village of thirteen houses in 1443. But the woollen manufacture gradually became considerable ; and, in the reign of Henry VII, many Flemish manufacturers arrived in this country, some of whom are conjectured to have settled at Halifax ; and this supposition is strengthened by the similarity which exists in the dialect of the labouring classes there and in the low countries. The extent and value of the woollen manufactures of Halifax, in the early periods of its history, may be estimated from a peculiar local law designed to afford protection to the clothiers from the depredations to which their goods were exposed during the progress of the manufacture. It was customary, as it still is, to stretch the cloth on racks, or wooden frames, to dry ; and being thus left all night, and liable to be stolen, the magistrates were invested with a jurisdiction to try and inflict capital punishment, in a summary manner, on all persons who stole property valued at more than thirteen - pence halfpenny, within the liberties or precincts of the forest of Hardwick. Those charged with this offence were taken before the bailiff of Halifax, who forthwith summoned, as his assessors, the frith - burghers of the several towns, within the forest, who instantly proceeded to the trial. They could convict the prisoner on three grounds only : if he were seized in the act of thieving ; or with the stolen goods upon him ; or, lastly, on his own confession. If the day on which the culprit was convicted happened to be the principal market day, he was taken immediately, or, if not, on the first following market day, to the scaffold, in the market place of Halifax, and there beheaded, by means of a machine resembling the guillotine used in France during the Revolution. This was called ' Gibbet Law,' under which it is ascertained that, on an average, one execution took place every two years in the century preceeding 1650 ; but on that year, the bailiff of Halifax being threatened with a prosecution, relinquished the custom, and the scaffold was taken down. We may, in this place, mention that the Earl of Morton, afterwards Regent of Scotland, while in England, in 1566, directed a model of it to be taken, and, on his arrival in Scotland, had one of similar construction made from it. The instrument was so long unused as to obtain the name of the ' Maiden;' but, in 1581, the earl himself was brought to the block, and suffered by the machine he had caused to be erected.

The chief articles of manufacture are shalloons, calimancoes, taminets, moreens, shags, serges, baizes, coatings & carpets ; with narrow and broad cloths and kerseymeres, both for domestic use and for the army. It was some years ago computed that 10,000 pieces of shalloon alone were manufactured in this parish, considerable quantities of which were exported to Turkey and the Levant. Several cotton manufactories have been erected, and this branch of manufacture is on the increase. Excellent wool-cards are also made in Halifax -- bombasines and other fabrics of silk and worsted are perfected here, paper making is a branch of importance, and for corn, Halifax is a great mart. In the neighbourhood large quantities of free-stone have been dug, and sent to the metropolis for sale ; slate of a superior quality is also found ; and fuel for domestic purposes, and for the consumption of the various factories, is supplied from coal mines at a short distance. It is to the abundant supply of this important article, which, in the use of the steam-engine, affords the same advantages as the numerous rapid brooks formerly furnished for mills, that the continued prosperity of Halifax must be mainly attributed. Commercial intercourse between Halifax and Hull, as well as the eastern parts of England generally, is carried on by means of the Aire and Calder navigation, the latter canal now being close to the town ; and with Manchester, Liverpool, Lancaster, and the west, a communication is furnished by the Rochdale canal.

A weekly market is held on Saturday, chiefly for the sale of woollen cloth. For the accommodation of the traders in this article, there is a large free-stone edifice, called the Piece Hall, occupying an area of 10,000 square yards, and divided into 315 apartments for the reception of goods, the quantity of which, exposed for sale at one time, generally amounts in value to 50,000. This building cost 12,000, and for extent, beauty and convenience, is unequalled by any other. It was opened for business on the 1st of January, 1779. The proprietors of the building have vested the same in a committee of directors, who are appointed for life. The ground for the site was given by Mrs. Caygill, the committee paying only a rent of 5s. per annum. The manufactures are carried on in the town and neighbourhood, & the beneficial effects of trade and industry are no where more strikingly exhibited. A continued range of thriving villages and country seats extends over the whole of the immense parish. The present town of Halifax contains many handsome buildings, principally stone structures, but there are several of brick ; and a few ancient edifices may still be perceived, the architecture of which consists of a framework of wood, the intervals being filled up with plaster or clay. From the mixture of stone and brick, and from the numerous small enclosures around the houses, the town presents, from a distance, a singularly varied and interesting appearance. The town is well lighted with gas, and amply supplied with water, principally from two springs rising near Pellon, about a mile n.w. of the town. The management of the water-works and repairing the streets are vested in certain trustees, under an act of parliament. The government of the town is vested in two chief constables, and one deputy constable. The magistrates attend, for the transaction of duties relating to the district, every Saturday, at their office, Ward's-end, and a court of requests is held for the recovery of debts under 40s. The fidelity of Halifax to the parliamentary cause was rewarded by the privilege of sending members to the House of Commons, both under the Parliament and the Protectorate. This privilege was withdrawn on the Restoration ; and the town remained unrepresented until the provisions of the Reform Bill entitled it to send two members to the legislature.

The candidates who presented themselves to contest the honour of being returned for the borough, at the first election of the reformed parliament, in December 1832, were Rawdon Briggs, jun. Esq. who polled 242 votes ; Charles Wood, Esq. 235 ; Michael Stocks, Esq. 186 ; & the Honourable James Stuart Wortley, 174. The two first named gentlemen are the present sitting members. The number of registered voters at the election above referred to was 531. The new Boundary Act defines the limits of the borough, to comprise the townships of Halifax, Owram, and Ovenden. By the same act it is appointed one of the stations for taking votes at the election of members to represent the West Riding of the county.

The places for divine worship are well deserving of notice : there are three churches on the establishment. The parish church, dedicated to St. John the Baptist, is situated in the eastern part of the town, and is a spacious and handsome Gothic edifice, erected at different periods, the tower and steeple having been completed in 1740 : the living is a vicarage, in the gift of the Crown ; the Rev. William Willmott is the present incumbent. The church, dedicated to the Holy Trinity, which is situated at the south-western part of the town, is a large and elegant structure, in the Grecian style of architecture : it was erected in 1798, by the late vicar, Dr. Coulthurst, under the sanction of an act of parliament : the living is a perpetual curacy, in the gift of the vicar of Halifax. St. James' church, in the north-western part of the town, is a very handsome edifice of stone, erected out of the fund at the disposal of the commissioners appointed by parliament for the erection of new churches : this living is also in the presentation of the vicar ; the curate is the Rev. G.W. Dew. There are besides, nine chapels for dissenters of various denominations ; some of them very handsome edifices, and all to be admired for their respectable appearance and convenience. There are several charitable institutions, conducted upon the most benevolent principles ; they consist of a dispensary, which affords, gratuitously, medical and surgical aid to all whose situations will not enable them otherwise to procure it. A blue coat hospital, for twenty poor children, and an almshouse, for twelve poor women were founded by Nathaniel Waterhouse, who also left several donations for charitable purposes ; and various schools, on the national and Sunday plans, dispense instruction to a great number of children of both sexes.

At Booth Town, a small village about a mile north of Halifax, is a school, endowed with 40. per annum, for which forty poor children are taught reading, and five of the number writing. In the same village are alms-houses, for four indigent families, who each receive ten pounds annually. The places of amusement in Halifax, are the theatre, at Ward's-end, the assembly rooms, and a subscription library, together with several news-rooms, where the London and provincial papers are taken. The baths, which are situated at the lower part of the town, in a delightful valley, to the left of the road leading to Huddersfield, afford salubrious accommodation both to the inhabitants and strangers ; they are amply supplied with fine spring water, rising in the premises, and comprehend cold, warm, vapour, sulphurous, and swimming baths. Amongst the institutions are a mechanics' institute, a valuable museum, and a savings' bank. Two newspapers are published here weekly, viz. the " Halifax and Huddersfield Express" on Thursday, and the "Halifax Guardian" on Saturday. The adjacent country is very mountainous, consisting generally of land of inferior quality, a good portion of it being reclaimed moor-land : there is, nevertheless, scenery in the neighbourhood, which is not only exceedingly pleasing, but partaking also of the picturesque character. The market, which, as before-mentioned, is held on Saturday, is not only for cloth, but all kinds of marketable commodities. The fairs are June 24th, and the first Saturday in November. The parish of Halifax is the most extensive in England, and is nearly as large as the whole county of Rutland ; being seventeen miles in length, and averaging eleven miles in breadth ; and contains nineteen townships and four chapelries. In the year 1574, the whole parish contained about 12,000 inhabitants : in 1821, according to the census taken in that year, the number was 93,050, and by the returns for 1831, 109809. The township of Halifax contained in 1821, 12,628, and in 1831, 15,382."

"BARKISLAND, is a township, in the parish of Halifax, adjoining to Greetland, and includes part of Ripponden village. The country surrounding this township is bleak and unenviting ; and the village possesses no object of particular interest. Population of the township, at the last census, 2,292.
Please see Sowerby Bridge for the 1834 Directory for this township."

"BRIGHOUSE, is a populous and rapidly increasing village, in the township of Brighouse with Hipperholme, in the parish of Halifax, 4 miles s.e. from that town, on the banks of the Calder. Few places are more eligibly situated for trade than this village ; having excellent roads diverging from it to many large market and manufacturing towns, and a cheap and quick conveyance for goods to all parts of the kingdom by means of the Calder navigation. In addition to the manufacture of fancy woollen goods & stuffs, and the spinning of worsted, great quantities of cards are made for the manufactories ; the corn and malt trades are of considerable importance, as are the currying and tanning of leather ; and an immense weight of stone, the produce of quarries in the neighbourhood, is here shipped for London, and other parts of the kingdom. With the position that Brighouse now enjoys, as a place of trade, it is a subject of regret that the necessary appendage of a regular post has not been attached to it -- a mere receiving house for letters, subject to the post office regulations at Halifax, being the only public channel of correspondence. The Duke of Leeds, as lord of the manor, holds two courts leet annually. The places of worship are, a new church, erected by the parliamentary commissioners in 1831, and dedicated to St. Mary, and a chapel each for the Wesleyan and new connexion of methodists. The living of Brighouse is a perpetual curacy, in the gift of the vicar of Halifax ; the Rev. Thomas Hayne is the present curate. A school is about to be erected near the church, towards the building of which upwards of 200, has already been subscribed. A fair is held here on the day after Martinmas day. The township contained at the last census, 4,977 inhabitants.
Please see under Rastrick for the 1834 Directory for the people in Brighouse."

"CLIFTON, is a hamlet, about one mile from Brighouse, in the parish of Halifax; many of the inhabitants here are employed in making cards. Near the village is 'Kirklees Hall,' the seat of Sir George Armytage, in whose park is shown the grave of that celebrated outlaw, Robin Hood.
Please see under Rastrick 1834 for the Directory for the people in Clifton."

"ELLAND, is an ancient village, and with Greetland forms a chapelry, in the parish of Halifax, 3 miles s.e. from that town, and 4 n.w. from Huddersfield ; situate on the main road, between the two towns, which is here carried over the valley of the Calder by means of an extensive viaduct, and over the river by a bridge of three arches. The village stands on the right bank of the Calder, and enjoys the advantage of water conveyance by the Calder and Hebble navigation. Coarse woollen cloths are manufactured here, and in the neighbourhood coal mines and stone quarries are worked. The places of worship are the chapel, dedicated to St. Mary, a very ancient building, and others for the Wesleyan and new connexion of methodists, independents, calvinists, and unitarians. The living of Elland-with-Greetland is a perpetual curacy, in the gift of the vicar of Halifax, and incumbency of the Rev. Christopher Atkinson. The grammar school here is endowed with 70. per annum ; thirty boys are instructed in this establishment, and there is a school for girls, in which ten are taught and clothed ; the endowment is 30. per annum. Elland was formerly a market town, but the market for ages has been discontinued : there is still an annual fair maintained, which is held on the first Monday in August. The chapelry contained, at the last census, 5,500 persons.
Please see Sowerby Bridge for the 1834 Directory for this village."

"GREETLAND, (parochially connected with Elland as before mentioned), is a village in the parish of Halifax, and is one mile and a half from Elland, four from Halifax, and 5.5 from Huddersfield. That this was once a station of the Romans appears evident from a votive altar having been found here, dedicated to the titular god of the Brigantines, on which is inscribed,


The inscription on the other side shews the time when the altar was set up, that is, when Antoninus was consul the third time with Geta. The places of worship are a chapel each for Wesleyan and primitive methodists. For population see Elland.
Please see Sowerby Bridge for the 1834 Directory for this village."

"HEBDEN BRIDGE, in the parish of Halifax, is a populous manufacturing village, partly in the township of Wadsworth, and partly in that of Heptonstall, about one mile s.e. of the latter village ; pleasantly situated in a fine valley at the junction of the Calder and Hebden rivers, and amidst some of the richest scenery in England ; one view in particular, to the west of the village, is said to equal any presented by the very finest of the Highland Glens. The Leeds and Liverpool canal passes close to the village ; by which means the enterprising and industrious inhabitants of this valley have direct communication with Manchester and Liverpool on the west ; Leeds, Hull, Goole, &c. on the east ; and consequently, through the ports, to all parts of the kingdom. An old bridge crosses the Hebden (which gives name to the village), besides which one of modern erection bestrides the same stream, and another crosses the Calder. The canal before-mentioned is carried over the united waters of the Calder and Hebden, by a massive stone aqueduct of four arches. The manufacturing and commercial importance of Hebden Bridge and its immediate neighbourhood is evidenced by the great power employed in the machinery applied to the production of its manufactures.Twenty seven water mills, of the aggregate power of 360 horses, and steam engines, of together 180 horses, are in continual motion, in the cotton and worsted factories, spinning silk, grinding corn, &c.; besides which a great number of persons are employed at the hand looms. The church, which is a handsome edifice of stone, is dedicated to St. James : it was erected in 1833, by the parliamentary commissioners, on land given by the Rev. James Armitage Rhodes, of Mytholm : the living is a curacy in the gift of the vicar of Halifax, and incumbency of the Rev. Thomas C. Curties. The other places of worship are for the Wesleyan methodists and particular baptists, who have each a chapel in the village ; the latter sect have also another at Waingate, and the general baptists one at Birchcliffe, places in this vicinity. The population returns are made up with the townships in which Hebden Bridge is situated."

"HEPTONSTALL, is an ancient village and populous chapelry in the parish of Halifax, in the wapentake of Morley, West Riding, 8.5 miles west from halifax, and 3.5 n.e. from Todmorden. The cotton trade prevails here to a very considerable extent, and there are some respectable establishments for the manufacture of worsted, but the first named branch predominates. The places of worship in the village are the chapel of ease, dedicated to Thomas a Becket, and one each for baptists and Wesleyan methodists, the latter sect have likewise another chapel at Blackshaw head ; and the baptists one at Alcumden-dean. A grammar school was founded and endowed in this chapelry in the reign of Charles 2nd, by the Rev. Charles Greenwood ; the pupils are instructed in the latin and greek languages ; the present master is the Rev. Joseph Charnock. The annual fairs are held on Easter Monday and on Old Michaelmas day, chiefly for cattle and pedlary. The chapelry contained, by the census for 1821, 4,543 inhabitants, and in 1831, 4,661."

"HIPPERHOLME, a village, and (as before mentioned) with Brighouse, forms a township, in the parish of Halifax, is two miles and a half east of that town. Sir George Armytage, Bart. and Mr. Thornhill are lessees of the manor, and a court baron is held by Mr. Lee, the steward of the former gentleman, once a year, at which a constable is chosen for the township. This village, although seated in the midst of a great manufacturing district, does not present the characteristics of one in which any business is carried on, but the reverse ; it is quiet and clean, and calculated for the retirement of individuals desirous of relief from the anxious bustle of trade. Coal mines and stone quarries abound in the neighbourhood, which is hilly in the extreme. Here is a chapel of ease under the establishment, the curate of which is the Rev. John Watson -- a meeting house belonging to the independents, and a free grammar school, are also in the village. Population, see Brighouse.
Please see under Rastrick 1834 for the Directory for the people in Hipperholme."

"KINGS CROSS, is a thriving but small village, in the township of Skircoat, and parish of Halifax, one mile from that town ; delightfully situate on the summit of a hill, at the junction of the roads leading to Todmorden and Ripponden ; and commanding views of the surrounding country, most extensive and beautifully varied. The places of worship are Christ church, a handsome edifice, the property of the Rev. Jonathan Ackroyd, of Lane-head, near Illingworth, and a chapel for Wesleyan methodists. Population returned with the township.
Please see Sowerby Bridge for the 1834 Directory for this village."

"LIGHTCLIFFE, is a small hamlet, the habitations of which are for the most part widely detached ; it is in the township of Brighouse cum Hipperholme, about a mile east from the Hipperholme part and in the parish of Halifax. The manufactures are of the same nature as those of the township to which the hamlet belongs. Here is a chapel, under the establishment of Halifax, the living of which is a perpetual curacy, in the gift of the vicar of that parish ; the Rev. Robert Wilkinson is the present curate. There are several handsome residences which ornament this part of the township ; amongst them are the seats of George Armytage, Esq. William Priestley, Esq. and Miss Walker. Population is returned with the township.
Please see under Rastrick for the 1834 Directory for the people in Lightcliffe."

"MIDGLEY, is a village and township, in the parish of Halifax, the former being about a mile from Luddenden, situate on an eminence, commanding a most enchanting view of the vale of Todmorden, and of scenery most picturesquely varied, throughout one of the finest valleys in the kingdom : the church of Sowerby, in the distance, presents a pleasing and prominent object in the landscape. A fair for cattle is held here, annually, on the 12th of October. Population of the township, in 1831, 2,409.
Please see under Warley for the 1834 trades directory for this township."

"MYTHOLMROYD, is a hamlet, in the parish of Halifax, five and a half miles from that town. The village of itself is unimportant, but in the neighbourhood there are many mills employed in the spinning of cotton and worsted. The canal, which runs through here, opens a communication with all parts ; and coaches, to and from Manchester, Rochdale, Halifax, Leeds, &c. pass through daily. The only place of worship is a chapel for Wesleyan methodists. About a quarter of a mile distant is the village of Hawksclough ; and about one mile hence the romantic hamlet of Cragg, so named from the wild rocks which spring from each side of the valley, which is so narrow in some parts that persons on opposite parts of it may converse with each other. The scenery which encompasses this hamlet is strikingly interesting. There are two places of worship here, viz. a chapel of ease, dedicated to St. John, and one for the Wesleyan methodists. The living of Cragg is a curacy, in the gift of the vicar of Halifax ; the present incumbent is the Rev. T. Crowther. Population returned with the parish of Halifax.
Please see under Warley for the 1834 trades directory for this hamlet."

"NORTH OWRAM, is a village, and populous township, in the parish of Halifax, 2 miles n.n.e. from that town ; chiefly supported by the manufacture of stuffs, and the immense stone quarries, which abound in the township and its vicinity ; the produce of which is distributed through many parts of the country, and considerable quantities sent to London. The only place of worship is a chapel for calvinists. The township contained in 1821, 6,841 inhabitants, and in 1831, 10,184."

"RASTRICK, is a populous and flourishing village and chapelry, in the parish of Halifax, wapentake of Morley, and manor of Wakefield, West Riding, five miles s.e. of Halifax. The manufacture of fancy goods is extensive here, and the establishments in this line are of the highest respectability. The houses are scattered over a wide acreage of ground, in the midst of which stands the church, a neat edifice of free stone, rebuilt about the year 1795 : the living is in the gift of the vicar of Halifax, (to which place it is a chapel of ease,) and the curacy, which is perpetual, is enjoyed by the Rev. Thomas Burton. The society of friends have a meeting house, which was rebuilt in 1737, and the independents have also a chapel here. The free school, which has lately been rebuilt, was endowed by Mrs. Mary Law, of Elland, in 1721, for teaching twenty poor boys reading and writing ; the endowment at present amounts to 40. per annum. The same benevolent lady also bequeathed a small farm (now letting for about 16. per annum), to be enjoyed by four poor widows, besides which there is a small legacy annually expended in clothing for the poor. The prospects around here are pleasing and the seat of John Clay, Esq. contiguous to the village, is an object of attraction. The chapelry contained in 1831, 3,021 inhabitants."

"RIPPONDEN, a village, in the parish of Halifax, about five miles from that town, is beautifully situate in a fertile valley, partly in the township of Barkisland, and partly in that of Soyland. There are several cotton spinning establishments here, and fustians and other cotton goods are manufactured. The place of worship here, under the establishment, is a chapel of ease to Elland, of which the Rev. Frederick Custance is the present incumbent. In the church yard are several tomb stones, cut with great taste and neatness, by the celebrated John Collier, known under the fictitious name of Tim Bobbin. Fairs for cattle are held on Wednesday in Easter week, and on the first Thursday after Michaelmas day. At Rishworth, about 1.5 mile from the village, a handsome and commodious building is erected --- it is for the purpose of accommodating fifty five boys and fifteen girls, who are boarded, clothed and educated gratuitously, from the product of an endowment made by John Wheelwright, Esq. of North Shields. Provision is also made for three masters and one matron, who all reside on the establishment. The education of the boys is entrusted to the Rev. Ralph Younger, the head master ; the matron, Mrs. Mary Maslen, having the entire charge of the boarding and lodging department. An important circumstance connected with the advantages of being educated at this free grammar school is, the chance of being sent to one of the English universities, provision being made for sending pupils, with an exhibition of 150. each, for four years. The endowment amounts to 2,000. per annum. Population returned with Barkisland and Soyland townships.
Please see Sowerby Bridge for the 1834 Directory for this village."

"SOUTH OWRAM, is a village and township, in the parish of Halifax, 2 miles east from that town ; and is likewise dependent upon the stone trade, and the same kind of manufacture as North Owram. A chapel of ease under Halifax is in this township ; it is a neat edifice of stone, dedicated to St. Anne : the living is a perpetual curacy, in the gift of the vicar of Halifax : the present incumbent is the Rev. John Hope. The township contained by the returns made in 1821, 4,256 inhabitants, and in 1831, 5,751."

"SOWERBY, or as it is commonly called Sowerby Town, is a chapelry, in the parish of Halifax , about a mile from that village ; situate on an eminence, commanding a fine view of the vale of Todmorden. Weaving and wool combing form the chief occupation of the inhabitants here. The places of worship are the chapel, a very handsome edifice of stone, dedicated to St. Peter, and a chapel each for Wesleyan methodists, baptists and calvinists. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the gift of the vicar of Halifax. John Tillotson, D.D. Archbishop of Canterbury, who died in 1694, was born in the house now occupied by Major Priestley. A superb monument in the church, to the memory of this distinguished prelate, was erected by the late George Stansfield, Esq. Fairs for cattle are held on the first Thursday in the months of May and November. The chapelry contained, at the last census, 6,457 inhabitants.
Please see Sowerby Bridge for the 1834 Directory for this chapelry."

"SOWERBY BRIDGE, is a populous village, in the township of Warley and parish of Halifax, rather more than two miles distant from that town. Nearly the whole of this place may be said to have arisen within the last forty years, for, previous to that period there were only a few scattered houses, some of which were called ' Sowerby Bridge Houses,' and others the ' Old Causey,' or Causeway. It now boasts a good trade ; the manufacture of woollen cloth is extensive, and the cotton trade has been introduced with success ; there are also several iron foundries, and it is remarkable for the number of mills, at which corn is ground in great quantities, and the flour conveyed into different parts of Lancashire. The friezing or raising the nap on woollen cloth in a peculiar manner, a patent for which has just been granted to Mr. James Walton, is carried on here extensively. Stone is obtained in the neighbourhood to an important extent ; and the advantages enjoyed by this place for the transmission of its several articles of trade are very great. The river Calder passes under Sowerby Bridge ; and the Rochdale canal affords a communication with Manchester, and thence to other great manufacturing towns. This canal terminates here, falling into the Calder and Hebble ; the companies belonging to both of which have erected extensive warehouses for storing the goods. The places of worship are Christ church (a chapel of ease to Halifax), and a chapel for Wesleyan methodists. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the gift of the vicar of Halifax, and incumbency of the Rev. Charles Rogers. The township of Warley, with which the population of Sowerby Bridge is returned, contained, at the last census (1831), 5,685 inhabitants."

"STAINLAND, is a village and township, in the parish of Halifax, four miles from that town, and two from Elland. The manufacture of worsted, and cotton spinning, are the branches carried on here. In this township is Bradley hall, now a farm house, once the seat of the Saville family, and where was born, in 1549, Sir Henry Saville, a gentleman of extensive learning. Sowood (supposed to be a corruption of Southwood.) Gospoth and Old Lindley, are hamlets, forming part of the township of Stainland. The places of worship are a small chapel, dedicated to St. Andrew, and one each for Wesleyan methodists and independents. The township contained, in 1831, 3,037 inhabitants.
Please see Sowerby Bridge for the 1834 Directory for this village."

"WARLEY, is a small village, in a populous township of its name, in the parish of Halifax, wapentake of Morley, West Riding ; about two miles west from Halifax. The spinning of cotton and manufacture of cotton goods, together with that of worsted stuffs, are carried on extensively in the township. The only place of worship is a chapel for independents. About two miles hence is the hamlet of Luddenden, situate in the valley of its name, and partly in the township of Warley, and partly in that of Midgley, which are divided by a stream that runs through the hamlet. The church, or rather chapel, in Luddenden, which is dedicated to St. Mary, is a handsome edifice of stone: the living is a perpetual curacy, in the gift of the vicar of Halifax ; the present incumbent is the Rev. Thomas Sutcliffe. There is also a chapel for Wesleyan methodists. At Luddenden foot, about a mile hence, the Rochdale canal passes. Population of Warley township, at the last census, 5,685."

[Transcribed by Steve Garton ©2000 from
Pigot's directory (Yorkshire section) 1834]